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Comparison of different transport modes and their CO 2 emissions range. (Source: World Ocean Review (WOR) 2010; International Chamber of Shipping (ICS) 2013)  

Comparison of different transport modes and their CO 2 emissions range. (Source: World Ocean Review (WOR) 2010; International Chamber of Shipping (ICS) 2013)  

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Article
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In the years to come, the maritime industry will have to improve its energy efficiency and soften its environmental footprint to meet higher energy prices and more stringent regulations. Shipowners, managers, and operators are often reluctant in installing new technologies even though they may already have successfully been applied in other industr...

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Context 1
... than 90 % of global trade is carried on sea where economies of scale in freight transport allow the shipment of large volumes of cargo. This offers relatively low energy consumption as well as CO 2 emissions compared to other modes of transpor- tation ( Fig. 1). Although the shipping industry may be regarded as a small contributor with respect to global CO 2 emissions (3 %; IMO 2012), it still needs to reduce its energy consumption and emissions (CO 2 , SO X , NO X , CO, etc.) and air pollutants (especially particulate ...

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... There is a strong status quo in vessels which creates a level playing field between actors. It also creates fierce competition, which again limits the willingness to take on risks (Wijnolst & Wergeland, 2009;Psarros & Mestl, 2015). The sector has many small detached companies (Europen Commission, 2015), which means that large research and development projects are difficult. ...
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The energy transition of Dutch shipping is a complex gradual process due to the variety in vessels, cost and lifetime of assets, uncertainty, additional costs of climate-neutral alternatives and required regulatory changes. This paper aims to create a holistic overview of both the transition barriers and enablers. A focus is placed on the significance of pilot projects. Using the socio-technical multi-level perspective as a framework, literature on lock-in mechanisms, strategic niche management, transition pathways, and shipping specific aspects was evaluated as a starting point for determining the shipping specific barriers. Semi-structured interviews with industry experts were used to further develop the overview of the barriers and add the required enablers. Thereafter, three case studies were conducted for additional detail, context and reflection on the theory, barriers and enablers provided by experts and literature. Pilot projects can reduce any market entry barrier for a certain vessel and operational area. These barriers can originate from interdependency, costs, uncertainty, the required assets, regulations and mindset. Pilots can significantly reduce the additional costs of climate-neutral sailing by tens of per cent, improving the market potential and creating opportunities for follow-ups, scale-ups and spin-offs. Furthermore, pilots can develop clear climate-neutral sailing practices, the new 'ways of doing', which articulates expectations and visions on a future climate-neutral cluster which makes investments less risky. It has therefore been demonstrated that subsidizing pilot projects through local governments can become a key enabler for shipping, since the global nature and complex governance structure make it difficult to initiate and accelerate the transition in other ways.
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... Resources must then be mobilized (A3) to develop and disseminate the required knowledge (A4). The overarching goal is to adapt existing structures, which requires the capacity to change actors, institutions, infrastructure, and interactions [1]. For example, developing regulation for innovative ship propulsion (e.g., fuel cells) or adapting physical bunkering infrastructure for sustainable energy carriers. ...
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Energy transition is affecting the European maritime sector at an increasing rate. New technologies and regulations are being introduced with increasing speed. The ability to adapt to these changes is crucial for the economic success of the maritime sector. However, the sector is challenged by inertia due to its global nature and long-life assets (e.g., vessels). These developments result in a globally projected greenhouse gas emission growth rather than a reduction towards 2050. The sector can be considered essential to economic prosperity, but its innovation system should align with global sustainability trends. This article aims to structure and evaluate the maritime sector’s systemic challenges by conducting an extensive systematic review of (sustainable) maritime innovation literature. These findings are structured and discussed via four key activities that support the transition process: developing strategy and policy, creating legitimacy, mobilizing resources, and developing and disseminating knowledge.