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Comparative progressions toward carbon neutrality: 250-year horizon 

Comparative progressions toward carbon neutrality: 250-year horizon 

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Sustainability involves the drive to ensure intergenerational fairness. However, the results of actions taken to achieve sustainability often lie far into the future and efforts to promote the welfare of distant generations may or may not ultimately be successful. While both governmental policies and entrepreneurial innovation have been cited as be...

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... Indeed, organizational research makes clear that this sort of market intervention often is ill-advised. Using Monte Carlo simulations, Hunt and Fund (2016) found that government subsidies can forestall more radical changes in long-term investments into alternative technologies. Tokar, Jensen, and Williams (2021) spotlight hidden costs in an effort to urge caution about regulating e-commerce to manage carbon emissions. ...
... Most recently, Hafsi and Baba (2022) illustrate the problems associated with policy overreaction, wherein emotion --and not logic --drives policy. [1] Desperation to show action against climate change, rather than logic, seems to underlie the program in the Inflation Reduction Act that offers $14,000 in rebates and tax incentives to households that purchase and install new green appliances and equipment. [2] One group of winners in the bill are those selling or installing heat pumps, who receive a $2,000 tax credit for cost and installation, and between $1750 and $8000 in direct rebates. ...
... Aside from socioeconomic factors, governmental intervention, which holds a significant role through institutional and regulatory aspects, has also attracted considerable attention in the environmental fields. On the one hand, the government has attempted to facilitate corporate green innovation through carrot-and-stick policies including assistances that are in the shape of green R&D subsidies (Bai et al. 2019), tax preferences for low-emission and high-tech enterprises (Zheng and Shi 2017), and punitive taxes imposed upon technologies or actions that are environmentally undesirable (Hunt and Fund 2016). These stimulus policies have contributed to pushing enterprises to achieve "innovation compensation" by reducing compliance costs and promoting production efficiency. ...
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Environmental problems are endowed with the causal complexity of multiple factors. Traditional quantitative research on the influencing mechanism of environmental pollution has tended to focus on the marginal effects of specific influencing factors but generally neglected the multiple interaction effects between factors (especially three or more). Based on the panel data of 30 Chinese provinces between 2011 and 2020, this study employs fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) — which can provide a fine-grained insight into the causal complexity of environmental issues — to shed light on the influencing mechanism of environmental pollution. The results show that there are several different configurations of pollution drivers which lead to high pollution or low pollution in provinces, confirming the multiple causality, causal asymmetry, and equifinality of environmental pollution. Furthermore, the combination effect of advanced industrial structure, small population size, and technological advance is significant in achieving a state of green environment compared to environmental regulation factors. In addition, spatiotemporal analysis of the configurations indicates that strong path dependencies and spatial agglomeration exist in current local environmental governance patterns. Finally, according to our findings, targeted policy recommendations are provided.
... All the countries worldwide have considered protecting our planet from environmental crises as a first priority and have been involved in many international agreements concerning this issue, including the Kyoto Protocol (COP3), Kyoto Protocol (MOP 1), United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Paris Agreement (COP21), Doha Amendment to the Kyoto Protocol, and Bali Road Map (COP13) (Charfeddine, 2017). Intergenerational equity theory suggests that preserving the environment is a moral and ethical commitment for future generations (Clayton et al., 2016), (Hunt and Fund, 2016), and many researchers have emphasized the significance of formulating and imposing national, regional, and international laws that guarantee planetary rights and obligations for all generations (Charfeddine, 2017), (Demirel et al., 2017), (Foley et al., 2005). Nevertheless, these agreements have not achieved the goal of significantly reducing different types of pollutants, including CO 2 emissions. ...
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This study investigated the impact of economic growth, electricity consumption, energy consumption, and the crop production index on environmental quality in Qatar by considering four different types of GHGs emissions (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and F-GHGs) and using a time-series dataset for the period of 1990-2019. This study investigated the long-and short-term impacts between these variables using ARDL bounds testing, while the stationarity properties of the variables were tested by applying the Zivot-Andrews test. The results indicate that electricity consumption, energy consumption, and the crop production index have a positive and significant relationship with GHGs, while economic growth has a negative and significant relationship in the long term with these gases. The VECM Cranger and Toda-Yamamoto causality tests were used to understand the causal relationship between the variables, and the results suggest a different causality relationship between the variables. Several key policy implications derived from the findings of this research to sustain environmental quality in the state of Qatar are discussed in this paper.
... Therefore, the increase in energy demand is equivalent to an increase in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, which leads to environmental degradation [5,6]. Thus, protecting the planet and preserving the environment for future generations becomes a necessity and a moral and ethical obligation [97,98]. Indeed, several studies have called for international, national, and local laws to guarantee the rights and responsibilities of the planet for all generations [99][100][101]. ...
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Today, the increasing use of technology and the industrial revolution are affecting the economy and the environment, such as the development of economies and the increase of the ecological footprint (EFP). This study focuses on the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) to assess the impact of information and communication technologies (ICTs), green energy (renewable energy and electric power consumption), and economic activities (total factor productivity: TFP) on the environmental quality (EFP) by applying the Johansen cointegration technique and vector error correction method (VECM). Our empirical investigation shows a long-run negative and significant association between renewable energy, electricity consumption, technology trade, TFP, and EFP. The results also show that there is a negative and significant link between ICT and EFP in the short-run. The results of this research have potential importance for policymakers to address economic activities, green energy, and investment in ICTs and environmental issues simultaneously in the context of the KSA.
... First, that the growing number and intrusiveness of business regulations and the operational disruption they cause mean that entrepreneurs and SME owners are forced to divert already scarce resources to ensure compliance, sidetracking them from investing in employees and growing their enterprises. Second, regulations, which are developed and ratified by lobbyists and politicians, adopted by bureaucrats, and imposed by local enforcers, have unintended consequences that often wreak havoc on the most vulnerable players-namely, entrepreneurs and SMEs (Hunt and Fund 2016). We thus formulate the following baseline hypothesis: ...
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This article explores the culture-regulations-gender triad in relation to SMEs’ performance. Using a firm-level panel dataset drawn from 27 countries in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia between 2005 and 2014, we show that women and men experience and respond differently to regulations. Women take regulations very seriously and as a result, their SMEs see improved performance, whereas men discount the influence of regulations which then depresses the performance of their SMEs. However, when women respond to regulatory enforcers, it erodes the performance of their SMEs, whereas when men engage enforcers, the performance of their SMEs improves. The fact that women and men experience and respond to the same regulations differently—regardless of country effect and whether their SMEs are high- or low-performing businesses—suggests that regulations perpetuate gender biases, thus impacting not only individuals but even the organizations they lead. Our study expands gendered institutions theory by clarifying how regulations diffuse cultural values and influence women and men, as well as their SMEs, differently.
... Deemed crucial to achieving competitive advantage in family business (Boyd et al., 2015), transgenerational relationships can occur between current and future generations (e.g., Wade-Benzoni et al., 2010), or current and past generations (e.g., grandparents and children; Nguyen et al., 2018). Although the transfer of intangible resources has mostly been studied with reference to behavioral (Honey-Rosés et al., 2014), entrepreneurial (Jaskiewicz et al., 2015), and environmental (Hunt & Fund, 2016) issues, the last 10 years indicate growing interest in how such transfer affects next generation engagement in family firms (e.g., Garcia et al., 2019;Reay, 2019). This is surprising, since transferring intangible resources from predecessors to successors is typically an unstructured process, and thus difficult to observe (e.g., as Schell et al., 2018 argue). ...
Article
The concept of generations has become increasingly important in the social science fields to explain diverse phenomena affecting organizations. This is especially true in the family business field where generations are considered a constitutive element. Nevertheless, there is still a limited understanding of generations and the implications of their involvement in family business. We review prior studies on generations by considering different social science fields, which we analyze according to a novel theoretical framework. Building on this framework, and placing particular emphasis on family firms, we identify important knowledge gaps that serve as a springboard for future research.
... There is considerably more emphasis on how entrepreneurs seek to create market demand or reduce market failures (Dean & McMullen, 2007). The success of these efforts is often dependent upon the intervention of third parties like policymakers (Hunt & Fund, 2016) and social movement activists (Pacheco, York, & Hargrave, 2014), who assist in building or incentivizing market demand (York et al., 2018). This dependence upon external stakeholders is a consequence of environmental entrepreneurs looking to collectively develop profitable market opportunities. ...
... Concerning the intergeneration equity theory, it is a moral obligation of economies to preserve and sustain the environment for future generations (Hunt and Fund 2016). The preservation of the planet from global environmental crises grabbed world attention, and finally, the key objectives of international efforts are taken by world economies in the form of UNFCC 1 (Marrakesh Accords (COP7) 2 , Kyoto Protocol (COP3) 3 , Paris agreement (COP21), Bali Road Map (COP13), Kyoto Protocol (MOP1), UNDP 17-point agenda (UNDP 2015), and Doha Amendment to the Kyoto Protocol 4 ), to combat the adverse impact of climate change. ...
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Article
Earth is in the Anthropocene era and humankind deteriorates the global environment; thus, there is a dire need for sustainable policies at all levels. This study investigates the causal and long-run association between financial development, research and development expenditures, and carbon dioxide emission including energy intensity and income level for selected West Asia and Middle East (WAME) economies along the belt and road. The long-run panel estimation findings reveal that the research and development expenditures (R&D) are negatively associated with environmental degradation, as they significantly mitigate carbon emissions. In contrast, financial development contributes to environmental degradation. The findings validated the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) phenomenon for the WAME economies considering R&D and financial development. Further, energy intensity exacerbates environmental quality. Additionally, the findings from Dumitrescu-Hurlin (DH) causal approach reveal bidirectional causal associations between financial development and carbon emissions and between R&D and emissions. The findings have implications for policy and practice to attain environmental sustainability in the selected WAME countries.
... There is considerably more emphasis on how entrepreneurs seek to create market demand or reduce market failures (Dean & McMullen, 2007). The success of these efforts is often dependent upon the intervention of third parties like policymakers (Hunt & Fund, 2016) and social movement activists (Pacheco, York, & Hargrave, 2014), who assist in building or incentivizing market demand (York et al., 2018). This dependence upon external stakeholders is a consequence of environmental entrepreneurs looking to collectively develop profitable market opportunities. ...
... For instance, environmental deterioration and associated climate change can lead to extraordinary hazards, such as the melting of glaciers, extreme weather, unpredictable rainfall, extinction of species, low agricultural productivity, food shortages, and water scarcity (Dong et al., 2019;Shahbaz et al., 2018). Besides, humans are also morally obliged to preserve and endure the natural environment for future generations (Hunt and Fund, 2016). ...
Article
Achieving carbon neutrality targets is a major challenge for Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries that experience mounting ecological degradation over the last few decades. To deal with this situation, the trading of green products may play a crucial role. However, previous studies have not captured the net impact of green trading, and also the international trade basket used in these studies is proxied by the trade openness index including both environment-friendly and not-so-friendly goods. To provide a solution , this research intends to capture the net effects of green goods on the environment over the period 2003 to 2016 in 35 OECD countries. This study extends the literature by computing a new Green Openness Index based on the OECD Combined List of Environmental Goods (CLEG) basket that consists of 255 products. After this, an empirical model based on the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis is developed to test the role of the Green Openness Index in environmental sustainability using methodology robust against heterogeneity and cross-sectional dependence. The outcomes unfolded the validity of the EKC hypothesis in 35 OECD countries. Empirical estimates confirmed that the Green Openness Index, which considers traditional environment-friendly goods as well as environmentally preferable goods, stimulates environmental sustainability. Finally, numerous policies are directed to accomplish carbon neutrality targets.