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Combined annual land-surface air and sea surface temperature anomalies (°C) 1861 to 2000, relative to 1961 to 1990. Two standard error uncertainties are shown as bars on the annual number. [Based on Figure 2.7c]

Combined annual land-surface air and sea surface temperature anomalies (°C) 1861 to 2000, relative to 1961 to 1990. Two standard error uncertainties are shown as bars on the annual number. [Based on Figure 2.7c]

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Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis is the most comprehensive and up-to-date scientific assessment of past, present and future climate change. The report: • Analyses an enormous body of observations of all parts of the climate system. • Catalogues increasing concentrations of atmospheric greenhouse gases. • Assesses our understanding of the p...

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Analyses of observed climate records around the world have shown a general trend over recent decades towards increases in the frequency of warm days and nights and decreases in the frequency of cold days and cold nights. In many regions, this has resulted in changes to the hydrological cycle. Studies have also shown that anthropogenic climate chang...
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... In the majority of cases, NOx is produced by the combustion of fossil fuel (63%). However, NO x is also produced by lightning (10%), burning of biomass (14%), soils (11%), and other minor sources (Houghton et al. 2001). In natural vegetation, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) degrade into peroxy radicals (like RO 2 , i there, R is an organic radical), which then react with NO and create nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) (Krupa and Manning 1988). ...
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Increasing tropospheric ozone concentrations severely affect cereal crop production globally. Excess amounts of ground-level ozone interfere with different physiological and biochemical processes, and, thereby, affect crop plants’ growth, yields, and production. On the other hand, phytohormones play a vital role in plant growth, development, and stress tolerance. Therefore, it is important to elucidate the role of different phytohormones in plants’ defenses system against ozone stress. Several phytohormones, namely, abscisic acid, auxins, ethylene, gibberellins, salicylic acid, and jasmonic acid, have important roles in the ozone stress signaling cascade. Their upregulation and downregulation are critical for the growth and development of different cereals, namely, rice, wheat, maize, and soybean, under ozone stress. Thus, in this chapter, we discuss the potential roles of the abovementioned phytohormones, their crosstalk with ozone stress tolerance, and possible mechanism to reduce ozone-induced harmful effects, which will ultimately help to minimize ozone-induced yield reduction in cereal crops.KeywordsAir pollutionOzoneCerealsPhytohormonesAntioxidantOxidative stressFood security
... Consequently, their effect on our near-water, underwater, and over-water infrastructure has been both direct and severe. The international panel on climate change (IPCC) has projected an increase (with 66-90% probability) in more intense precipitation events, cyclone winds, and cyclone precipitation intensities, particularly in mid-to-high latitude areas such as Canada and the United States [4]. The IPCC has also predicted a higher probability of an increase in these events for Western North Pacific and North Atlantic [5]. ...
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The risk of bridge scour, or the erosion of bed material around bridge foundations due to flowing water is exacerbated by climatic effects such as flooding and hurricanes. The difficulty in visual inspections of buried and underwater infrastructure elements such as bridge foundations has prompted interest in their real-time monitoring using novel sensory networks. To monitor bridge scour, this study detects the change in dielectric properties of the media near the soil–water interface using an array of discrete capacitance sensors embedded at different locations. The concept was proven using three commercially available capacitance sensors. Two types: stainless steel-type (SS-type) and printed circuit board-type (PCB-type) capacitance sensors were interfaced with an open-source Arduino-based data acquisition unit for real-time monitoring of sediment soil level, sediment scouring, and scour-hole refill in hydraulic flume experiments. Their performance in three different sediment types: uniform sand, silica fume, and gravel was investigated in the flume tests. The results indicate that low-cost low-power capacitive sensors can be used for monitoring scour and scour-hole refill. The sensors were largely immune to changes in sediment type and demonstrated a reliable and repeatable response. Small-scale static tests were also conducted to understand the influence of salinity on sensor response. The PCB-type sensors were susceptible to salinity, whereas the SS-type sensors demonstrated adequate signal differentiation between the salt solution and solution-soil mixtures up to a salinity of 10 ppt. Durability tests were carried out on SS-type sensors, which demonstrated good signal stability for 9 months, even after biofilm development. The SS-type sensors also performed well without any change in signal output after damage/deformation due to simulated debris impact.
... This effect is clearly the case in our study area, with an annual average precipitation of 415 mm, and almost no rainfall during the summer (between 250 and 600 mm; Romão and Escudero 2005;García et al. 2011). Climatic models have predicted a significant decrease in water availability in the Mediterranean basin (Houghton et al. 2001;Polade et al. 2017), which may have dramatic consequences for waterdependent species (Bates et al. 2008). ...
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Context Mediterranean wetland ecosystems are in continuous decline due to human pressure. Amphibians are key elements of biotic communities of Mediterranean temporary ponds and streams, and their persistence depends on the availability and inter-connectivity of breeding sites. Objectives We investigated the role of different factors potentially driving functional connectivity patterns in two amphibian species at the landscape and local scales. We focused on two Mediterranean endemic pond-breeding amphibians inhabiting semi-arid landscapes of central Spain, the common parsley frog (Pelodytes punctatus) and the common midwife toad (Alytes obstetricans). Methods We genotyped 336 individuals of P. punctatus and 318 of A. obstetricans from 17 and 16 breeding populations at 10 and 17 microsatellite loci, respectively. We used remotely sensed vegetation/moisture indices and land use/cover data to derive optimized resistance surfaces and test their association with estimates of gene flow and migration rates across populations. Results We found evidence for higher population connectivity in common midwife toads than in common parsley frogs, with a strong effect of water availability in patterns of population connectivity of both species. However, the two species differ in the role of landscape features on population connectivity, with the distance and spatial distribution of artificial land-use types positively influencing connectivity in A. obstetricans and meadows/pastureland favouring P. punctatus. This is in line with reported breeding site preferences for the two species, with A. obstetricans successfully breeding in artificial water bodies that P. punctatus generally avoid. Conclusions This study highlights the importance of assessing species–habitat relationships shaping connectivity when developing and implementing conservation and management actions to benefit fragmented amphibian populations in the Mediterranean region. Our results show that amphibian species respond differently, even contrastingly to landscape features and thus require alternative, complementary strategies to improve population connectivity and ensure long-term viability.
... The gas of CO 2 , an important component of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, contributes to approximately 63% of global warming [1,2]. Along with CO 2 , N 2 O has a disproportional effect on global warming, which is potentially 298 times greater than that of CO 2 in a 100-year time frame [2]. ...
... Given the highly heterogeneous nature due to vegetation types and climate change, the spatio-temporal changes of CO 2 and N 2 O fluxes are uncertain in the Nanweng River Wetland National Nature Reserve (NRWNNR). The objectives of this study were to: (1) investigate the spatial and temporal variation of CO 2 and N 2 O fluxes in the NRWNNR; and (2) determine the main influences of soil physico-chemical variables on the fluxes of CO 2 and N 2 O. We hypothesized that CO 2 and N 2 O fluxes from the wetlands would vary spatially because of the high environmental heterogeneity creating different microenvironments within the vegetation types. ...
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... There are studies which suggest that the current warming climate may alter the amount, intensity, frequency, and form of precipitation in different parts of the globe (Goswami et al. 2006;IPCC, 2014;Rajeevan et al. 2008). It is believed that the association with recent climate change in terms of increasing temperature and uncertainty of precipitation is expected to adversely affect the agriculture production (Houghton et al. 2001). Thus, a major question of how the yield of wheat would respond to the ongoing warming scenario of the climate needs to be addressed. ...
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... Vulnerability studies focused on many small islands in the Pacific: Houghton et al. [32] showed that the costs of general infrastructure for water supply (e.g., reverse osmosis (RO) desalination plant) and protection are often well beyond the financial possibilities of most small island states. The need to implement measures for reducing vulnerability and increasing resilience of systems to climate variability in small islands was highlighted by Nurse and Moore [33]. ...
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... In the pre anthropogenic age (Pre-1850), the temperature variation was mainly due the solar irradiation and volcanism (Crowley, 2000), but in the post-industrial age, the reason for global warming has accelerated significantly due to the anthropogenic GHG (Houghton et al., 2001;York et al., 2003). Since 1900 the increase rate of global temperature is 0.6 ± 0.2 C has occurred unmatched in the last 1000 years (Matthews et al., 2004;Houghton et al., 2001;Crowley, 2000). ...
... In the pre anthropogenic age (Pre-1850), the temperature variation was mainly due the solar irradiation and volcanism (Crowley, 2000), but in the post-industrial age, the reason for global warming has accelerated significantly due to the anthropogenic GHG (Houghton et al., 2001;York et al., 2003). Since 1900 the increase rate of global temperature is 0.6 ± 0.2 C has occurred unmatched in the last 1000 years (Matthews et al., 2004;Houghton et al., 2001;Crowley, 2000). ...
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The journey from the Stockholm Conference to Kyoto Protocol has been long, whereby the moot point has been to raise awareness and implement policies that would improve the global environment by reducing greenhouse gasses (GHGs). Over the past few decades, apart from some irradiative forces owing to anthropogenic activities, climate change is a stark reality today, endangering the Earth's environment. The Stockholm conference was the first earth summit conceived by the United Nations at Stockholm way back in 1972; the focus was on the conservation and development of the human race and environment. Ever since, several summits on environmental protection have been held, focusing on raising awareness while implementing policies with well-defined objectives aiming to achieve feasible output in reducing the burning of fossil fuel and minimizing the output of GHGs through a mechanism called clean development mechanism (CDM). The concept of CDM came into vogue during the Kyoto Protocol, which was signed in December 1997, and was only effectuated in February 2005. The Kyoto protocol under UNFCCC is a well-defined policy and framework by which one could assess the actual implementation of GHG concentration reduction in the atmosphere. This paper presents the chronology of the progress and the latest status of an agenda and policy that was initiated during the Stockholm conference and was given a structure at the Kyoto protocol.
... Ozone concentration is increasing during past decades, in China up to 200 ppb as indicated by spatiotemporal measurements (Lee et al., 2014;Lu et al., 2020;Sicard et al., 2016;Tao et al., 2019;Yang et al., 2020;Zhang et al., 2019), on which attention is paid for air pollution, greenhouse effect Seviour, 2022). The impact of ozone as a third-most important greenhouse gas on aqueous bodies and subsequent effect on air quality and climate change is less explored compared to other greenhouse gases (CO 2 , and CH 4 ; Houghton, 2001). These facts raise the question, how the deposition of ozone can be influenced by its chemistry at the SML of fresh waters and sea water, and consequently the formation of product compounds . ...
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Ozone (O3) is an important trace gas and oxidant in the atmosphere which sources and sinks are not well understood. In this study we measured the uptake coefficients of O3 (100 ppb) on authentic riverine surface microlayers (SML) collected on three different places on Pearl River in Guangzhou by a vertical wetted wall flow tube reactor which enables to estimate the deposition velocity of O3 on the fresh water surface. The product compounds formed upon interfacial reactions of O3 with the SML have been investigated by a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. About 10 times more product compounds were formed upon ozonolysis on the SML sample collected in a transportation hub close to the Estuary zone compared to the products formed upon ozonolysis on the SML sampled at the upper reach of the river at the periphery of Guangzhou. Moreover, 933 nitrogen (N)‐containing organic compounds which are associated with nitrooxy amines, organonitrates, nitroaromatics, and peroxyacetyl nitrates were formed upon heterogeneous reaction of ozone with the SML collected near the Estuary zone compared to 165 N‐containing compounds formed upon ozonolysis of the SML sample collected at the periphery of the city. Hence, the formed condensed phase product compounds through the reactions of ozone with the riverine SML can affect the freshwater biodiversity. An important fraction of brown carbon compounds was formed, which may be released to the air by wind‐wave interactions and influence the chemical composition of the atmosphere and thus, radiative forcing of the aerosols.
... Environmental change has had a strong effect on ocean physics and chemistry, warming the surface layers and lowering the pH (Houghton et al., 2001;Caldeira and Wickett, 2003). Lower pH brought about by increased atmospheric CO 2 , reduces the concentration of hydroxide and carbonate ions (Orr, 2011), with significant consequences for trace metal speciation (Millero et al., 2009). ...
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Enhanced vertical stratification brought about by warming of the ocean surface is expected to reduce vertical circulation and nutrient input with knock-on effects for phytoplankton. Increased nutrient limitation is one predicted outcome, but how that will impact phytoplankton is uncertain because we do not know how they will adapt. We used copper (Cu) as a model catalytic nutrient to explore the adaptive response of an oceanic diatom to continuous nutrient deprivation in laboratory experiments. Populations of Thalassiosira oceanica maintained under Cu-limiting and sufficient conditions for~380 generations differed significantly in their abilities to grow in medium containing 1 nM Cu. Continued selection for more than 2000 generations increased Cu use efficiency (CuUE) of a low Cu-adapted (LCuA) population by more than 2-fold compared to the control and ancestral populations. The increase in CuUE resulted from a decrease in the amount of cellular Cu required for growth and an increase in the net carbon assimilation rate. Redistribution of cellular Cu and increased efficiency of photosynthetic reactions are hypothesized to explain the fast rates of maximum electron transport of low Cu-adapted cells despite containing less Cu. The results show that adaptation increased resource use efficiency in phytoplankton, which could reduce the impact of increased nutrient deficiency in the future ocean.
... As a result, average temperature is likely to rise faster than the rate at which ecosystems can adapt. Besides, because of CC, a variety of effects such as rises in sealevel, desertification, extinction of rare plant and animal species, shifting of agricultural patterns, and changes in the occurrence of extreme weather have been identified (Houghton et al., 2001). CC is a reality and it is expected to continue. ...
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Having knowledge of Climate Change (CC) and its impacts on agriculture is essential for survival of the world and fulfilling the growing demand for food. Therefore, university graduates as future agricultural experts should have sufficient knowledge on CC and its impacts on agriculture. This study aimed to determine CC Knowledge Levels (CCKL) of candidate graduates and to examine the factors influencing their knowledge levels. The data were collected via a face-to-face survey with 506 students in 16 agricultural economics departments in Turkey. CCKL were determined through a five-point Likert scale statements and using ordered probit model to analyze the factors affecting CCKL. The results of the study revealed that 64.42% of candidate graduate students had high CCKL, whereas 33.2 and 2.37% of them had moderate and low levels. Probit model results showed that the variables of gender, acquiring CC knowledge from university, and number of sufficient academic staffs had statistically positive effects on CCKL of candidate graduates. The research mainly concluded that not all students could achieve sufficient knowledge on climate change from their undergraduate programs. The departments of agricultural economics should include more compulsory courses on CC in their undergraduate program curriculums and employ academic staff with specialization on CC in order to increase the students' CCKL.