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Comparison of axilla temperature to rectal temperature in canines without physical activity. The same digital thermometer was used within each study to measure axilla and rectal temperatures. There is low correlation between the axilla and rectal temperature readings among the three studies.

Comparison of axilla temperature to rectal temperature in canines without physical activity. The same digital thermometer was used within each study to measure axilla and rectal temperatures. There is low correlation between the axilla and rectal temperature readings among the three studies.

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Body temperature is an important component in the diagnoses and treatment of disease in canines. Rectal temperature remains the standard of obtaining temperature within the clinical setting, but there are many drawbacks with this method, including time, access, animal stress and safety concerns. Interest in using infra-red thermometry in canines to...

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... have been no reported studies looking at IR axillary temperature measurements in humans. Studies comparing rectal and axillary temperatures in canines are summarized in Table 1. In clinical practice, 0.55°C (1°F) is frequently added to axillary temperatures in canines to reflect core body temperature, but a recent study using Beagles (n = 26) found this to be inaccurate ( Mathis and Campbell, 2015). ...

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In clinical practice, an important aspect of animal health status evaluation is the body temperature recording obtained using different methods. Within them, the non-contact and non-invasive infrared thermometer can provide an accurate estimation of body temperature improving the quality of care and medical decision. To evaluate the use of the monitoring of auricular temperature to improve the quality of care and medical decision. To evaluate the use of the monitoring of auricular temperature as indices of body temperature, as well as rectal temperature in eleven clinically healthy mixed bred cats, eleven Rottweiler dogs, and eleven Italian saddle horses temperature values were obtained by means of an infrared thermometer in the left and right ears and by means of a digital thermometer in the rectum. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated a statistically higher rectal temperature value than the temperature recorded in the left and right ears (P<0.001). In all species, no differences between the right and left ear were recorded (p>0.05). Cats and dogs showed a statistically higher auricular (p<0.001) and rectal (p<0.01) temperature compared to horses. No differences were observed between cats and dogs (p>0.05). Auricular and rectal temperature agreement was shown by the Bland-Altman test. Between the two methods, the average difference was 1.6 °C for cats, 1.4 °C for dogs, and 3.3 °C for horses. In dogs, rectal and auricular temperature showed a positive correlation (r²=0.78). In conclusion, only in healthy dogs maintained in controlled conditions the monitoring of auricular temperature reflects the clinical practice gold standard of core body temperature measurement represented by rectal temperature. The lower value of about 1.5 °C must be taken into consideration when this technique is used.
Chapter
Ethically speaking, humans should benefit from the human–animal interaction only if the animals themselves benefit as well. As the field of animal-assisted interventions (AAI) places more consideration on the welfare and well-being of the animals involved, questions as to how to best assess welfare and how to improve welfare for the animals are critical to answer. There are challenges to answering these questions, though. The study of welfare can be ambiguous, especially when AAIs are seemingly innocuous to observers. However, there is concern that AAIs may be physically and mentally taxing on animals if precautions are not taken. As research seeks to clarify the effect that AAI has on animal welfare, practitioners need to be aware of what they can do on a daily basis to safeguard the health and well-being of their animal partners. This requires the practitioner to be knowledgeable in how to judge animal welfare, what conditions put animals at risk, and what can be done to minimize risk. This chapter will discuss the considerations for assessment of animal welfare in therapy settings and provide guidance for modifying interventions in hopes of assuring the well-being of the animals involved, thus enhancing the benefits for all parties involved. While the discussion will primarily focus on canine species, these welfare considerations may be applied to all species used in AAIs.
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Core body temperature is indispensable in the assessment of the health status, as well as diagnosis and management of febrile conditions in patients. However, taking temperature in veterinary practice using conventional rectal thermometry could be challenging as most animals like horses often resent it. In this report, the reliability and accuracy of non-contact infrared thermometry in measuring temperature in horses is evaluated. Body surface infrared temperature readings of 40 horses were measured from three different sites (forehead, shoulder point, and anal verge regions) and compared with rectal thermometry as gold standard, the mean temperature differences, spearman’s correlation and reliability coefficients were calculated for each measurement site. Bland-Altman plot was used to assess the agreement and systematic differences between the non-contact infrared and rectal thermometry. All the analyses were evaluated at α0.05. The body surface temperatures were slightly lower and correlate poorly with rectal temperature (p>0.05). The Bland-Altman analysis showed low mean bias ± SD between infrared and rectal thermometry as forehead (1.06 ± 0.48℃), shoulder point (0.77 ± 0.48℃), and anal verge (0.32 ± 0.63℃); and high reliability with clinical potentials (Intraclass correlation and Cronbach's Alpha coefficients (r) ≥ 0.98). Based on this data, with the high consistency and agreement, as well as the low mean biases below 1oC, the non-contact infrared thermometry of the anal verge and shoulder point demonstrated the greatest clinical potentials as an alternative to rectal thermometry in horses.