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... has 20 times faster transmission speed, 10 times faster response speed, and 10 times more capacity performance than 4G. (Refer to 5G performance vision presented by ITU; Wall, 2018; Table 1). ...

Citations

... According to statistics, there are about more than 1.4 billion vehicles in the world [3]. Tens of millions or even hundreds of millions of drivers manipulate vehicles around the world every day, which is a very large consumption of manpower [4]. Intelligent autonomous vehicles, including driverless vehicles, have become a hot topic of concern for regulators and industry in recent years. ...
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The chapter explains the effects of intelligent autonomous vehicles from future perspectives. The chapter gives readers an overview of the future intelligent autonomous vehicles and promotes the development potential on intelligent. To be specific, the chapter first gives the readers an overview of the development of autonomous vehicles. Then, the chapter introduces the potential of intelligent autonomous vehicles, key technologies that are needed for future intelligent autonomous vehicles, and how intelligent autonomous vehicles affect the future. Finally, the chapter discusses barriers in intelligent autonomous vehicles development. The chapter will be contributed as a start point for people who want to keep working on intelligent autonomous vehicles and help them understand the general condition of future intelligent autonomous vehicles.
Research
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While a 5G symbol can already be seen on cell phone displays in some European metropolitan areas, most networks are still in their planning phase. Firstly, mobile network operators (MNOs) must decide from which vendor they wish to procure the network technology. In many cases, it seems that MNOs want to build the networks at least partly using technology from Chinese manufacturers, assuming that government regulation or their customer base do not demand otherwise. In this paper, we explain why the security of 5G networks is of greater significance for the economy than was the case with 4G. We outline the costs associated with building networks using untrusted technology, and try to measure those costs where possible. We include country studies for our home countries Germany, France, Italy and Portugal.
Article
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5G is considered a transformative technology that will soon be the basis of a high increase in productivity. 5G networks have started becoming available in several countries and are initially offering substantially higher download rates than 4G/LTE. In the future, however, further services will emerge from this new generation of cellular systems due to increased capacity, high speeds and low latency. Many existing industries will digitalise an increasing share of their value chain and run production and services over these mobile networks, thereby making 5G networks a quasi-supercritical infrastructure. Countries expect a high degree of trustworthiness from those providing 5G, given that it is a supercritical infrastructure of the future. In addition to the requisite technological skills, the criteria for trustworthiness include an untarnished reputation and an unwavering commitment to respect the laws and rules of the country in which they are providing the network. If untrusted companies are nevertheless to play a role in setting up 5G networks in Europe, considerable costs can be expected. Only some of these costs are incurred by the mobile network operators, who are – absent any further regulation – free to make their own decisions about their network providers. But many of the costs will be borne by other sections of society, such as telecommunications customers or taxpayers, who, without further regulation, have no input on the selection of network equipment provider. Additionally, some of these costs will only be incurred long after the network has been set up, leading to a risk that these costs will not be adequately taken into account in the initial investment decision. Within this project, we reveal the hidden costs of these untrustworthy network vendors and, insofar as possible, calculate the costs more precisely for four European countries (Germany, France, Italy, and Portugal).
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In zahlreichen europäischen Ländern gibt es derzeit Diskussionen über die wirtschaftlichen Möglichkeiten im Zusammenhang mit dem neuen Mobilfunkstandard 5G. Dabei geht es um mögliche Produktivitätssprünge, aber auch die mit einer stärkeren Vernetzung verbundenen Sicherheitslücken und Abhängigkeiten, die sich ergeben würden, wenn diese neuen Mobilfunknetze mit chinesischer Technik gebaut würden. Wenn nicht-vertrauenswürdige Unternehmen am Aufbau von 5G-Netzen in Europa beteiligt werden, ist dies mit erheblichen Kosten verbunden. Nur ein Teil dieser Kosten fällt bei den Mobilfunknetzbetreibern an, die über ihre Netzanbieter entscheiden können. Ein Großteil der Kosten muss hingegen von anderen Teilen der Gesellschaft getragen werden, wie z.B. den Telekommunikationskunden oder den Steuerzahlern, die ohne weitere Regulierungen keinen Einfluss auf die Auswahl des Netzausrüsters haben. Außerdem fallen einige der Kosten erst lange nach dem Netzaufbau an und es besteht die Gefahr, dass diese bei der Investitionsentscheidung nicht hinreichend berücksichtigt werden. In diesem Beitrag beschreiben die Autoren, warum die Sicherheit von 5G-Netzen für die Wirtschaft von größerer Bedeutung ist, als es bei 4G der Fall war. Sie definieren die Kosten, die durch den Aufbau der Netze mit nicht-vertrauenswürdiger Technik entstehen können, und versuchen diese so gut wie möglich zu messen. Am Ende der Studie fassen sie Länderstudien für ihre Heimatländer Deutschland, Frankreich, Italien und Portugal in der Anlage zusammen.