Fig 2 - uploaded by Tony Gamble
Content may be subject to copyright.
Color patterns of typical laboratory lineages of Lepidodactylus lugubris. A) Clone A, B) Clone B (speckled lineage), C) Clone B (spotted lineage). 

Color patterns of typical laboratory lineages of Lepidodactylus lugubris. A) Clone A, B) Clone B (speckled lineage), C) Clone B (spotted lineage). 

Contexts in source publication

Context 1
... of Forestry and Wildlife (Permits: EX09-06, EX12-08). Clones A, B, and C are present in Hawaii ( Fig. 2; Stejneger 1899; Cuellar 1984; Zug 2013); however, C clones are markedly rarer ( Moritz et al. 1993). Lepidodactylus lugubris of either A clone or B clone varieties are also readily available in the U.S. and European pet trade (pers. ...
Context 2
... of Forestry and Wildlife (Permits: EX09-06, EX12-08). Clones A, B, and C are present in Hawaii ( Fig. 2; Stejneger 1899; Cuellar 1984; Zug 2013); however, C clones are markedly rarer ( Moritz et al. 1993). Lepidodactylus lugubris of either A clone or B clone varieties are also readily available in the U.S. and European pet trade (pers. ...

Citations

... All ten females of L. lugubris clone A (clones were assigned according to Griffing et al., 2018) examined in this study had a triploid karyotype with 66 acrocentric/subtelocentric chromosomes (Fig. S1A), which is consistent with the karyotype reported by Trifonov et al. (2015). Mapping of the telomeric TTAGGG motif by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) revealed the standard telomeric distribution without any interstitial telomeric sites (ITSs) (Fig. S1B). ...
... In support, two of the parthenogenetic species studied by us (L. lugubris and H. typus) are very prolific (Deso et al., 2007;Griffing et al., 2018) and, in contrast to their sexual relatives, have a wide distribution and are able to establish successful populations outside their native ranges. The L. lugubris complex is even considered to be one of the most-successful reptile invaders (Bomford et al., 2009). ...
Article
Obligate parthenogenesis evolved in reptiles convergently several times, mostly through interspecific hybridization. The obligate parthenogenetic complexes typically include both diploid and triploid lineages. Offspring of the parthenogenetic hybrids are genetic copies of their mothers; however, the cellular mechanism enabling the production of unreduced cells is largely unknown. Here, we document that oocytes go through meiosis in three widespread, or even strongly invasive, obligate parthenogenetic complexes of geckos, namely in diploid and triploid Lepidodactylus lugubris, and triploid Hemiphyllodactylus typus and Heteronotia binoei. In all these four lineages, the majority of oocytes enter the pachytene at the original ploidy level, but their chromosomes cannot pair properly and form univalents, bivalents and multivalents. Unreduced eggs with clonally inherited genomes are formed from germ cells that had undergone premeiotic endoreplication, where proper segregation is ensured by the formation of bivalents made from copies of identical chromosomes. We conclude that the induction of premeiotic endoreplication was in reptiles independently co-opted at least four times as an essential component of parthenogenetic reproduction and that this mechanism enables the emergence of fertile polyploid lineages within parthenogenetic complexes.
... This species was not included in Bauer's [17] investigation because it was thought to be extinct and only 're-discovered' in the mid-1990s [41,42]. To compare tail development, we collected embryos of C. ciliatus and embryos of a digital pad-bearing, but non-adhesive-tailed gecko (Lepidodactylus lugubris) following protocols of Sanger et al. [43] and Griffing et al. [44], respectively. Embryos from both species were collected from captive colonies housed at Marquette University. ...
... Embryos from both species were collected from captive colonies housed at Marquette University. Protocols for gecko husbandry are detailed elsewhere [37,44]. Using 286 collected embryos, we produced an embryonic staging series for C. ciliatus, the first staging series for any pygopodoid gecko, using published gecko staging series as a reference [45,46]. ...
Article
Among the most specialized integumentary outgrowths in amniotes are the adhesive, scale-like scansors and lamellae on the digits of anoles and geckos. Less well-known are adhesive tail pads exhibited by 21 gecko genera. While described over 120 years ago, no studies have quantified their possible adhesive function or described their embryonic development. Here, we characterize adult and embryonic morphology and adhesive performance of crested gecko ( Correlophus ciliatus ) tail pads. Additionally, we use embryonic data to test whether tail pads are serial homologues to toe pads. External morphology and histology of C . ciliatus tail pads are largely similar to tail pads of closely related geckos. Functionally, C . ciliatus tail pads exhibit impressive adhesive ability, hypothetically capable of holding up to five times their own mass. Tail pads develop at approximately the same time during embryogenesis as toe pads. Further, tail pads exhibit similar developmental patterns to toe pads, which are markedly different from non-adhesive gecko toes and tails. Our data provide support for the serial homology of adhesive tail pads with toe pads.
... Therefore, regarding to incubation temperature, all clutches experienced a stable condition throughout the study period. Considering that the incubation period of L. lugubris ranges from 60 to 117 days from the oviposition date (Ota, 1994;Griffing et al., 2018), I set the border line of hatching success on 150 days from the estimated oviposition date. Upon finding a hatchling gecko, I measured the SVL (mm) using a digital calliper (accurate to 0.01 mm) and body mass (mg) using an electrical balance (accurate to 0.1 mg). ...
... Several lineages of geckos (Gekkonidae, Phyllodactylidae and Sphaerodactylidae members) produce rigid-shelled eggs, and the egg mass decreases during incubation because of the diffusion of water vapour (Dunson, 1982;Andrews, 2012;Meiri, 2019). In addition, the double-egg of L. lugubris is closely adhered to each other, while the single-egg is glued to only substrate (Griffing et al., 2018). Considering that the single-egg has larger surface area exposed to the ambient air than the double-egg, it may lose much water and the embryos may suffer from drying. ...
Article
Although the majority of reptiles show variable clutch sizes, geckos have a fixed clutch size (one or two eggs) and modify reproductive output by changing the offspring size or clutch frequency. However, the clutch size of several geckos is not strictly fixed at the species level; they actually lay both single- and double-egg clutches. We still do not fully understand if clutch size variation within a gecko species is due to adaptive control or reproductive failure like accidental absorption of one of two eggs. This study investigated differences between single- and double-egg clutches of a gecko species in terms of reproductive frequency, egg size, and offspring trait. I housed mourning geckos Lepidodactylus lugubris in a controlled environment and observed their reproduction for seven years. No large differences between single- and double-egg clutches were detected in reproductive frequency and egg size, indicating that life-history trade-offs do not explain much about clutch size variation. Single-egg was comparable in egg size to double-egg, but hatchlings from single-egg showed significantly lower body condition than did those from double-egg. These results suggest that the single-egg is not only a reduction of reproductive output per clutch, but it may provide negative effect on ontogeny.
... Lepidodactylus lugubris Duméril & Bibron, 1836 is a small lizard with a great capacity for colonization thanks to parthenogenetic reproduction, synanthropic behaviors, and resistance of its eggs to desiccation and saltwater spray (Cuellar and Kluge 1972;Brown and Duffy 1992;Griffing et al. 2018). This nocturnal species is widely distributed throughout the Indo-Pacific region (Bauer and Henle 1994). ...
Article
Full-text available
In Chile, the presence of Mourning Gecko, Lepidodactylus lugubris Duméril & Bibron, 1836 has been recognized for Easter Island (Rapa Nui) from late 19 th century. Here, we report the first observation of a juvenile specimen of L. lugubris in an urban zone of Santiago, Región Metropolitana, mainland Chile, representing the southernmost non-insular record in America for this invasive species. Moreover, an updated distributional map of L. lugubris for South America and the Antilles is provided.
... One such reptilian species that is infamously known for its adaptable invasive character is the mourning gecko Lepidodactylus lugubris (Duméril & Bibron, 1836). In recent decades, it has established self-sustaining populations in suitable habitats of the tropics 32 with the establishment of various clonal lineages 33 . Its invasion success, despite the rare occurrence of sexual reproduction, is mostly based on its parthenogenetic and thus rapid reproduction rate outgoing from just one individual, with mature females producing a clutch of roughly two eggs every 14-63 days 34,35 . ...
... artificial light sources 37 ) and adjust its feeding activity and activity patterns by predating close to these light sources 32,62,63 . The difference in activity time 33,59 , considering the similar feeding response behaviour, could be a potential intra-species avoidance mechanism, supporting thepotential of this species to establish and become invasive. Indeed, as the current distribution of this species substantially derives from the pet trade, it can be assumed that these organisms are accustomed to anthropogenic disturbances. ...
... Considering its vast distribution and presence in the pet trade, L. lugubris is prone to occur in the wild outside of its natural range 33,63 . However, while it seems to suffer from competition with other gecko species 68 , its ongoing spread and capacity to become invasive seem mostly limited by climatic conditions 37 . ...
Article
Full-text available
The direct effects of temperature increases and differences among life-history might affect the impacts of native and invasive predators on recipient communities. Comparisons of functional responses can improve our understanding of underlying processes involved in altering species interaction strengths and may predict the effect of species invading new communities. Therefore, we investigated the functional responses of the mourning gecko Lepidodactylus lugubris (Duméril & Bibron, 1836) to explore how temperature, body-size and prey density alter gecko predatory impacts in ecosystems. We quantified the functional responses of juvenile and adult geckos in single-predator experiments at 20, 23 and 26 °C. Both displayed saturating Type-II functional responses, but juvenile functional responses and the novel Functional Response Ratio were positively affected by temperature as juvenile attack rates (a) increased as a function of increased temperature. Handling times (h) tended to shorten at higher temperature for both predator stages. We demonstrate that the effects of temperature on functional responses of geckos differ across ontogeny, perhaps reflecting life-history stages prioritising growth and maturation or body maintenance. This indicates that temperature-dependent gecko predatory impacts will be mediated by population demographics. We advocate further comparisons of functional responses to understand the invasiveness and future predatory impacts of geckos, and other invasive species globally, as temperatures change.
... Because embryos of S. leonardoveldesi were unavailable, we collected embryos of S. macrolepis as a congeneric proxy. We collected embryos (N = 229) following protocols described by Griffing et al. [27]. To briefly summarize, we removed embryos from eggs using #5 watchmaker's forceps while immersed in diethyl pyrocarbonate (DEPC) treated, RNase free 1% phosphatebuffered saline, and visualized and photographed using a Nikon SMZ 74ST stereoscope. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Evolutionary transitions in temporal niche necessitates specialized morphology, physiology, and behaviors. Diurnal, heliothermic squamates (lizards and snakes) that bask require protection from ultraviolet radiation (UV) that can damage internal organs such as the brain, viscera, and gonads. Many smaller squamates have accomplished this protection by hyperpigmentation of the peritoneum and subcutaneous dorsum. Typically, nocturnal species do not require these protections from ultraviolet light. However, some nocturnal species that exhibit extreme crypsis may be exposed to sunlight and UV and require some means of mediating that damage. One such species is Gekko (Ptychozoon) kuhli, a nocturnal, arboreal gecko that uses extreme crypsis to blend in with tree bark. Hiding motionless on tree trunks leaves geckos exposed to sunlight during the day. Thus, we predict that G. kuhli will have independently evolved a hyperpigmented phenotype. To investigate this hypothesized association between temporal niche, behavior, and morphology, we characterized adult subcutaneous pigment for eight gecko species and embryonic pigment accumulation for a subset of four of these species, exhibiting diverse temporal niche and thermoregulatory behaviors. We predicted that nocturnal/potentially-heliothermic G. kuhli would exhibit hyperpigmentation of internal structures like that of diurnal/heliothermic geckos. We further predicted that embryonic pigment accumulation of G. kuhli would resemble that of diurnal/heliothermic as opposed to nocturnal/thigmothermic geckos. Results: We found that temporal niche and thermoregulatory behavior predicted the degree of subcutaneous pigment in the eight gecko species examined. We demonstrate that G. kuhli accumulates pigment extremely early in embryonic development, unlike a diurnal/heliothermic gecko species, despite having a similar adult phenotype. Conclusions: The evolution of hyperpigmentation in G. kuhli is likely an adaptation to limit damage from occasional daytime UV exposure caused by crypsis-associated basking behavior. Gekko kuhli achieves its hyperpigmented phenotype through a derived developmental pattern, not seen in any other lizard species investigated to date, suggesting novel temporal differences in the migration and/or differentiation of reptilian neural crest derivatives.
... Logistically, many gecko species have simple protocols for their husbandry, can be reared in space-efficient enclosures, and have an increasing number of genomic resources that are available or in development. [18][19][20][21][22][23][24] Of more than 1800 described species of gecko, 25 the Mourning Gecko (Lepidodactylus lugubris) stands out as an ideal model to study developmental questions. Lepidodactylus lugubris is a small-bodied gecko native to Southeast Asia and nearly all Pacific islands. ...
... Lepidodactylus lugubris is a small-bodied gecko native to Southeast Asia and nearly all Pacific islands. 18,26,27 This species belongs to the pan-Asian Gekko clade of gekkonid lizards, including the charismatic gliding geckos (Ptychozoon), flap-legged geckos (Luperosaurus), true geckos (Gekko), and slender geckos (Pseudogekko 15,28,29 ). Like many other species in this clade, L. lugubris exhibits distally divided basal toe pads, which facilitate digital adhesion. ...
... We collected a post-ovipositional ontogenetic series of 242 embryos from a captive colony of L. lugubris, housed at Marquette University (Milwaukee, Wisconsin; IACUC protocol AR-279). The colony includes A and B clonal lineages as well as both diploid and triploid clones 18 and we do not distinguish among them here. Incubation times of L. lugubris are known to range between 65 dpo and 103 dpo when incubated at 25.5 C and 22.0 C, respectively. ...
Article
Background: One goal of evolutionary developmental biology is to understand the role of development in the origin of phenotypic novelty and convergent evolution. Geckos are an ideal system to study this topic as they are species-rich and exhibit a suite of diverse morphologies - many of which have independently evolved multiple times within geckos. Results: We characterized and discretized the embryonic development of Lepidodactylus lugubris - an all-female, parthenogenetic gecko species. We also used soft-tissue μCT to characterize the development of the brain and central nervous system, which is difficult to visualize using traditional microscopy techniques. Additionally, we sequenced and assembled a de novo transcriptome for a late-stage embryo as a resource for generating future developmental tools. Herein we describe the derived and conserved patterns of L. lugubris development in the context of squamate evolution and development. Conclusions: This embryonic staging series, μCT data, and transcriptome together serve as critical enabling resources to study morphological evolution and development, the evolution and development of parthenogenesis, and other questions concerning vertebrate evolution and development in an emerging gecko model. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... Herein, we report the first record of L. lugubris from the Turks and Caicos Islands and two additional locations in the Bahamas situated ~210 km ESE and ~344 km SE of the location reported by Krysko & MacKenzie-Krysko (2016). We believe that our new records of L. lugubris are clone type A based on external morphology (Yamashiro et al. 2000;Hoogmoed & Avila-Pires 2015;Ineich 2015;Griffing et al. 2018) and that is consistent with individuals reported from nearby locations (Krys- ko & MacKenzie-Krysko 2016;Bosch & Paez 2017 1B; photo voucher ESUP R00231). Two of the seven adults were found under a small clump of wet plastic lodged in the crotch of a mature Coccoloba uvifera. ...
Article
Geckos are a large infraorder of small lizards that comprise over 1300 species. The leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius) is by far the most popular species of captive gecko. This chapter discusses the husbandry, clinical conditions, basic intervention techniques, common infectious and non‐infectious conditions of various species of geckos, including Tokay geckos, Day geckos, mourning geckos, African fat‐tail geckos, and crested geckos. The basic intervention techniques include nutritional support, anaesthesia, fluid therapy, and euthanasia. The non‐infectious conditions cover anorexia, nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism, ophthalmic disease, neurological disease, and reproductive disorders. The infectious conditions include endoparasites, dermatitis, and viral infections. Preventative health measures are limited in geckos. In most cases focus is mainly on intestinal parasite screening and maintaining good standards of husbandry to reduce incidence of many of the common diseases.
Article
Full-text available
Lepidodactylus lugubris is a parthenogenetic gecko which has been increasingly expanding its range during the last century. This invasive species has been reported from multiple tropical and subtropical countries in five continents, most of which were colonized in recent times. In order to understand how the realized niche of the species was affected by this dramatic geographic range expansion, we reconstructed the history of the geographic range expansion. We built models of the realized niche of the species at different points in time during the invasion process. This was achieved through the implementation of modern hypervolume construction methods, based on the Hutchinson’s niche concept. The models were then compared to detect possible realized climatic niche expansion over time. Furthermore, we investigated possible pathways used by the species to spread. A progressive expansion of the realized niche was identified. As the species spread into new areas, we observed a tendency to colonize regions with warmer temperatures and higher precipitation rates. Finally, we found evidence for cargo shipping being the major pathway through which the species expands its range. Further studies on this topic should aim to investigate the role of biological interactions, and how they shape the distribution of L. lugubris on a global scale. A deeper understanding of this kind of processes will help us tackle the issue of invasive species, which has become a major challenge in conservation biology.