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Close examination of pentifid (five-lobed) penis structure of Rafetus euphraticus  

Close examination of pentifid (five-lobed) penis structure of Rafetus euphraticus  

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Male tortoises are occasionally presented with a prolapsed phallus (penis). The penis is retracted except during mating, trauma, or death; it lies in the ventral floor of the cloaca. Male Euphrates soft-shelled turtle constituted the study material. Clinically, necrotic areas in the phallus were observed. After the local anesthesia and analgesia, p...

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... examination revealed that the protruding mass from the anus was prolapsed penis. The prolapsed penis was approximately 10 cm in length and there was no tissue sensitivity (Fig 2). Necrotic areas, hemorrhages and oedema were seen on the penis (Fig 3). ...

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... All the localities where R. euphraticus was known from the literature to be present were integrated with those recorded during the present surveys to create an updated distribution map of the species for Turkey (see Meylan, 1987;Iverson, 1992;Stadtlander, 1992;Taşkavak, 1992;Biricik & Tur ga, 2011;Do gu et al., 2015). In cases where the locality was not directly given in GPS format, Google Earth software was used to determine the most accurate location. ...
1. The Euphrates Softshell Turtle (Rafetus euphraticus) is the most threatened chelonian species in the Middle East, where it is endemic of the Tigris and Euphrates basins. Since this species is ecologically little known it is difficult to plan any reliable action for its correct management and conservation. 2. In order to enhance the scientific knowledge on R. euphraticus, and to establish a science-based management strategy, a detailed investigation on the distribution, habitat, activity and home range of R. euphraticus individuals in Turkey was carried out. The previous distribution records in Turkey belonged to the 1990s. Thus, this study is the first comprehensive field research on the species after nearly three decades. 3. There was a significant sexual size dimorphism in the Turkish population, with males larger than females. 4. Four individuals were radiotracked for one year. The mean home range was highly variable depending on how it was calculated, but that of males was considerably greater than that of females by all methods employed. 5. A quantitative evaluation of habitat change throughout time was made. For the Euphrates River, the land cover classes potentially available to turtles increased over 100% between 1990s and 2018: 92% of this enhancement derived from water bodies and coastal lands. 6. Fifteen dams have been built in the lower part of the basins for 30 years. In addition, ongoing human interactions have caused the fragmentation and/or destruction of suitable habitats for the Euphrates Softshell Turtle. 7. The factors threatening the Euphrates Softshell Turtle were determined and a conservation action plan was developed. Some objectives such as monitoring and creating awareness of this action plan have been reached while others are still waiting to be achieved.
... In the treatment, prolapse can be prevented by reducing the edema and fixing using tobacco-pouch or horizontal sutures after cleaning and lubrication. Previous studies have reported the use of cold application (Barten 2006a;Norton 1994;Podhade and Harne 2014;Silva et al. 2013), hypertonic saline (Barten 1996a;Bennett 2005;Boyer 1998) and granulated sugar to decrease edema (Doğu et al., 2015). In the present case, edema was controlled with a cold antiseptic solution (povidone-iodine). ...