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Cocoa Producing States in Nigeria Source: NCDC (2010) and Afolayan (2016)

Cocoa Producing States in Nigeria Source: NCDC (2010) and Afolayan (2016)

Source publication
Article
Full-text available
Pre-independent in Nigeria, cocoa was one of the main source of revenue but lost its glory to the discovery, exploration and exploitation of crude oil, especially from the 70s onwards. Despite the rapid growth in its production and positive impact in the nation’s economy, cocoa production has been witnessing drastic reduction when compared with per...

Contexts in source publication

Context 1
... in 1988, cocoa output increased from 100,000 metric tonnes in 1986 to 230,000 tonnes, 203, 000 tonnes to 323,000 tonnes from1994 to 1995 and 225,000 tonnes (1999) to 338,000 tonnes (2000). The percentage for the three years was approximately 130%, 59.1% and 50.2% positive change above the previous years ( figure 1). The situation of cocoa production and exportation in Nigeria is calling for attention due to the increase in the rate of importation. ...
Context 2
... in 1988, cocoa output increased from 100,000 metric tonnes in 1986 to 230,000 tonnes, 203, 000 tonnes to 323,000 tonnes from1994 to 1995 and 225,000 tonnes (1999) to 338,000 tonnes (2000). The percentage for the three years was approximately 130%, 59.1% and 50.2% positive change above the previous years ( figure 1). The situation of cocoa production and exportation in Nigeria is calling for attention due to the increase in the rate of importation. ...

Citations

... Akwa Ibom is one of the cocoa-producing states in Nigeria; it produced about 1.25 metric tons of cocoa beans during the 2011/2012 season (Afolayan, 2020). According to Nsekpong (2016), cocoa can be cultivated in 21 out of the 31 Local Government Areas of the State. ...
... According to Afolayan (2020), pest/disease attack is another major problem faced by cocoa farmers. This adds significantly to the cost of production, and if left uncontrolled or unchecked, can lead to serious loss. ...
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Chapter
Social interactions have continued to shape and constrain the quality and quantity of cocoa produced in Nigeria since its introduction in the last quarter of the nineteenth century. Farmers and other actors in the downstream sector of cocoa react differently to the changing experiences and realities that affect their livelihood. While several studies have focused on enhancing the productivity level in the cocoa sector, there is a paucity of research on the often taken-for-granted day-to-day interactions and nuances underscoring cocoa production in the country. This chapter, therefore, contributes to knowledge by interrogating how cultural practices and social constructs from the interactions of actors in cocoa production processes affect the development of the cocoa sector. This chapter is based on an interpretive research approach, analyses and discussions within Social Action Theory (SAT). Ethnographic and secondary data were used. This chapter questions how the actions, inactions, and interactions of various interactors might be consequential for the prospects of cocoa production in Nigeria. Issues relating to colonialism, social networks, labour, government policies, migration and gender dynamics are examined in context. The chapter concludes that lived experiences of farmers, normative forces of production and social construction of values are vital to charting sustainable pathways for cocoa production in Nigeria.
... Cocoa is one of the most important perennial tree crops grown in tropical climates around the equator. It is also a highly valuable and important economic crop because it provides employment and income to farmers, raw materials for industries and foreign exchange for producing countries such as Nigeria (Afolayan, 2020). Studies show that 90% of the world's cocoa beans are produced in small, family-run farms of less than 6 ha of acreage, with only 5% yield coming from big farmsteads of 50 ha or more. ...
... Cocoa is commonly grown in the southern belt of Nigeria because of the soil and weather conditions that are favourable to its cultivation. It is generally agreed that all the states in southwestern Nigeria are cocoa producing states, with the only exception being Lagos, which according to Afolayan (2020), does not produce cocoa in "commercial quantity." Ondo, Osun and Cross River top the list of producer states with an annual production of 77,000, 70,000, and 65,000 metric tons apiece. ...
... Ondo, Osun and Cross River top the list of producer states with an annual production of 77,000, 70,000, and 65,000 metric tons apiece. But of all the cocoa growing states in the country, Ondo State is the leading producer of the crop (Oluyole, 2005;Afolayan, 2020;Ajayi et al., 2010). ...
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Article
The study investigated COVID-19 pandemic awareness and coping strategies of cocoa farmers in Ondo State of Southwestern Nigeria. Random sampling technique was used to select cocoa farmers in the study area. A total of fifty cocoa farmers (respondents) were purposively selected from Ile-Oluji/Oke-Igbo local government area of the state. Information was collected from the selected farmers with the aid of well-structured questionnaires and the data retrieved from forty-six cocoa farmers collected were analysed with descriptive statistics and chi-square analysis. The result of the analysis showed that 76.1% of the farmers are above the age of 41 years, 78.3% are males while 76.1% are married. Similarly, 78.3% of the cocoa farmers have 4-6 children in the household, 26.1% had secondary education, 43.5% have 16 to 20 years farming experience while 73.9% lived in condominiums or housing units where residents are herded together thereby predisposing them to the risk of the contagion. Most of the respondents (95.7%) had low income or sales during covid-19 pandemic, 78.3% ate food three times before covid-19 while 15.2% ate three times during the pandemic. 89.1% did not have enough food at home during the lockdown and 95.6% did not have enough money to buy food during the pandemic. Majority of the respondents (96%) were aware of the occurrence of COVID-19, 69.6% of the respondents coped by relying on less expensive food during the lockdown, 56.5% reduced their food consumption due to income loss, 63% reduced the number of meals eaten daily while 67.4% reduced the portion or size of meal daily during COVID-19. The chi-square test also showed that a significant relationship exists between farmers’ awareness and coping strategies to covid-19 as well as the quality and type of food they consumed.
... Cocoa is produced in six states in Southwest Nigeria, Ondo, Osun, Ekiti, Ogun, Oyo and Edo State with (Ondo and Osun) grouped as high producing states, while the medium producing (Ogun, Oyo and Ekiti) States. Ondo States records an output capacity estimated at 92,200 metric tonnes per annum while Osun State produces 74,100 metric tonnes in 2011/2012 (Afolayan, 2020). The map of the study area, Southwest, Nigeria, Ondo and Osun State were represented in Figure 1, 2 and 3 respectively. ...
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Article
In this study, we examined the determinants of acceptance of EU approved pesticides in Nigeria where several conditional logit models of cocoa farmers utility function were estimated using a choice experiment data conducted in Nigeria. We also used the conditional logit model to examine the influence of socioeconomic and economic benefits information variables on acceptance of EU approved pesticides among the cocoa farmers. Results showed that the cocoa farmers valued the EU approved pesticides more than the banned pesticides. The result of the effect of socioeconomic variables on acceptance of EU approved pesticides showed that gender, household income, farm size and access to credit significantly influence the acceptance of EU approved pesticides among the cocoa farmers in Nigeria. Consequently, results showed that providing the cocoa farmers with economic benefits information of using EU approved pesticides could translate to increase in acceptance of EU approved pesticides among the cocoa farmers. Both information variables-economic benefits information received prior to the experiment and economic benefits information received during the experiment-have positive and sizable effects on cocoa farmers' acceptance of EU approved pesticides. These results suggest that EU approved pesticides dissemination campaigns should always incorporate economic benefits information of using the EU approved
... The Nigeria cocoa economy has a good record which is well documented in the literature. It has remained a valuable crop and major foreign exchange earner among other agricultural commodity export of the country [8,9]. Apart from its contribution to the nation's economy, Cocoa is a plant-based food that contains carbohydrates, fats, proteins, natural minerals and some vitamins and like several other plant foods such as tea, red wine, fruits, vegetables and nuts cocoa contains a group of compounds which exhibit health benefits [10]. ...
... Evidence has, however, shown that the growth rate of cocoa production has been declining, which has given rise to a fall in the fortunes of the subsector among other reasons. [8] noted that cocoa production in Nigeria witnessed a downward trend after the 1971 season when its export declined to 216,000 metric tons in 1976, and 150,000 metric tons in 1986, therefore reducing the country's market share to about 6% and the fifth largest producer to date. ...
Full-text available
Article
This study was carried out to investigate the cost-benefit of cocoa production in Idanre Local Government Area of Ondo State. Primary data were used for this study and a well-structured questionnaire and personal interview were used for the collection of the data. The production data covered a period of 3years (2018-2020). The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, budgetary technique and multiple regression analysis. The study showed that the majority (64.2%) of the farmers were within the active age group, with an average age of 55years old. About 72.5% of the cocoa farmers were male and 27.5% were female. The majority (68.3%) of the farmers were married and nearly (65.0%) had a household size of 4 – 6 members. The sampled cocoa farmers had an average farming experience of 17 years, while about 75% of the farmers had formal education and 25% had no formal education. The study revealed that the total costs were estimated to be N165,001.85, N120,822.62 and N108,243.55 for the period of 2018, 2019 and 2020, respectively. The study recorded a Net Farm Income of N360,437.17, N499,228.80 and N591,993.82 across the years. The result of the cost-benefit analysis showed that at an interest rate of 20%, cocoa production was profitable. Also, a benefit-cost ratio of 4.48 was obtained indicating that for every N1 invested in cocoa production, a profit of N3.48 kobo was made as a profit which implies that cocoa production was profitable in the study area. The result revealed that inadequate credit facilities are the major constraint in the study area followed by inadequate modern equipment. This implies that the majority of the cocoa farmers are still practising the traditional farming method. Therefore, it is recommended that extension workers should be visiting the farmers in the study area regularly to enlighten them on modern techniques to adopt to boost cocoa production in the study area.
... The Nigeria cocoa economy has a good record which is well documented in the literature. It has remained a valuable crop and major foreign exchange earner among other agricultural commodity export of the country (Afolayan, 2020). Apart from its contribution to the nation's economy, Cocoa is a plant-based food that contains carbohydrates, fats, proteins, natural minerals and some vitamins and like several other plant foods such as tea, red wine, fruits, vegetables and nuts cocoa contains a group of compounds which exhibit health benefits (Emmanuel, 2016). ...
... Evidence has, however, shown that the growth rate of cocoa production has been declining, which has given rise to a fall in the fortunes of the subsector among other reasons. Afolayan, (2020) noted that cocoa production in Nigeria witnessed a downward trend after the 1971 season when its export declined to 216,000 metric tons in 1976, and 150,000 metric tons in 1986, therefore reducing the country's market share to about 6% and to the fifth largest producer to date. ...
Article
This study was carried out to investigate the cost-benefit of cocoa production in Idanre Local Government Area of Ondo State. Primary data were used for this study and a well-structured questionnaire and personal interview were used for the collection of the data. The production data covered a period of 3years (2018- 2020). The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, budgetary technique and multiple regression analysis. The study showed that the majority (64.2%) of the farmers were within the active age group, with an average age of 55years old. About 72.5% of the cocoa farmers were male and 27.5% were female. Majority (68.3%) of the farmers were married and nearly (65.0%) had a household size of 4 – 6 members. The sampled cocoa farmers had an average farming experience of 17 years, while about 75% of the farmers had formal education and 25% had no formal education. The study revealed that the total costs were estimated to be N165,001.85, N120,822.62 and N108,243.55 for the period of 2018, 2019 and 2020, respectively. The study recorded a Net Farm Income of N360,437.17, N499,228.80 and N591,993.82 across the years. The result of the cost-benefit analysis showed that at an interest rate of 20%, cocoa production was profitable. Also, a benefit-cost ratio of 4.48 was obtained indicating that for every N1 invested in cocoa production, a profit of N3.48 kobo was made as a profit which implies that cocoa production was profitable in the study area. The result revealed that inadequate credit facilities are the major constraint in the study area followed by inadequate modern equipment. This implies that the majority of the cocoa farmers are still practising the traditional farming method. Therefore, it is recommended that extension workers should be visiting the farmers in the study area regularly to enlighten them on modern techniques to adopt to boost cocoa production in the study area.
... All of these factors have made it difficult for the cocoa sub-sector to get enough attention in order to maintain its top role as a non-oil export. Despite several interventions and programs organized by the Nigerian government to tackle the issues confronting cocoa farmers, yet cocoa bean production was continued to fall (Taiwo, 2016;Afolayan, 2020). ...
... The study was conducted in Ondo State, Nigeria in 2018. Ondo State is the largest cocoa producing state in Nigeria producing about 25% of total national production (Afolayan 2020 Atlantic Ocean in the South. The state has an annual rainfall ranging from 2,000mm in the southern parts to 1200mm in the Northern areas, which is suitable for coca production (Oladapo et al. 2012). ...
Full-text available
Article
Adoption of improved agricultural technologies is an important component for improvement in agricultural productivity especially in developing countries. This study assessed the adoption level and factors influencing farmers’ decisions to adopt five improved agricultural technologies in Ondo State, Nigeria using cross-sectional data on 149 cocoa farmers. A Multivariate Probit model was specified to account for the simultaneous decision-making process farmers undergo to maximize utility given their budget constraint. Most of the farmers were male, old and cultivated an average of 7 hectares of cocoa. Most of them had adopted improved cocoa varieties (84.6%) and capsid control was the least adopted (53.0%) among the respondents. The MVP model results show that cocoa farmers that belong to cooperative groups have a greater likelihood of adopting all five technologies. Older farmers are more likely to adopt improved cocoa varieties, and those with large farms have a greater likelihood of adopting recommended spacing. Credit access, education and extension contact positively influence improved cocoa varieties’ adoption, while household size negatively influences it. The study recommends the improvement of institutional capacities especially in the areas of credit provision and extension service delivery in order to promote technology adoption for increased agricultural productivity in Nigeria.
... A number of studies have also alluded to Ondo State being the most prominent for cocoa production in Nigeria (Adegeye, 1996;Aikpokpodion, 2010;Ajayi et al., 2010;Afolayan and Ajibade, 2012;Afolayan, 2020). Other commonly cultivated crops are yam, cassava, maize, vegetables and fruits, cotton and tobacco, while other economic activities include trade, public service employment, service sector, among others. ...
Full-text available
Article
Cocoa is one of Nigeria's most important agricultural commodities due to its status as a source of foreign exchange earnings. However, low quality and hence low patronage of cocoa beans of Nigeria origin has reduced this fortune in recent years due mainly to non-adherence to Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) among farmers. The study therefore identified the determinants of compliance to GAP among cocoa farmers in Ondo State, Nigeria. A three-stage sampling procedure was used to select 20% (150) of cocoa farmers across randomly sampled cocoa-producing communities in Ondo State. Information was sourced using a well-structured, validated questionnaire. Data were analyzed using frequency counts, mean and Ordinary Least Square (OLS). Majority of farmers had good knowledge of GAP. However, farmers were mostly faced with constraints such as high cost of agrochemicals and labor scarcity. Farmers rated economic benefits of GAP as high; while health and environmental benefits were rated low; with high acceptability of cocoa; utilization of soil organic matter and prevention of respiratory malfunctioning identified as top economic, environmental and health benefits, respectively. Although the general compliance was high across different GAP, practices to which farmers were least compliant were however of relatively high economic, health and environmental implications. Knowledge, perceived health and perceived economic benefits of GAP were important determinants of compliance. The extension unit of the Ondo State Ministry of Agriculture should prioritize sensitization and education of farmers on the economic, health and environmental benefits of GAP of cocoa in order to ensure profitability and sustainability of production.