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Climatic characteristics in the wider surroundings of Göbekli Tepe during (a) Last Glacial Maximum (21 ka BP), (b) Middle Holocene (6 ka BP), (c) Pre-Industrial period (0 ka BP). Data are derived from climate model experiments (PMIP III), Köppen-Geiger classification conducted by Willmes et al. (see [24] for further details and raw data of classification); (d) Modern climate characteristics based on [25]; MAP = mean annual precipitation, MAT = mean annual temperature, T hot = temperature of the hottest month, T cold = temperature of the coldest month, T mon10 = number of months where the temperature is above 10 • C, P sdry = precipitation of the driest month in summer, P wdry = precipitation of the driest month in winter, P swet = precipitation of the wettest month in summer, P wwet = precipitation of the wettest month in winter, P threshold = varies according to the following rules (if 70% of MAP occurs in winter then P threshold = 2 * MAT, if 70% of MAP occurs in summer then P threshold = 2 * MAT + 28, otherwise P threshold = 2 * MAT + 14). Summer (winter) is defined as the warmer (cooler) six month period of October, November, December, January, February, March, and April, Mai, June, July, August, September (after [26]).

Climatic characteristics in the wider surroundings of Göbekli Tepe during (a) Last Glacial Maximum (21 ka BP), (b) Middle Holocene (6 ka BP), (c) Pre-Industrial period (0 ka BP). Data are derived from climate model experiments (PMIP III), Köppen-Geiger classification conducted by Willmes et al. (see [24] for further details and raw data of classification); (d) Modern climate characteristics based on [25]; MAP = mean annual precipitation, MAT = mean annual temperature, T hot = temperature of the hottest month, T cold = temperature of the coldest month, T mon10 = number of months where the temperature is above 10 • C, P sdry = precipitation of the driest month in summer, P wdry = precipitation of the driest month in winter, P swet = precipitation of the wettest month in summer, P wwet = precipitation of the wettest month in winter, P threshold = varies according to the following rules (if 70% of MAP occurs in winter then P threshold = 2 * MAT, if 70% of MAP occurs in summer then P threshold = 2 * MAT + 28, otherwise P threshold = 2 * MAT + 14). Summer (winter) is defined as the warmer (cooler) six month period of October, November, December, January, February, March, and April, Mai, June, July, August, September (after [26]).

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This contribution provides a first characterization of the environmental development for the surroundings of the UNESCO World Heritage site of Göbekli Tepe. We base our analyses on a literature review that covers the environmental components of prevailing bedrock and soils, model-and proxy-based climatic development, and vegetation. The spatio-temp...

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... III climate model experiments enable the reconstruction of climatic characteristics in the wider study area for different time periods (Figure 4). The model results suggest that the area around Göbekli Tepe in the Last Glacial Maximum (21 ka BP) was characterized by a summer dry, cold climate (Dsa after Köppen-Geiger). ...
Context 2
... III climate model experiments enable the reconstruction of climatic characteristics in the wider study area for different time periods (Figure 4). The model results suggest that the area around Göbekli Tepe in the Last Glacial Maximum (21 ka BP) was characterized by a summer dry, cold climate (Dsa after Köppen-Geiger). ...

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... 32 Although it is commonly stated that the view towards the Harran plain was important for the foraging community, recent studies on view axes from the site suggest that the view towards the nearby Culap Suyu basin was much more important for herd observations, see Braun 2020. 33 Nykamp et al. 2021;2020a;Knitter et al. 2019. 34 Benedict 1980. ...
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