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Common dietary supplements used in the management of hypertension 

Common dietary supplements used in the management of hypertension 

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Background: The use of alternative therapies like herbs and dietary supplements is very common among hypertensive and diabetic patients all over the globe. Hypertension is a silent disease that causes increase in cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, renal morbidity and mortality whereas diabetic complications cause heart attack, stroke, blindness and...

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... most patients do not reveal the use of such treatments to their health care providers (Gulla and Singer, 2000). Common dietary supplements used in the management of hypertension, their health benefits and limitations are presented in Table 1. ...

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... Black pepper helps to manage glucose and insulin sensitizers and helps liver and muscle cells to use insulin more efficiently [72]. Table 8. ...
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Diabetes is one of the serious metabolic disorders occurred due to the imbalance of glucose level because of damaged pancreatic β-cells and lower production of insulin in body. Type 1 diabetes mellitus (TD1) and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (TD2) are main types of diabetes. Major portion of the world is suffering from Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Drugs used for diabetes are insulin, biguanides, sulfonylurea and inhibitors for α-glucosidase. Traditional medicines are under trial to reduce diabetic complications with no/minimum side effects. Many antidiabetic plants are under potential research i.e., strawberry, jamun, mulberry, fenugreek, turmeric, black pepper, garlic, ginger, grapefruit, and cinnamon. All of these have antidiabetic potential. These plants have bioactive compounds present in minute amounts. These compounds act against inflammation, diabetes, bacteria, fungi, other microbial infections, and obesity. These plants have antioxidant potential as well. Through HPLC "High-performance liquid chromatography" screening, the compounds identified were caffeic acid, isoquercetin, kaempferol and other flavonoids. These compounds showed hypoglycemic activity. They are responsible for the increased uptake of glucose by the adipose and muscle tissues due to the activation of specific receptors i.e., PPARα "Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors α" and PPARγ (Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ). These activate the enzymes like glutathione, glutathione-S-transferase and catalase. Glutathione peroxidase inhibit the α-amylase then α-glucosidase lower glucose level. Effect of phytochemicals present in antidiabetic plants were studied in vitro and in vivo in animal models by inducing diabetes in them by streptozotocin, alloxan and diet on diabetic patients. Types of phytochemical compounds and their composition vary due to environmental factors, extraction and separation techniques which can have effect on clinical analysis. Bioavailability of oral drugs was also studied synergistically with these plants. Synthetic drugs, if are used with these natural compounds, they have no harmful effect but increase effectiveness. These herbal medications are more preferable, safe to use and cost effective due to which it is easily affordable by people. This review report covers the impact of these plants on diabetes mellitus reported so far.
... • Individual nutrients are also available, and these supplements are helpful in deficiency of any particular diseases. • They are used to treat iron deficiency and also reduce the risk of a medical condition, such as hypertension [9]. • "High doses of vitamin B3(niacin) can help raise "good" high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol." ...
Article
Dietary Supplements, are another way to fulfill needs that are required to maintain the proper functioning of the body. These products are mostly consumed by the youngsters throughout the world. These are very helpful in the muscle growth and during any kind deficiency of nutrients in the human body. Due to such amazing use and helpfulness of these, they are in very high demanding the market. Thus this market is expected to gain a speedy growth in the upcoming years.
... It is well documented that lifestyle and dietary changes can be adopted as effective therapies to lower BP and cholesterol. 9 However, adherence to lifestyle recommendations, such as change of diet type and reduction of alcohol consumption and smoking, is poor. [10][11][12] Focused interventions such as increasing the intake of anthocyanins, mainly present in fruit and vegetables, is associated with a decreased risk of all-cause mortality, 13 with recent evidence demonstrating their effectiveness in reducing high BP, hypertension and lipids. ...
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Context: Hibiscus sabdariffa (hibiscus) has been proposed to affect cardiovascular risk factors. Objective: To review the evidence for the effectiveness of hibiscus in modulating cardiovascular disease risk markers, compared with pharmacologic, nutritional, or placebo treatments. Data sources: A systematic search of the Web of Science, Cochrane, Ovid (MEDLINE, Embase, AMED), and Scopus databases identified reports published up to June 2021 on randomized controlled trials using hibiscus as an intervention for lipid profiles, blood pressure (BP), and fasting plasma glucose levels in adult populations. Data extraction: Seventeen chronic trials were included. Quantitative data were examined using a random effects meta-analysis and meta-regression with trial sequential analysis to account for type I and type II errors. Data analysis: Hibiscus exerted stronger effects on systolic BP (-7.10 mmHg [95%CI, -13.00, -1.20]; I2 = 95%; P = 0.02) than placebo, with the magnitude of reduction greatest in those with elevated BP at baseline. Hibiscus induced reductions to BP similar to that resulting from medication (systolic BP reduction, 2.13 mmHg [95%CI, -2.81, 7.06], I2 = 91%, P = 0.40; diastolic BP reduction, 1.10 mmHg [95%CI, -1.55, 3.74], I2 = 91%, P = 0.42). Hibiscus also significantly lowered levels of low-density lipoprotein compared with other teas and placebo (-6.76 mg/dL [95%CI, -13.45, -0.07]; I2 = 64%; P = 0.05). Conclusions: Regular consumption of hibiscus could confer reduced cardiovascular disease risk. More studies are warranted to establish an effective dose response and treatment duration. Systematic review registration: PROSPERO registration no. CRD42020167295.
... dade de vida.(40)(41)(42)(43)(44) Essa revisão integrativa identificou os fatores que estão relacionados com maior qualidade de vida e condições de saúde para pacientes que possuem hipertensão arterial e/ou diabetes mellitus. ...
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Objetivo: analisar estudos referentes à avaliação da qualidade de vida e as condições de saúde de pacientes hipertensos e diabéticos com disposição para controle da saúde melhorado. Método: revisão integrativa da literatura, realizada no período de junho a julho de 2018. Foram coletados dados nas seguintes bases de dados: PUBMED, LILACS e SciELO. Consoante os critérios de inclusão, estabeleceu-se uma amostra final de 22 artigos. Resultados: Foram encontradas pesquisas que exploraram as medidas de qualidade de vida de pacientes com hipertensão arterial e diabetes. Notou-se que os profissionais da atenção básica atuam como agentes relevantes para o controle dessas doenças. Observou-se a importância da adesão medicamentosa e do perigo que os fatores de risco podem causar nesses pacientes. Conclusão: os principais fatores que influenciam na qualidade de vida e condições de saúde são: maior renda per capita, nível de escolaridade, adesão a medicação, visitas aos profissionais da atenção primária, obesidade, transtornos mentais e idade.Descritores: Qualidade de vida; Hipertensão; Diabetes Mellitus; Nível de Saúde; Enfermagem. QUALITY OF LIFE AND HEALTH CONDITIONS OF PATIENTS WITH HYPERTENSION ARTERIAL AND DIABETES MELLITUS Objective: to analyze studies related to the assessment of quality of life and health conditions of hypertensive and diabetic patients with a willingness to improve health control. Method: integrative literature review, carried out from June to July 2018. Data were collected in the following databases: PUBMED, LILACS and SciELO. Depending on the inclusion criteria, a final sample of 22 articles was established. Results: Researches were found that explored the quality of life measures of patients with arterial hypertension and diabetes. It was noted that primary care professionals act as relevant agents for the control of these diseases. It was observed the importance of medication adherence and the danger that risk factors can cause in these patients. Conclusion: the main factors that influence quality of life and health conditions are: higher per capita income, education level, medication adherence, visits to primary care professionals, obesity, mental disorders and age.Descriptors: Quality of life; Hypertension; Diabetes Mellitus; Health level; Nursing. CONDICIONES DE CALIDAD DE VIDA Y SALUD DE PACIENTES CON HIPERTENSIÓN ARTERIAL Y DIABETES MELITUSObjetivo: analizar estudios relacionados con la evaluación de la calidad de vida y las condiciones de salud de pacientes hipertensos y diabéticos con voluntad de mejorar el control de la salud. Método: revisión integrativa de la literatura, realizada de junio a julio de 2018. Los datos fueron recolectados en las siguientes bases de datos: PUBMED, LILACS y SciELO. Dependiendo de los criterios de inclusión, se estableció una muestra final de 22 artículos. Resultados: Se encontraron investigaciones que exploraron las medidas de calidad de vida de pacientes con hipertensión arterial y diabetes. Se señaló que los profesionales de atención primaria actúan como agentes relevantes para el control de estas enfermedades. Se observó la importancia de la adherencia a la medicación y el peligro que pueden ocasionar los factores de riesgo en estos pacientes. Conclusión: los principales factores que influyen en la calidad de vida y las condiciones de salud son: mayor ingreso per cápita, nivel educativo, adherencia a la medicación, visitas a profesionales de atención primaria, obesidad, trastornos mentales y edad.Descriptores: Calidad de vida; Hipertensión; Diabetes mellitus; Nivel de salud; Enfermería.
... Black pepper helps to manage glucose and insulin sensitizers and helps liver and muscle cells to use insulin more efficiently [68]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Diabetes is one of the serious metabolic disorders occurred due to the imbalance of glucose level because of damaged pancreatic β-cells and lower production of insulin in body. Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (TD1) and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (TD2) are main types of diabetes. Major portion of the world is suffering from Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Drugs used for diabetes are insulin, biguanides, sulfonylurea and inhibitors for a-glucosidase. Traditional medicines are under trial to reduce diabetic complications with no/minimum side effects. Many antidiabetic plants are under potential research i.e. strawberry, jamun, mulberry, fenugreek, turmeric, black pepper, garlic, ginger, grapefruit, and cinnamon. All of these have antidiabetic potential. These plants have bioactive compounds present in minute amounts. These compounds act against inflammation, diabetes, bacteria, fungi, other microbial infections, and obesity. These plants have antioxidant potential as well. Through HPLC “High- Performance Liquid Chromatography” screening, the compounds identified were caffeic acid, isoquercetin, kaempferol and other flavonoids. These compounds showed hypoglycemic activity. They are responsible for the increased uptake of glucose by the adipose and muscle tissues due to the activation of specific receptors i.e. PPARa “Peroxisome Proliferatoractivated Receptors a” and PPARγ (Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ). These activate the enzymes like glutathione, glutathione-S-transferase and catalase. Glutathione peroxidase inhibits the a-amylase then a-glucosidase lower glucose level. Effect of phytochemicals present in antidiabetic plants were studied in vitro and in vivo in animal models by inducing diabetes in them by streptozotocin, alloxan and diet on diabetic patients. Types of phytochemical compounds and their composition vary due to environmental factors, extraction and separation techniques which can have effect on clinical analysis. Bioavailability of oral drugs was also studied synergistically with these plants. Synthetic drugs, if are used with these natural compounds, they have no harmful effect but increase effectiveness. These herbal medications are more preferable, safe to use and cost effective due to which it is easily affordable by people. This review report covers the impact of these plants on diabetes mellitus reported so far.
... Evidence does support the benefits of health supplements in conditions such as hypertension and diabetes mellitus Type II (Rasmussen et al. 2012;Hannon et al. 2020;Zemel 2013). Afolayan and Wintola in their review explained that using health supplements in these conditions ensures acceptable amounts of essential nutrients that help in promoting optimum health and performance (Afolayan and Wintola 2014). Therefore, patients consuming health supplements do meet their dietary needs and an improvement in overall health status is reported. ...
Article
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Background Although the use of health supplements is frequently reported, patients’ understanding of health supplement use and related safety concerns are least reported from the developing world. Aim This study was aimed to assess the understanding of health supplement use in patients with chronic diseases visiting a public healthcare institute of Quetta city, Pakistan. Methods A cross-sectional study with a proportioned based sample of 460 patients with chronic diseases attending a tertiary care hospital of Quetta city was carried out. A pre-validated questionnaire was used to assess patients’ understanding of health supplement use. SPSS version 21.0 was used for data analysis. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used. For all analyses, p < 0.05 was taken as significant. Results Most of the patients were more than 47 years of age, with a mean age of 51.62 ± 12.71 years. Thirty-three percent of the patients were diagnosed with hypertension, followed by 17.1% with hypertension + diabetes mellitus Type II. Friends and relatives (195, 42.3%) were the most common source of information regarding health supplements, and multivitamins & minerals (n = 268) were the most used health supplements. Almost 80% of the respondents have neither discussed nor disclosed the use of health supplements with their doctors or pharmacists. Nearly the same percentage (80%) of the respondents were unaware of the safety concerns of health supplements, nor were they aware of either interactions or side–effects. Education and disease state were significantly associated with certain items of the questionnaire. Bonferroni correction revealed graduates and patients with hypertension + diabetes mellitus Type II agreeing to the mentioned statements. Conclusion Inadequate understanding of health supplements was reported by the study respondents. As health supplement use is linked with certain safety concerns, enhancing patients’ understanding about misconceptions with regard to the safety and efficacy of supplements and their appropriateness is needed and must be addressed as a priority.
... Approximately 90% of hypertension patients in Indonesia do not have their blood pressure controlled due to the limitation of health access, especially those in remote areas (Hussain et al. 2016b). The treatment of hypertension in urban areas usually involves the use of medication with associated adverse effects, including headache, nausea, diarrhea, constipation, and erectile dysfunction (Afolayan and Wintola 2014). In the quest for alternative medication to treat hypertension, this research aims to explore the anti-hypertensive effect of local sea cucumbers protein hydrolysates by determining their angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities. ...
Article
Full-text available
Hypertension is one of the risk factors that contribute significantly to the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases in Indonesia. Peptides have been known to exhibit anti-hypertension activities, thus are potential as an alternative treatment of hypertension. In this study, we collected three species of under-utilized sea cucumbers from Lampung and Gorontalo provinces to explore their hydrolysates as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitors. The identification of the collected samples was conducted by a molecular approach. The sea cucumber hydrolysates were produced by using bromelain, alcalase, or the combination of both enzymes. The hydrolysis process was carried out using a 50 mM phosphate buffer at pH 7 with E/S ratio of 1% at 45 °C for 24 h. The fractionation of the most active protein hydrolysate was conducted using ultrafiltration membranes with 3, 5, and 10 kDa cut-offs. The results showed that the collected sea cucumbers were identified as Holothuria atra, Holothuria leucospilota, and Bohadschia marmorata, respectively. The ACE inhibitory analysis revealed that the alcalase hydrolysates of H. atra (AHHa) contain the most active ACE inhibitor with an IC50 value of 0.32 mg/mL. Fraction AHHa IV (< 3 kDa) showed the highest inhibition toward ACE compared to the other fractions. The kinetic studies of unfractionated AHHa and AHHa IV indicated that both peptides inhibited ACE in a mixed-inhibition mode. The lower Ki value of unfractionated AHHa peptides than that of AHHa IV, suggesting that the former binds stronger to ACE than the latter.
... Consequently, there is a strong need to know whether people are aware, knowledgeable and utilize the various hypertension management techniques which include eating of an adequate meal, eating/use of functional foods (aloe vera, garden egg, moringa olifera, ginseng, garlic, etc.), loss of weight in cases of an overweight person, use of multivitamins, avoidance of smoking, regular exercise, low salt intake, and stress management [27,28]. In addition, there have been evidences of supportive and important trials according to research conducted in Iran, China, United Kingdom, USA and South Africa on the use of functional foods and multivitamins as potential alternative therapies for treatment of hypertension, especially for prehypertensive patients, whose blood pressure is marginally or mildly high but not high enough to warrant the prescription of blood pressure-lowering medications [29][30][31][32][33]. ...
Article
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The increasing occurrence of hypertension and its position is a significant threat to CVD which makes it the world's leading cause of morbidity and death. Knowledge about CVD and the main risk factor such as hypertension and its treatment in rural areas is minimal in Nigeria as regards its impact on rural dwellers and agricultural production. Hyper-tension is one of the recognized heart diseases that are suspected to be complications leading to stroke or heart failure and the cause of today's Nigerian "unexpected death" syndrome. The study assessed the awareness, knowledge, and utilization of Hypertension Management Techniques among Rural Dwellers in Ijebu-North East Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria. One Hundred and Fifty (150) rural dwellers were selected using simple random sampling techniques. Research findings revealed that age, marital status, educational status, income, household size, source of information, and awareness had a significant effect on the rural dwellers' utilization of hypertension management techniques. Source of information and awareness had a significant influence on the utilization of hypertension management techniques. It further showed that no significant relationship between knowledge of rural dwellers and hypertension management techniques used. The rural dwellers in the local government were aware and have knowledge of various hypertension management techniques but often utilize the traditional technique effectively than the orthodox technique. Therefore, religious organizations should be used as a platform for disseminating health-related information particularly hypertension management techniques in the study area.
... The use of alternative therapies like herbs and dietary supplements is very common among hypertensive, diabetic (hyperglycaemic) and hyperlipidemic patients all over the globe [44]. In vitro and in vivo studies have shown that vitamins/minerals and phytochemicals have important roles in improving insulin sensitivity, insulin production/action, as well as carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolisms, which collectively lead to the control of the excessive oxidative stress and pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction [31,45,46]. ...
... According to the 2012 National Health Interview Survey, the most popular healthcare approaches are natural products, which are widely marketed and are often sold as dietary supplements (10). Dietary supplements used for the management of hypertension include coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), vitamins and minerals, fish oil and various herbal products (11). In addition, a recent review highlighted that manipulating the gut microbiota using probiotics may be a valuable adjuvant to traditional anti-hypertensive therapy (12). ...