Comparison of properties of Lyocell, modal, and cotton fibers. 5

Comparison of properties of Lyocell, modal, and cotton fibers. 5

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A double-bed circular knitting machine with a gauge of E17 and a needle bar diameter of 200 mm (8 in) was used to make three groups of plain weft knitted Tencel fabrics and three groups of modal knitted fabrics. The yarns were spun using three spinning methods: ring, rotor, and air-jet system. Their count was 20 tex. All the knitted fabric samples...

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... Among others, cotton fabric represents one of the most widely employed natural fibers in the textile industry. Indeed, the average global production of cotton fibers reached about 25 million tonnes during recent years, representing 28% of all fibers' global production [4]. Cotton fiber structure consists of a polysaccharide component of β-dglucopyranose units linked together by β-1,4 bonds ( Figure 1); non-reducing and reducing sugar units stabilize the end terminal of cellulose polymer chains [5]. ...
... MMT nanoclay materials are a very soft phyllosilicate mineral belonging to the smectite family with an enlarged 2:1 crystal lattice [216]. The chemical structure of MMT is defined as M x (Al 4−x Mg x )Si 8 O 20 (OH) 4 , where M is a univalent cation and x is an isomorphous substitution degree ranging from 0.5 to 1.3 [217]. It is a kind of smectite silicate, with a 2:1 layered structure about 1 nm thick and several microns in lateral dimensions, consisting of two tetrahedral silica layers (hereafter, T) separated by an octahedral alumina layer (hereafter, O), resulting in T:O:T structural unit [37,216]. ...
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Over the past decade, inorganic fillers and sol–gel-based flame-retardant technologies for textile treatments have gained increasing research interest as useful alternatives to hazardous chemicals previously employed in textile coating and finishing. This review presents the current state of the art of inorganic flame-retardant technology for cotton fabrics to scientists and researchers. Combustion mechanism and flammability, as well as the thermal behavior of neat cotton samples, are first introduced. The main section is focused on assessing the effect of inorganic and sol–gel-based systems on the final flame-retardant properties of cotton fabrics, emphasizing their fire safety characteristics. When compared to organic flame-retardant solutions, inorganic functional fillers have been shown to be more environmentally friendly and pollution-free since they do not emit compounds that are hazardous to ecosystems and humans when burned. Finally, some perspectives and recent advanced research addressing the potential synergism derived from the use of inorganic flame retardants with other environmentally suitable molecules toward a sustainable flame-retardant technological approach are reviewed.
... Tensile properties of basic weft knitted stitches, such as plain and rib 1×1 stitch, made of cotton yarn and blended cotton yarn with the content of Lycra, are analyzed in paper [15]. Pavlović & Vrljičak [16] considered the mechanical properties of Tensel and modal knitted fabrics. Mechanical properties of knitted fabrics for technical application are studied by Araújo et al. in the works [17,18]. ...
... The work was carried out within the framework of 16 ...
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Stretchability of knitwear is one of the most important factors of wearing comfort. Elasticity of knitted structures in course wise direction is usually higher than along wales and often characterized by crosswise shrinkage. Existing methods of knitting program development do not consider the real rate of wale wise shrinkage of rib knitted structure under the course wise extension. During the study experimental research has been carried out to fulfill empirical data on the relationship between samples’ length and width under uniaxial course wise elongation. A range of samples of rib 1×1, 2×2, 3×3, 4×4 and 5×5 knits, made of cotton, bamboo, polyacrylonitrile (PAN), wool/acrylic blend and wool yarn, were stretched with a tensile machine WDW-05M. In the process of stretching the width of each specimen was defined in the moments of extension by 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 per cent. It has been found that linear approximation can be applied to describe the dependence of specimen’s width on its relative course wise elongation. It was found that the stitch height/width ratio changes unevenly. In the beginning of the process of course wise stretching of a rib knitted structure, it does exist, such an interval, where an increase of the knit’s linear size along the courses occurs without a significant shrinkage in the wale wise direction. It is suggested to name the upper limit of this interval as “unidimensional extension limit” and define it as an extension of a standard (100×50mm) specimen, at which its width decreases by 10%. It was found as well that the value of this index significantly depends on the ribbing variation and much less on the type of raw materials
... The constructional and physical parameters of examined fabrics are shown in Table 1 ( HRN EN 14971:2008;HRN EN ISO 5084:2003;HRN ISO 3801:2003;ISO 2060ISO :2008. A more detailed analysis of structural parameters was published in the article by Pavlović et al (Pavlovic and Vrljicak 2020). ...
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Facemasks significantly reduce the dispersion of respiratory droplets that potentially carry the virus (COVID-19) when a person speaks, coughs or sneezes. Double jersey knitted fabrics made of cotton, Tencel and Viscose were made and designed. This paper aims to examine the effectiveness of single-layer and double-layer knitted masks by the microbial barrier permeability method. This method was used in a targeted manner because Bacillus Bacteria with a size of 0.5 µm in diameter is used to determine the permeability of the microbial barrier, which includes aerosol particles and approaches the size of the virus of 0.1 µm in diameter. The permeability results of the microbial barrier are presented concerning the number of layers and the raw material composition. Porosity (%) was also deter-mined based on microscopic images. The results of the microbial barrier effectiveness test showed an ineffective microbial barrier for 1 layer of the knitted fabric. However, stacking the mesh in 2 layers in-creased the microbial barrier efficiency by 70%. Functional design, combining layers of fabric and insertion of a previously developed antibacterial tencel nonwoven filter enables complete imper-meability to microorganisms, i.e. an effective microbial barrier.
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The research is focused on determining the influence of structural and constructional parameters of rib knitted fabrics on the thermal properties of men's socks. Men's socks are made in three different pattern constructions of three types of basic yarns: bamboo, cotton and a cotton/polyester blend with the additional filament polyamide yarn and wrapped rubber wire for the so-called render socks. For all analyzed sock rib patterns, the most important structural parameters of the yarn and construction parameters of the knitted fabrics were determined. Thermal properties of socks such as the cool touch feeling property, thermal conductivity, heat retention coefficient and thermal resistance were determined by using Thermal Labo and Thermal Mannequin measuring devices. The structural and constructional parameters of knitted fabrics were shown to affect the investigated thermal properties of the socks, making them more or less insulating or heat conducting. Values of the warm-cold feeling parameter as well as thermal conductivity vary depending on the construction pattern, showing a decrease as the number of face loops is increased i.e. in the sequence R1:1> R3:1> R7:1. The ability to retain heat decreases in the opposite sequence R7:1 > R3:1 > R1:1. The highest values of heat retention were determined for R7:1 rib knitted socks by both methods. A regression equation has been established with thickness, loop length, mass per unit area and porosity as independent variables, and thermal resistance (determined by the Thermo Labo method) as the dependent variable. The loop length and mass per unit area were shown to contribute significantly to the model.
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The development of new spinning technologies has produced cheaper yarns and with it, research into the production and application of woven and knitted fabrics from unconventional yarns. The tensile properties of knitted fabrics made of regenerated cellulose fibres (viscose, Tencel™ and modal) of the same count (20 tex) using ring, rotor and air-jet spun yarn were studied. The force/elongation diagram was analysed in order to detect elastic and plastic areas as well as the area of elastoplastic deformations responsible for the behaviour of knitted fabrics. The yarn raw material affects the elastic area of knitted fabrics made from different yarn structures in the course direction whereby the highest elastic area was obtained in the case of ring spun yarns followed by air-jet and finally rotor spun yarns. Regardless of the raw material, the elastoplastic area of the knitted fabric in the wale direction is the lowest for ring spun yarns. There is no visible trend of knitted fabric elastoplastic areas in the wale direction regarding the yarn type and raw material.
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In this study, a novel concept has been introduced as a structural varied against-twisting method to produce super soft characteristic yarn with low residual torque. Geometrical analysis indicated that the regular intervention of reverse twist stress remodeled the fiber arrangements in yarn structure, causing fiber motion trace variations from the original concentric helix to the deformed nonconcentric helix with the emergence of reversed fiber segments. The mechanical property prediction revealed the wet snarlings of against-twisted yarn with lower inclination angle on yarn apparent structure was much smaller than the less-twisted yarn with same twists. Then, the systematical comparison was then conducted between against-twisted yarn produced by the twice twisting process and less-twisted yarns spun with twist reduction, which showed that against-twisted yarns have lower residual torque and higher yarn strength than that of less-twisted yarns. However, the against-twisted yarns have a fluffy structure with more hairiness.