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Cognitive Domain: Bloom's Taxonomy of Learning Objectives

Cognitive Domain: Bloom's Taxonomy of Learning Objectives

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This article focuses on the research associated with the assessment of the cognitive learning that occurs through participation in a simulation exercise. It summarizes the objective evidence regarding cognitive learning versus the perceptions of cognitive learning achieved as reported by participants and instructors. The authors also explain why li...

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... on the cognitive domain was aided by Gentry and Burns (1981), who provided descriptions of learning and the assessment process for the six levels in the cognitive domain. These descriptions, shown in Table 1, have served as guides for researchers for the past 25 years. ...

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... The extant literature demonstrates that the use of simulation in higher instruction can surge student's motivation (Koh et al., 2010); emotional connection results because of the application of a constructivist approach (Olfat et al., 2013), cultivates collaborative work abilities (Shah et al., 2019), and encourages decision-making, critical thinking, and problemsolving (Pirker & Gütl, 2015). Anderson and Lawton (2009) alongwith Ranchhod et al. (2014) extant a solution of utilizing simulations and simulation-based games for business value realization. ...
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Simulations in higher education serve as an effective pedagogical tool to surge learners’ motivation and support in harnessing 21st-century skills. However, the cost of the software required expertise, and its complexity is some of the deterrents to its smooth adoption. It rarely allows you to learn what is happening in the background. How are the decision variables linked and affected? This research proposes and tests system dynamic (SD) based simulation modelling based on Sterman (2000) to investigate the use of simulation as a pedagogy to showcase growth in population(demand-side), its relationship to residential construction (supply-side), and finally predicts the total residential construction spending. The simulation case depicts a real-life business scenario where users are able to dynamically vary the decision variable values, and visualize its effect on dependent variables and the overall impact on the simulation goal. Even students and non-Economist can efficiently perform quality analyses for experiential learning.
... The term "simulation" refers to several types of guided learning experiences artificially resembling reality, where teacher participants can exercise their skills interactively and dynamically, and cope with challenges in a learner-centered experience focused on the individual needs of each learner (Anderson & Lawton, 2009;Dieker et al., 2014;Karlen et al., 2020;Kramarski, 2018). Studies have found that simulations can assist in the practical assimilation of theory. ...
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... A number of platforms claim to employ game-based approaches, including variations of the persuasive technology techniques reviewed here, for the purposes of comprehension and awareness development. However, reviews [17], [18] show that most of them still fall short of verifying whether they help their users grasp the knowledge that they claim to convey. This is a problem that has been widely discussed in relation to learning technologies and Laurillard [19] has proposed a framework to compare the taught object being presented to the understood object actually being comprehended. ...
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... BSGs are also suitable for raising awareness of various types of risks [4]. BSGs are suitable to support business students since it is expected that business students should have the opportunity to become more experienced and astute decision makers in uncertain situations [5]. While traditional lectures are ideal to provide definitions, concepts and theory, decision making is an empirical process [6]. ...
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... It is interesting that students attach greater importance to the acquisition of competencies in the field of managerial experience and the understanding of the relationship between economic variables. In contrast, the development of analytical skills through simulation games is not positively perceived by students from the perspective of the teacher (game moderator), which is also documented in research studies [14,35,41,43]. ...
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... Therefore, learning effectiveness can be identified as the comprehensive set of a student's learning outcomes (Li & Liang, 2020). A multi-period, problem-based simulation learning approach gives deeper and longer-lasting interdisciplinary application and learning than traditional deductive methods such as lectures, rote memorization, and tests (Miller, 2004;Brownwell & Jameson, 2004;Anderson & Lawton, 2008). Simulations can also encourage students to actively evaluate and employ cross-domain business knowledge within complicated decision-making environments that commonly occur in the real world (Gatti et al., 2019;Hernández-Lara, Perera-Lluna, & Serradell-López, 2019;Pérez-Pérez et al., 2021). ...
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... The term "simulation" refers to several types of guided learning experiences artificially resembling reality, where teacher participants can exercise their skills interactively and dynamically, and cope with challenges in a learner-centered experience focused on the individual needs of each learner (Anderson & Lawton, 2009;Dieker et al., 2014;Karlen et al., 2020;Kramarski, 2018). Studies have found that simulations can assist in the practical assimilation of theory. ...
Chapter
העידן הפוסט-מודרני מעמיד אתגר בפני המערכת החינוכית בכללותה, ובפני המוסדות להכשרת מורים ולפיתוח מקצועי בפרט, שכן התפתחות הידע המואצת מחייבת את המורים להיות 'לומדים לאורך החיים' ((Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2013 ולפתח מיומנויות של לומד עצמאי הן כמורה והן אצל התלמיד תוך התנסות בפרקטיקות הוראה מתאימות לדרישות העידן החדש. לדעת חוקרים, הקושי המרכזי של מורים הוא בקישור בין הידע ופרקטיקות ההוראה הנלמדים בתוכניות ההכשרה והפיתוח המקצועי לבין ההוראה בפועל בזמן אמת בכיתה ((Kramarski, 2018. אחת מהמיומנויות המרכזיות במאה ה-21 היא טיפוח לומד עצמאי פעיל בעל הכוונה עצמית בלמידה (Self-Regulated Learning – SRL; Zimmerman, 2013). הכוונה עצמית בלמידה ובהוראה היא היכולת של הלומד/מורה להציב לעצמו מטרות, לבחור אסטרטגיות פעולה, להיות מודע למחשבותיו, להרגשותיו ולהתנהגותו במהלך הלמידה או ההוראה, לפקח עליהן ולנהל אותן כדי להשיג את מטרותיו. הכוונה עצמית היא תהליך מורכב ודינמי, שבו הלומד (מורה או תלמיד) נמצא במרכז הלמידה מבחינה קוגניטיבית, מטה-קוגניטיבית ומוטיבציונית-רגשית (Zimmerman, 2013). מחקרים הראו כי מיומנויות של לומד עצמאי בעל הכוונה עצמית אינן מתפתחות באופן ספונטני, ונדרשת סביבת למידה מתאימה שמאפשרת לטפח מיומנויות אלו (Maghfiroh, Subchan, & Iqbal, 2017). מרבית המחקרים על סביבות למידה שתומכות בהכוונה עצמית נערכו בקרב תלמידים ובקרב פרחי הוראה בלבד, אך מעט מחקרים נערכו בקרב מורים בפועל העוסקים בתהליכי הטמעה של פרקטיקות הוראה המעודדות לומד בעל הכוונה עצמית בכיתה בזמן אמת (Dignath & Büttner, 2018; Mevarech & Kramarski, 2014). על פי הספרות המחקרית, מיומנויות של לומד בעל הכוונה עצמית (SRL) ניתן לטפח בסביבה המאפשרת למידה אקטיבית. עבור מורים, סביבת למידה כזו כוללת חוויות הוראה אותנטיות העשויות לספק להם כלים לגשר על הפער בין התיאוריה למעשה, ולסייע בידם להשתמש בפרקטיקות ההוראה שנלמדות בתוכניות ההכשרה בהוראה בפועל (Kramarski, 2018; Van Driel, Beijaard & Verloop, 2001; Vermunt, 2016). במחקר הנוכחי התמקדנו בסביבת למידה ייחודית המשלבת סימולציות והכוונה עצמית, ומאפשרת את טיפוחו של המורה כלומד עצמאי (SRL) ואת הטמעת הפרקטיקות הנחוצות להוראה שבה התלמיד במרכז הלמידה, הן בעת התנסות בפועל בזמן אמת בסימולציה והן בעת העברת שיעור בכיתה.
... Many studies and reviews of educational games have focused on students' perceptions of outcomes such as satisfaction, motivation, perceived ability or perceived learning. Research that examines participants' affective reactions has found that students tend to like educational games, feel they have benefitted from playing and view them more positively than lectures and case discussions (Anderson & Lawton, 2009;Faria, 2001;Koli c-Vehovec et al., 2019). Whether student perceptions are suited for evaluating the success of educational games depends on the outcome studied and the purpose of using games in education (Bacon, 2016). ...
... Conversely, measures of actual knowledge rely on direct evidence of learning (Anderson & Lawton, 2009), occasionally called "objective" evaluations (e.g., Schumann et al., 2014). This term is somewhat imprecise, as any assessment is subjective by being situated in the assessment developer's and interpreter's perspectives. ...
... Competence improvements from games potentially cover both lower cognitive levels, such as knowing theory and terminology, and higher levels, such as applying knowledge across contexts and integrating multiple curriculum objectives into a larger whole. Yet, games are generally inefficient for learning terminology and theory compared with lectures (Anderson & Lawton, 2009). This finding contradicts the earlier mentioned game purpose of combatting disengagement among students who find terminology and theory uninspiring. ...
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Background The development and promotion of educational games are still outpacing knowledge of these games' effects, raising calls for evidence of benefits and challenges. Studies suggest that students and teachers like games, but the payoff of the investment in terms of increased motivation and achievement remains unclear. Objectives This study investigates the pure effect of a marketing simulation game on motivation, perceived learning and achievement, above and beyond regular student‐active instruction. Methods We applied a randomized, controlled experiment in a marketing course in upper‐secondary schools (Nclasses = 22; Nstudents = 433) comparing a collaborative–competitive marketing simulation game with regular, case‐based, student‐active instruction on three groups of outcome measures: motivation, perceived ability, and achievement. Additionally, students and teachers provided quantitative and qualitative feedback on game experiences. Results and Conclusions We showcase the importance of a robust study design with valid compound instruments. Moreover, investigations of the game implementation and experiences reveal insights about intervention timing, differential negative consequences by gender and need for reflection opportunities. We find no clear evidence of positive or negative effects of the game, despite students' and teachers' satisfaction. Implications Beyond the effect evaluation, we offer recommendations to researchers and developers of educational games about scaffolding, timing and teacher competence building.
... Over 1200 related papers were published between 1960 and 2019 alone (Hallinger and Wang, 2020). Virtual simulation games have been based on the experiential learning theory (Kolb, 1983), combined with the organization theory and the game theory, to design rules and algorithms (Sterman, 1994;Geurts et al., 2007), which is widely used in business education (Keys and Wolfe, 1990;Wolfe, 1993;Anderson and Lawton, 2009;Faria et al., 2009). The teaching method of virtual simulation game has also been recently applied in entrepreneurship education in many colleges and universities, and has been demonstrated to effectively improve the investment and learning performance of college students in entrepreneurship learning (Kriz and Auchter, 2016;Charrouf and Janan, 2019;Isabelle, 2020;Zulfiqar et al., 2021). ...
... Cognitive investment refers to the use of deep learning methods and strategies, with intrinsic learning motivation, emotional investment refers to the interest and satisfaction of learning and the relationship with teachers and peers, and behavioral investment refers to the participation in in-class and out-of-class learning activities related to behavior (Fredricks et al., 2004). In general, learning results include increases in knowledge, improvements in ability and changes in attitude (Anderson and Lawton, 2009). Since the focus of the virtual simulation game adopted in the present study was on the application of knowledge and improvement of analytical and decision-making ability, entrepreneurial skill development was measured as an indicator of learning results. ...
... As confirmed by a large number of studies, simulated game experience can effectively improve students' participation and learning outcomes (Anderson and Lawton, 2009;Beltrão and Barçante, 2015;Kriz and Auchter, 2016;Liberona and Rojas, 2017;Charrouf and Janan, 2019;Isabelle, 2020;Mirjana et al., 2020;Kauppinen and Choudhary, 2021;Zulfiqar et al., 2021). Thus, the following hypotheses are proposed in the present study: ...
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With the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic, virtual simulation games have provided an effective teaching method for online entrepreneurship education. By exploring the mechanisms that influence student engagement and learning outcomes from different perspectives, such as game design, team and individual perspectives, numerous scholars have demonstrated that such a teaching method can effectively improve students’ engagement and learning performance. However, the existing studies are relatively scattered, and there is a scarcity of studies in which the effects of said factors are considered. Based on the learning process 3P model (presage-process-product) proposed by Biggs (1993) , students’ perceived experience of game design, teamwork and self-efficacy were taken as variables in the early learning stage in the present study, and the influence mechanism of virtual simulation game learning experience on students’ engagement and entrepreneurial skill development was explored, so as to close the gap in existing research. In the present study, 177 college students from Chinese universities were surveyed and the data were surveyed using AMOS 23.0 software. Although the empirical results show that students’ “goal and feedback” and “alternative” experience of game design did not have a significant positive impact on students’ engagement, there was a direct and significant effect the development of entrepreneurial skills. Students’ experience of teamwork and general self-efficacy could not only directly and significantly affect the development of entrepreneurial skills, but also indirectly affect the development of entrepreneurial skills through learning engagement. The research results are practically significant for teachers in the selection and development of virtual simulation games, can be effectively applied in teaching process management, and can improve students’ engagement and learning performance.
... In this sense, business simulations can be considered effective for improving business skills (Greco and Murgia, 2007;Rachman-Moore and Kennett, 2006). Some authors argue that assessment methodologies lack scientific rigor and that it is difficult to demonstrate that learning takes place through simulation (Gosen and Washbush, 2004;Anderson and Lawton, 2009). ...
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The development of digital infrastructure and digital entrepreneurship is a problem of harmonizing initiatives and programs of the evolution of three levels: telecommunication infrastructure, data management, services and digital skills and competencies. Focus and resources at one level or another are determined by the priorities of digital ecosystem. Thus, digital regulator is a tool for harmonization and development of digital ecosystem. Digital entrepreneurship operates with entities similar to traditional entrepreneurship, such as capital, resources, people. The driving force of digital entrepreneurship is human capital – that is, knowledge, talents, skills, abilities, competencies, experience, intelligence of people. The rapid spread of digital technologies makes digital skills of citizens key among other skills. Digitalization and cross-platformisation are currently the main trends in labor market. In other words, the ability to work with digital technologies delivered by Industry 4.0 is gradually becoming permanent and necessary for most specializations, i.e. end-to-end or cross-platform. The uniqueness of digital competencies lies in the fact that thanks to them citizens can more effectively acquire competencies in many other areas (for example, learning languages, subjects, professions, etc.). The goal pursued in the course of teaching digital entrepreneurship is revealed through the implementation of the following issues: • What to teach? (answer – new digital competencies and skills); • Why to teach? (answer – to modernise content); • How to teach? (answer – effectively use of digital technology); • Where to teach? (answer – in a new space, a new augmented reality); • Who should teach? (answer – teachers-coaches, mentors, teachers-practitioners in digital entrepreneurship); • What is the result? (answer – high value of the graduates in the labor market, specialists with high quality competencies and skills in digital entrepreneurship). Using of methodological recommendations in the course of education of students on the peculiarities of the content of teaching digital entrepreneurship allows the teacher: to master new methods, techniques, technologies of digital learning in new virtual reality; to acquire digital business competencies in alignment with Industry 4.0 and highly specialized business level. This should be done in order to train professionals who have the required quality, the required business of the 21st century, the level of digital skills and abilities that effectively and safely use digital technology to solve business problems. For these reasons, it is important to use the latest methods in the field of education to increase the level of competence in digital entrepreneurship, namely teachers of economics and business, its compliance with approved European standards, which is what these guidelines for teaching digital entrepreneurship.