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Comparison of per capita consumption of plastics over three different periods.  

Comparison of per capita consumption of plastics over three different periods.  

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The present rate of economic growth is unsustainable without saving of fossil energy like crude oil, natural gas or coal. Thus mankind has to rely on the alternate/renewable energy sources like biomass, hydropower, geothermal energy, wind energy, solar energy, nuclear energy, etc. On the other hand, suitable waste management strategy is another imp...

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... Western Europe. The average Indian consumption of virgin plastics per capita reached 3.2 kg in 2000/ 2001 (5 kg if recycled material is included) from a mere 0.8 kg in 1990/1991 and 1.8 kg in 1998/1999. However, this is only one- fourth of the consumption in China (12 kg/capita, 1998) and one sixth of the world average (18 kg/capita) [3,4]. The Fig. 1 gives the comparison of per capita consumption of plastics over three different periods. This plot represents a clear picture of growth of plastic consumption in ...

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The present rate of economic growth is unsustainable without saving of fossil energy like crude oil, natural gas or coal. Thus mankind has to rely on the alternate/renewable energy sources like biomass ,hydro power, geothermal energy, wind energy, solar energy, nuclear energy, etc. On the other hand, suitable waste management strategy is another im...

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... The success of co-pyrolysis lies mainly in the synergistic effect that comes from the reaction of different materials interacting during the process. A study by Panda et al. (2010) revealed that the oil yield obtained from the co-pyrolysis of biomass together with plastic was higher than that obtained only with biomass and also had a higher caloric value. ...
... Seeking to improve the efficiency of the pyrolysis process and its products, research in the presence of catalysts has been carried out. By using catalysts, it is possible to consume less energy (decomposition reactions at low temperatures), shorten reaction times (faster cracking reactions) and form products with more selective distribution, inhibiting the formation of undesirable products (García et al. 2005;Achilias et al. 2007;Aguado et al. 2007;Panda et al. 2010;Miandad et al. 2016;Al-Salem et al. 2017;Hafeez et al. 2019;Rajendran et al. 2020). ...
... Pillared clays are formed from the exchange of interlamellar cations from the original clay by bulky cationic species, such as complexes of inorganic metal cations, polyoxo or polyhydroxy cations, or other species, which after undergoing a calcination process to form metal oxide pillars (Panda et al. 2010;Vicente et al. 2013;Serra et al. 2020) as observed in Fig. 7. The pillar structures distributed between the smectite layers form a microporous system of channels comparable to those of zeolites, which can vary in size depending on the height of the pillar or the spacing between them (Kloprogge 1998;Gil et al. 2008). ...
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... Achyut K. Panda, R.K. Singh, D.K. Mishra, Thermolysis of waste plastics to liquid fuel: A suitable method for plastic waste management and manufacture of value added products-A world prospective[6]. ...
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... As a result, much of the post-consumer waste generated in the developing world ends up in the environment, where breakdown into microplastics and its migration up the food chain pose a potential threat to human health [8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20]. One solution for reducing the accumulation of mixed polyolefin plastic waste is to convert it into fuel oil via slow pyrolysis [21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33]. This process can be used to generate fuel oil with properties similar to either traditional diesel fuel or traditional kerosene, depending upon the pyrolysis temperature [23,24,32,33]. ...
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