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Figure 4 - Göbekli Tepe: A Brief Description of the Environmental Development in the Surroundings of the UNESCO World Heritage Site

Figure 4. Climatic characteristics in the wider surroundings of Göbekli Tepe during (a) Last Glacial Maximum (21 ka BP), (b) Middle Holocene (6 ka BP), (c) Pre-Industrial period (0 ka BP). Data are derived from climate model experiments (PMIP III), Köppen-Geiger classification conducted by Willmes et al. (see [24] for further details and raw data of classification); (d) Modern climate characteristics based on [25]; MAP = mean annual precipitation, MAT = mean annual temperature, T hot = temperature of the hottest month, T cold = temperature of the coldest month, T mon10 = number of months where the temperature is above 10 • C, P sdry = precipitation of the driest month in summer, P wdry = precipitation of the driest month in winter, P swet = precipitation of the wettest month in summer, P wwet = precipitation of the wettest month in winter, P threshold = varies according to the following rules (if 70% of MAP occurs in winter then P threshold = 2 * MAT, if 70% of MAP occurs in summer then P threshold = 2 * MAT + 28, otherwise P threshold = 2 * MAT + 14). Summer (winter) is defined as the warmer (cooler) six month period of October, November, December, January, February, March, and April, Mai, June, July, August, September (after [26]).
Climatic characteristics in the wider surroundings of Göbekli Tepe during (a) Last Glacial Maximum (21 ka BP), (b) Middle Holocene (6 ka BP), (c) Pre-Industrial period (0 ka BP). Data are derived from climate model experiments (PMIP III), Köppen-Geiger classification conducted by Willmes et al. (see [24] for further details and raw data of classification); (d) Modern climate characteristics based on [25]; MAP = mean annual precipitation, MAT = mean annual temperature, T hot = temperature of the hottest month, T cold = temperature of the coldest month, T mon10 = number of months where the temperature is above 10 • C, P sdry = precipitation of the driest month in summer, P wdry = precipitation of the driest month in winter, P swet = precipitation of the wettest month in summer, P wwet = precipitation of the wettest month in winter, P threshold = varies according to the following rules (if 70% of MAP occurs in winter then P threshold = 2 * MAT, if 70% of MAP occurs in summer then P threshold = 2 * MAT + 28, otherwise P threshold = 2 * MAT + 14). Summer (winter) is defined as the warmer (cooler) six month period of October, November, December, January, February, March, and April, Mai, June, July, August, September (after [26]).
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