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Comparison of the Characters of the Two Major Clades of Salsoleae s.l.

Comparison of the Characters of the Two Major Clades of Salsoleae s.l.

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A first comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of tribe Salsoleae s.l. (Salsoloideae: Chenopodiaceae) is presented based on maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood analysis of nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer and chloroplast psbB-psbH DNA sequences. Our data strongly support (1) the sister relationship of Camphorosmeae to the Salsoleae s...

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... latter authors referred to these two clades as Salsoleae I and Salsoleae II. Both clades are well distinguished by a number of characters (table 3). A particularly distinguishing characteristic of the Caroxyloneae clade is the vesicular and disjunct anther ap- pendage, which seems to occur in most groups and may be involved in attracting insect pollinators, which have been ob- served frequently in nature (H. ...

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[Article in press]. Summary of the presentation [talk at the Academic Council of the Kholodny Institute of Botany, NAS of Ukraine, 28 Nov 2017, updated]. Taxonomic opinions on Australian taxa of Salsola sensu stricto (Chenopodiaceae) are analyzed in a historical context. It is concluded, based on available evidence, that the genus is probably repre...

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... While it is classified now as one of the Amaranthaceae genera after merging family Chenopodiaceae with the family Amaranthaceae according to the angiosperm phylogeny group (AGP-IV) 26,[28][29][30] . Plants belonging to the genus Salsola have the following taxonomic classification 27,[30][31][32] . Family: Amaranthaceae (previously, Chenopodiaceae) Subfamily: Salsoloideae Tribe: Salsoleae Genus: Salsola ...
... The taxonomy of Salsola spp. is debateable and confusing due to their diversity and distribution in the Asian and the middle east deserts that lead to difficulties in their collection and investigation 31 . The close relationship between Salsola spp. ...
... and the dependence on minor morphological differences in their old classification together with the recent use of molecular techniques in plant systematics led to major changes in the classification of the genus Salsola 27 . The classification of the genus Salsola has been revised by Akhani et al. (2007) and it was spitted into 10 different genera. The transfer of different sp. ...
Article
Salsola is an important genus in the plant kingdom with diverse traditional, industrial, and environmental applications. Salsola species are widely distributed in temperate regions and represent about 45% of desert plants. They are a rich source of diverse phytochemical classes, such as alkaloids, cardenolides, triterpenoids, coumarins, flavonoids, isoflavonoids, and phenolic acids. Salsola spp. were traditionally used as antihypertensive, anti-inflammatory, and immunostimulants. They attracted great interest from researchers as several pharmacological activities were reported, including analgesic, antipyretic, antioxidant, cytotoxic, hepatoprotective, contraceptive, antidiabetic, neuroprotective, and antimicrobial activities. Genus Salsola is one of the most notorious plant genera from the taxonomical point of view. Our study represents a comprehensive review of the previous phytochemical and biological research on the old world Salsola secies. It is designed to be a guide for future research on different plant species that still belong to this genus or have been transferred to other genera. © 2022 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.
... Nine of all C 4 lineages are included in Chenopodiaceae family. Salsoloideae subfamily in Chenopodiaceae has ve clades comprised in two lineages of Caroxyloneae and Salsoleae s.s (Akhani et al. 2007;Sage 2016;Schussler et al. 2017). Salsoloideae has a great photosynthetic diversity, which includes C 3 , C 4 and C 3 -C 4 intermediate species as well as species with a phenomenon known as "C 3 cotyledons and C 4 leaves". ...
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C 4 plants had evolved from C 3 as a response to decreasing atmospheric CO 2 levels and conditions promoting photorespiration. C 4 plants evolved from C 3 ancestors at least in more than 60 independent lineages of angiosperms for suppressing of photorespiration. Salsola , Petrosimonia and Cyathobasis genera of Salsoloideae subfamily contain some species with C 3 cotyledons followed by C 4 leaves. The aim of this study was to compare the biochemical and structural differences between C 3 cotyledons and C 4 leaves in these genera. The results showed that there were dorsiventral C 3 cotyledons in Salsola grandis and Cyathobasis fruticulosa , while salsoloid type C 4 Kranz anatomy was present in mature leaves. Petrosimonia nigdeensis had isobilateral C 3 cotyledons and a salsoloid type C 4 leaves. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) and pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase (PPDK) enzymes were absent or sparse in cotyledons of these species, whereas they were abundant in their C 4 leaves. Glycolate oxidase (GOX) and glycine decarboxylase- H subunit (GDC-H) were generally higher in cotyledons than leaves. Ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) enzyme content was lower in C 4 leaves compared to C 3 cotyledons. Transcript levels of these enzymes were generally consistent with their protein content except for GOX in S. grandis and S. tragus , and glycine decarboxylase complex (GDC) in S. tragus . As a result, we demonstrate that not only the protein amounts and transcript levels of the enzymes required in C 4 pathway increased but also the levels of C 3 and photorespiratory enzymes were lowered during transition from C 3 cotyledons into C 4 leaves. These results are important in terms of shedding light on understanding of evolutionary transition from C 3 to C 4 biochemical pathway in a single plant and contributing to C 4 engineering.
... If circumscribed broadly, genus Salsola L. encompasses a large number of species, mostly distributed in the steppes, deserts and mountains of Eurasia, northern and southern Africa (e.g., Freitag and Rilke 1997). Comprehensive molecular phylogeny of subfamily Salsoloideae (Akhani et al. 2007) clearly revealed that Salsola is widely polyphyletic, and thus the broad circumscription of the genus is of purely historic interest. The members of Salsola s.l. ...
... The members of Salsola s.l. must be transferred to numerous reinstated or newly established genera (Akhani et al. 2007(Akhani et al. , 2016Rudov et al. 2020). The current system of Salsoloideae (Akhani et al. 2007) is in good congruence with both morphological and biochemical data (Akhani et al. 2007), and today it appears as widely accepted (e.g., Wen et al. 2010;Feodorova and Samigullin 2014;Sukhorukov 2014;Hernández-Ledesma et al. 2015;Sukhorukov et al. 2016Sukhorukov et al. , 2019Mucina 2017, among others). ...
... must be transferred to numerous reinstated or newly established genera (Akhani et al. 2007(Akhani et al. , 2016Rudov et al. 2020). The current system of Salsoloideae (Akhani et al. 2007) is in good congruence with both morphological and biochemical data (Akhani et al. 2007), and today it appears as widely accepted (e.g., Wen et al. 2010;Feodorova and Samigullin 2014;Sukhorukov 2014;Hernández-Ledesma et al. 2015;Sukhorukov et al. 2016Sukhorukov et al. , 2019Mucina 2017, among others). ...
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Citation: Sukhorukov AP, Fedorova AV, Kushunina M, Mavrodiev EV (2022) Akhania, a new genus for Salsola daghestanica, Caroxylon canescens and C. carpathum (Salsoloideae, Chenopodiaceae, Amaranthaceae). PhytoKeys 211: 45-61. https://doi. Abstract Genus Salsola s.l. was recently split into several genera of different phylogenetic placements within Salsoloideae, but both taxonomic and phylogenetic relationships of some parts of the former broadly defined Salsola still need to be clarified. A remarkable example is Salsola canescens nom. illegit. ≡ Salsola boissieri, a taxon with tricky taxonomic history that was only recently transferred to the genus Caroxylon (tribe Caroxyleae). Salsola daghestanica, a narrow endemic of Central Dagestan (Russian Federation), was not even included in previous molecular studies of Salsoloideae and therefore still lacks an appropriate estimation of its relationships. Molecular phylogeny constructed here using nuclear and plastid DNA sequence data clearly placed Salsola daghestanica and Caroxylon carpathum as sister taxa and the clade S. daghestanica, Caroxylon canescens (Salsola boissieri), C. carpathum (Salsola carpatha) as a sister of the monophyletic Caroxylon. All three species are distinct from Caroxylon from a morphological standpoint. In conclusion, a new genus, Akhania, was established for these taxa. The detailed distribution of Akhania daghestanica is presented for the first time.
... Recent molecular studies greatly improved our knowledge of the generic circumscription of many members of the Chenopodiaceae clade, Amaranthaceae s. l. (e. g., Schütze et al., 2003;Akhani et al., 2007;Kadereit et al., 2010;Kadereit, Freitag, 2011;Fuentes-Bazan et al., 2012;Uotila et al., 2021). At the same time, some taxonomic revisions of Chenopodiaceae in Asia have been undertaken based on existing molecular data. ...
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Kalidium juniperinum Sukhor. et Lomon. is described as a species new to science. It is similar to K. folia-tum in having a short leaf blade but differs by the presence of numerous slender, prostrate, or ascending stems forming mats vs. the stout main upright stem; acuminate bracts slightly exceeding the flower cyme vs. obtuse bracts equal to the flower cyme; the exserted pericarp looking like a bulge on the one-seeded diaspore vs. not or slightly elevated top of the diaspore; shorter anthers; the geographic range in the highlands and mountainous steppe zone vs. Eurasian lowland (semi-)desert regions. K. juniperinum is recorded in Russia (West Siberia and Sayan Mountains), Eastern and Northern Kazakhstan, the Mongolian Altai, and NW China. The names K. foliatum α [var.] glomeratum Fenzl and Kalidium foliatum β [var.] brevifolium Fenzl are lectotypified and synonymized with K. juniperinum.
... Akhani et al. 2007). They are mainly succulent halophytes and xerophytes with diverse morphological, anatomical, and physiological traits (Pyankov et al. 2001;Voznesenskaya et al. 2002). ...
... They are mainly succulent halophytes and xerophytes with diverse morphological, anatomical, and physiological traits (Pyankov et al. 2001;Voznesenskaya et al. 2002). Based on phylogenetic relationships and unclear generic boundaries of Gamanthus Bunge, Halanthium K.Koch, Halotis Bunge, and Halimocnemis C.A.Mey., Akhani et al. (2007) considered recognition of all these genera within Halimocnemis s. l. which comprises 27 annual species primarily distributed in the central and eastern parts of the Irano-Turanian region, 8 of which occur in Iran (Assadi, 2001). ...
... 59°25′24.6′′E, Atashgahi & Jafari Polgerd 9732 (FUMH).Notes on distribution, habitats, and taxonomy:Halimocnemis commixta was spelled byAkhani et al. (2007) as a new combination of "H. commixtus". ...
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Halimocnemis commixta is recorded as a new species for the flora of Iran from Pistacia vera woodland remnants in NE Iran. It grows on open salty soils with several typical halophytic plants. The new species record is illustrated and compared with the closely related species. It can be distinguished from H. gamocarpa by its clustered flowers and irregularly horned fruits and differs from H. pilosa by its entirely short and adpressed hairs. We provide some additional notes on the distribution, ecology, and conservation status of the newly recorded species.
... Also both pollen grain identification and classification are very important for palynologists and systematists. Pollen morphology is not affected by environmental conditions, so it has been used as a reliable and important diagnostic key in taxonomic research.This species of halophytic plant bears salt as well as harsh climatic conditions [3,4]. It was noted that this plant could be used as livestock feed in the future, as it is a promising animal feed source in semi-arid regions as well as dry areas in various regions of the world [5]. ...
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The present study dealt with the morphological, anatomical,trichomespollen grains,and ecological characteristics of Caroxylon jordanicola (EigAkhani & Roalson (Amaranthaceae) in Al-Tar Caves, Karbala, Iraq which belongs to the Amaranthaceae family. The results of the present study demonstrated that There are distinctive characteristics of the studied species distinguish it from other species and facilitate its diagnosis. The sample was diagnosed using the taxonomic keys of the Iraqi flora and the flora of neighboring countriesIn addition to some available research. The results of the morphological and anatomical features investigation provide really significant taxonomical value to distinguish the species. The results that showed that this species is annual to 40 cm, semi- spherical, lower leaves 1-3 cm, caduceus, other leaves to 2.5 mm, with broad, has non-glandular trichomes and glandular trichomes. The species recorded 7 μm the average thickness of the cuticle layer. cortex thickness was also recorded and measured, which was 210 μm. the average thickness of Phloem was 40μm, It has the presence of a bundle cap fibers (Bundle sheath) which consists of sclerenchyma fibers that appear in a ring around the Phloem. The average thicknesof xylem was 190 μm and pith thickness was 240 μm.
... e genus Anabasis belongs to the family Amaranthaceae [2]. In fact, the Anabasis genus comprises approximately 29 species, which are distributed from southwest Europe and North Africa to the Red Sea coast (Ethiopia) and southwest and central Asia [3]. ...
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is work investigates the effect of the alcoholic extract of Anabasis syriaca Iljin on biochemical and histological parameters in male rats. e lethal dose (50% of the plant extract) was assessed, and three separate doses (1/10 th , 1/15 th , and 1/20 th) were orally gavaged for two weeks into three study groups of animals (five rats in each group), with one group used as a control and gavaged normal saline via the same route. Blood was collected after overnight fasting, and 24 biochemical parameters were evaluated. e gross and microscopic findings were reported after the collection of specimens from the animals and processed routinely for standard histological procedures. Among all tested biochemical parameters, a significant increase was noted in fasting serum glucose (p ≤ 0.010), troponin (p ≤ 0.001), and creatine kinase (p ≤ 0.001), while a significant decrease was found in triglycerides (p ≤ 0.001) and low-density lipoprotein (p � 0.001). On the other hand, no significant histopathological lesions were present within the examined tissues of all groups. In conclusion, ethanolic extract of Anabasis syriaca negatively affected the cardiac function of male rats and increased their serum glucose but reduced their serum triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein.
... From the taxonomic perspective, Salsola belongs to tribe Salsoleae of subfamily Salsoloideae in family Amaranthaceae [16]. It includes about 64 species (Table 1) but, due to the physical similarity between many species, this genus is generally regarded as exceedingly tough [17,18]. ...
... Constipation and indigestion are two of the most frequent ailments. Constipation affects up to 27% of the population, while indigestion affects [11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29].2% of the population [85,113]. There is growing evidence that several compounds present in medicinal plants have the ability to treat gastrointestinal diseases such as indigestion and constipation in a synergistic manner [114,115]. ...
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The genus Salsola L. (Russian thistle, Saltwort) includes halophyte plants and is considered one of the largest genera in the family Amaranthaceae. The genus involves annual semi-dwarf to dwarf shrubs and woody tree. The genus Salsola is frequently overlooked, and few people are aware of its significance. The majority of studies focus on pollen morphology and species identification. Salsola has had little research on its phytochemical makeup or biological effects. Therefore, we present this review to cover all aspects of genus Salsola, including taxonomy, distribution, differences in the chemical constituents and representative examples of isolated compounds produced by various species of genus Salsola and in relation to their several reported biological activities for use in folk medicine worldwide.
... succulent and fruiting subshrub with extreme xerophyte and resistance to wind and cold (Akhani et al. 2007). Its populations are fragmentedly distributed in Inner Mongolia, Ningxia, Gansu and Xinjiang, as well as in southern Mongolia and Central Asia at elevations ranging from 1000 to 3000 m (Gao et al. 2009). ...
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ABSTACT Caroxylon passerinum is an important constructive species, which is widely distributed in both desert and desert steppe in north-western China. C. passerinum is one of hosts of holoparasitic Cistanche species. In this study, we report the complete chloroplast genome sequence of C. passerinum, which is 150,925 bp in length and comprises a large single-copy region (83,057 bp), a small single-copy region (18,180 bp), and a pair of inverted repeats (24,844 bp). It encodes 132 unique genes, including 89 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 35 tRNAs, and eight rRNAs. The overall GC content of this chloroplast genome is 36.8%. Maximum likelihood (ML) phylogenetic tree strongly supports that C. passerinum is closely related to the hosts of Cistanche deserticola, Haloxylon persicum and Haloxylon ammodendron.
... Nomenclature is mostly based on Flora Iranica (Rechinger, 1963). Recent generic names were applied for some groups such as Chenopodiaceae (Akhani et al., 2007;Akhani, 2015;Hernández-Ledesma et al., 2015;Rudov et al., 2020;Chatrenoor and Akhani, 2021). ...
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Salt marshes are unique habitats between sea or saline lakes and land that need to be conserved from the effects of global change. Understanding the variation in functional structure of plant community along environmental gradients is critical to predict the response of plant communities to ongoing environmental changes. We evaluated the changes in the functional structure of halophytic communities along soil gradients including salinity, in Iranian salt marshes; Lake Urmia, Lake Meyghan, Musa estuary, and Nayband Bay (Iran). We established 48 plots from 16 sites in four salt marshes and sampled 10 leaves per species to measure leaf functional traits. Five soil samples were sampled from each plot and 30 variables were analyzed. We examined the changes in the functional structure of plant communities (i.e., functional diversity [FD] and community weighted mean [CWM]) along local soil gradients using linear mixed effect models. Our results showed that FD and CWM of leaf thickness tended to increase with salinity, while those indices related to leaf shape decreased following soil potassium content. Our results suggest that the variations in functional structure of plant communities along local soil gradients reveal the effect of different ecological processes (e.g., niche differentiation related to the habitat heterogeneity) that drive the assembly of halophytic plant communities in SW Asian salt marshes.