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Comparison of bone marrow-derived MSCs and cord blood-derived MSCs. The characteristics of each cell during harvest, culture are shown. HLA: human leukocyte antigen; MSC: mesenchymal stem cell.

Comparison of bone marrow-derived MSCs and cord blood-derived MSCs. The characteristics of each cell during harvest, culture are shown. HLA: human leukocyte antigen; MSC: mesenchymal stem cell.

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Regeneration of articular cartilage is of great interest in cartilage tissue engineering since articular cartilage has a low regenerative capacity. Due to the difficulty in obtaining healthy cartilage for transplantation, there is a need to develop an alternative and effective regeneration therapy to treat degenerative or damaged joint diseases. St...

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... treatment. To overcome this, researchers are attempting to regenerate cartilage using pluripotent stem cells. This review focuses on the abilities of human umbilical cord blood (hUCB) cells and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) derived from these cells to regenerate cartilage, as well as the advantages of these cells in this context (Fig. ...
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... CB Cells hUCB is a common source of cells for transplantation and is readily available. hUCB-derived cells are routinely collected and banked worldwide 4 . CB has several advantages over other cell sources (Fig. 1). First, CB is easily collected and is reported to contain a higher percentage of stem cells than red bone marrow. Second, there is a lower risk of contam- ination during the collection of hUCB. CB consists of hema- topoietic stem cells and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) 5 . CD34þ cells are usually transplanted because they have the ...
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... treatment. To overcome this, researchers are attempting to regenerate cartilage using pluripotent stem cells. This review focuses on the abilities of human umbilical cord blood (hUCB) cells and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) derived from these cells to regenerate cartilage, as well as the advantages of these cells in this context (Fig. ...
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... CB Cells hUCB is a common source of cells for transplantation and is readily available. hUCB-derived cells are routinely collected and banked worldwide 4 . CB has several advantages over other cell sources (Fig. 1). First, CB is easily collected and is reported to contain a higher percentage of stem cells than red bone marrow. Second, there is a lower risk of contam- ination during the collection of hUCB. CB consists of hema- topoietic stem cells and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) 5 . CD34þ cells are usually transplanted because they have the ...

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BACKGROUND We synthetized a 3D printed poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) scaffold with polydopamine (PDA) coating and lithium chloride (LiCl) deposition for cartilage tissue engineering and analyzed its effect on promoting rabbit bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (rBMSC) chondrogenesis in vitro. MATERIAL AND METHODS PCL scaffolds were prepared by 3D print...

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... Cartilage damage and bone defects after injury or surgery are very common musculoskeletal diseases that have plagued many people all over the world for a long time (Vos, Flaxman, & Naghavi, 2012). Because the dense extracellular matrix (ECM) between cartilage cells prevents cells and nutrients from moving to the defect site, self-repairing ability of the cartilage and bones is relatively low (Kamaraj, Kyriacou, Seah, & Khan, 2021;Rim, Nam, & Ju, 2019). Many new technologies are being developed to improve the cartilage and bone healing. ...
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... ECM status changes, damage and degradation have been accepted as basic pathological changes in OA. 24 Cartilage does not contain blood vessels but a dense ECM with a sparse distribution of chondrocytes. 25 Accounting for 1-5% of the total cartilage tissue volume, chondrocytes provide powerful support for the synthesis of ECM proteins such as collagen, hyaluronic acid or glycoprotein and proteoglycan, with the collagen level contributing to approximately 60% of the dry weight of cartilage. 26,27 ECM degrading enzymes (metalloproteinases, i.e., ADAMTSs) and matrix metallo proteinases (MMPs) can induce ECM degradation, which is considered as a characteristic manifestation of OA. 28 Hyaline cartilage can be precursory or permanent. ...
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... [3][4][5][6] Umbilical cord blood is one of the sources of MSCs that has been proven to be safe and effective. 7 Recently, several studies have reported successful implantation of allogenic human umbilical cord bloodderived MSCs for the repair of cartilage defects of the knee joint through a 3-5-cm arthrotomy incision. [8][9][10][11][12][13] Dry arthroscopic allogenic human umbilical cord blood-derived MSCs (hUCB-MSCs) implantation is not easy because soft tissue collapse and bleeding reduce the working space, especially in case of large cartilage defects. ...
... 19 hUCB-MSCs are not invasively isolated and, they differentiate into chondrocytes with a high expansion capacity. 7 HA is a good scaffold for ameliorating MSCs function. 20 More recently, the mixture of hUCB-MSCs with HA has been used to repair large cartilage defects of the knee under arthrotomy. ...
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Mesenchymal stem cell treatment has become more widely available and has shown promising potential for the repair of knee articular cartilage defects. More recently, open arthrotomy has been performed via a para-patellar incision for cartilage repair using allogenic human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs). However, arthroscopy allows better visualization and leads to earlier gain of the range of motion and less scar formation than open arthrotomy, especially in the knee joint. In this study, we present an easy and effective technique for arthroscopic hUCB-MSCs implantation without any special equipment.
... Articular cartilage has very poor regenerative ability [1]. It is a relatively avascular structure, and the dense extracellular matrix located between chondrocytes prevents movement of these cells and nutrients to the defect site [2]. This makes cartilage repair following trauma or diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis (OA) difficult [3]. ...
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... Drugs are also used to treat OA as well; however, cartilage protection and regeneration is commonly attempted to treat OA [15]. Autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) is commonly performed on patients to induce cartilage regeneration. ...
... However, it is difficult to maintain the characteristics of chondrocytes under culture, making this use of this practice continuously for treatment challenging. Currently other cell types such as mesenchymal stem cells and cartilage-tissue differentiated from pluripotent stem cells are suggested as an alternative [15][16][17]. ...
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... Articular cartilage is a compact connective tissue that consists of extracellular matrix (ECM) rich in collagen, proteoglycans, and glycoproteins with specialized cells so-called chondrocytes. 1 Permanent stress on articular cartilage can result in a loss of cartilage tissue and several degenerative joint diseases mainly osteoarthritis (OA). 2 Because of low cell density, avascular and anural structure, the regeneration of injured areas is difficult over time. The unresolved challenges in orthopedics and cartilage regeneration have led scientists and biologists to look think about de novo tissue engineering approaches. ...
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... In our study, a relatively low chondrogenic induction could be related to the low percentage of KSR (5%) and shorter period of differentiation in 3D culture. The recent study of Nam's group reprogrammed cord-blood derived cells in iPSC and 47 days (30 days in 3D culture) and 20% KSR presence in the medium were sufficient for the induction of well-formed cartilage-like spheres [24,51,52]. It is worth mentioning that in their approach the induction of MSC from PSC cells was performed via the 20% FBS supplementation of monolayer culture of EB outgrowth. ...
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... Furthermore, HLA typing of CBMCs occurs during cell bank storage, thereby making them easy to use for research and transplantation. Protocols to differentiate CBMC-iPSCs into cardiomyocytes, hepatocytes, and chondrocytes have been reported 16,20,21,22,23 . ...
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