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Comparison between the Nokia 2110 and 6110 [15].  

Comparison between the Nokia 2110 and 6110 [15].  

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Article
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Nokia is a Finnish company largely known for its telecommunication technologies. However, in recent times it appears to have lost some ground to competitors, primarily in the smartphone market, such as Apple and Samsung. In this historical case study, we explore the origins of Nokia and their progress toward breaking new ground in telecommunication...

Citations

... In the 1860s, Nokia was a pulp and paper company. It gradually moved into the rubber and cable businesses, followed by electronics (TV and ICT) and network and mobile technologies in the 1990s and lately the consumer market (Borhanuddin & Iqbal, 2016). Kurikka et al. (2018) present Nokia as a case of regional resilience while Nair et al. (2014) as a case where resilience was missing. ...
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Resilience has attracted a multitude of scholars from diverse backgrounds and disciplines as it is a desired feature for responding to the adversities that modern societal systems face, not least the Covid-19 pandemic. Existing research displays little convergence on the definition of the concept making a robust theoretical framework and empirical understanding of resilience highly desirable. The aim of this chapter is to provide a more holistic understanding of the complex phenomenon of resilience from a multi-sectorial, cross-national and multidisciplinary perspective by proposing an original approach into the state of the art that might enhance future research. This chapter identifies three organizing principles for a framework of resilience. First, resilience embeds both stability and change which are both required elements. Second, adversities and their novelty profile can be mapped onto a typology of absorptive, adaptive and transformative resilience. Third, resilience has a temporal dimension that can be articulated in regard to forecasting, mechanisms and outcomes. The chapters of this edited book are positioned and connected by applying these three principles, in order to both enable theory testing and theory development throughout the volume and provide key empirical insights useful for societies, organizations and individuals.
... Any organization may gain some insight about competitors' next cause of action; however, whether or not this intelligence is critical to the competition is something that can only be uncovered through acute learning capabilities. Global brands such as Nokia have paid dearly for refusing to learn from competitor and market insights regarding the future of smartphones (Borhanuddin and Iqbal, 2016;Sata, 2013). This regressed the one-time market leader to an irrecoverable position of a market failure. ...
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to provide insights into the overarching role of learning capabilities by presenting a framework to describe how learning capability development is captured by combining the three main elements of internal marketing orientation, exploratory capabilities and resource recombination. Design/methodology/approach This is a conceptual paper building upon the theoretical integration approach of Mayer and Sparrowe (2013) to establish competitive empowerment through learning capability development, effective internal response and resources recombination. Findings The competitive learning capability model provides a firm’s foundation for theorizing organizational competitive models from an internal perspective, by mastering learning capability development at the centre of the model. Research limitations/implications The paper emphasizes the competitive connotation of learning capabilities as a construct in strategic management. It shows the underlying role of learning across organizational processes; hence, its theoretical significance through the learning capabilities model. Practical implications This paper argues that learning is at the centre of organizational competitiveness. Firms can achieve more fruitful results by continuously implementing resource integration strategies built on their learned experiences. Originality/value The principal significance of this paper lies in the achievement of conceptualizing learning from a strategic management perspective. Insight in this area helps bridge organizational efforts in pursuit of competitive advantage by exploiting key core learning competencies embedded in a firm’s resources and capabilities.
... Nokia is Finnish multinational communications and IT corporation, which was founded in 1865 by Fredrik Idestam under the name of Nokia Katabolic [3,13]. The company went through various changes over its history [6]. ...
... The company went through various changes over its history [6]. Its business model has been transformed from different industries; rubber, paper, and cable company to mobile handsets and mobile telecommunication infrastructure [7,13]. The most prominent change happened between 1990 and 1996 when a fruitful transformation of the business model has been made to save the company from near bankruptcy and settled it on the path of becoming one of the world's great corporate success stories for more than a decade and a half [6]. ...
... For around eleven years (1977)(1978)(1979)(1980)(1981)(1982)(1983)(1984)(1985)(1986)(1987)(1988), Kari Kairamo was the CEO of Nokia. During his leadership, the company was transforming from a conglomerate to an internationally large multi-industry firm with an emphasis on telecommunication devices [3], mainly network equipment and digital switches for the telephone exchange [13]. This period has been considered as the era of growth, represented by the remarkable joint venture with Salora to develop the radio telephone company Mobira Oy in 1979, followed by the acquisition of ten large electronic and telecommunication companies [17]. ...
Conference Paper
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This research intensively reviews and analyzes the strategic management of technology at Nokia Corporation. Using traditional narrative literature review and secondary sources, we reviewed and analyzed the historical transformation of Nokia’s core business, leadership strategies, business architecture, R&D policy, innovation strategy, product lunch, and smartphones recognition and demonstration. We identified various strategic gaps that the previous analytical studies seemingly have missed to identify and generalize. Therefore, we add to the literature a bundle of the lessons learned that chronologically explain how Nokia failed to create and sustain competitive advantages, particularly in the smartphone market. We concluded that the problem at Nokia was not the lack of innovation, but rather, it was the lack of a precise technology forecasting, and misunderstanding that the needs in smartphone market were not just about demonstrating a mobile phone that makes calls, texts and connects to the web, but also the platform that operates all these functions together. Since Nokia’s brand name is recently back in the market through a newly licensed firm (HMD Global), we further discuss how likely the new Nokia’s smartphones will possibly compete and plausibly succeed in a very well-established market.
Chapter
The production phase of the system life cycle represents the culmination of the system development process. This chapter describes where production considerations must be applied during each phase of system development in order to ensure that the end product is both affordable and satisfies performance and reliability goals. It reviews the problems typically encountered in the transitioning of responsibility from the engineering to the manufacturing organizations and the role of systems engineering in their resolution. The chapter discusses the organization of the overall system manufacturing program as a complex system in its own right, especially as it is typically distributed among a team of contractors during production operations. It also describes the scope of knowledge that development systems engineers need to acquire in order properly to lead a system development effort, together with some of the means by which it may be best obtained.