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Classification of office blood pressure a and definitions of hypertension grade b

Classification of office blood pressure a and definitions of hypertension grade b

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Use of intima-media thickness in the assessment of the development of preclinical atherosclerosis R.N.N. Najafov

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... 'hypertension' is defined as the level of BP at which the benefits of treatment (either with lifestyle interventions or drugs) unequivocally outweigh the risks of treatment, as documented by clinical trials. This evidence has been reviewed (see section 7.2 for detailed discussion of hypertension diagnostic thresholds) and provides the basis for the recommendation that the classification of BP and definition of hypertension remain unchanged from previous ESH/ESC Guidelines ( Table 3). 15,16,17 Hypertension is defined as office SBP values > _140 mmHg and/or diastolic BP (DBP) values > _90 mmHg. ...
Context 2
... BP and heart rate should be measured as summarized in section 4. Measurements of office BP on more than one occasion are usually required to confirm the diagnosis of hypertension unless HBPM or ABPM is used to confirm the diagnosis (see section 4). Details of the requirements for a comprehensive clinical examina- tion are outlined in Table 13, and this should be adapted according to the severity of hypertension and clinical circumstances. Suggested routine clinical investigations are outlined in Table 14. ...
Context 3
... patients with a suspected hypertension emergency, a diagnos- tic workup is shown in Table 30. ...
Context 4
... drug treatments for specific hypertension emer- gencies 398,406 are shown in Table 31 and an expanded range of possi- ble drug choices 398 is shown in Table 32. Rapid uncontrolled BP lowering is not recommended as this can lead to complications. ...
Context 5
... list of the interventions associated with improved patient adher- ence to treatment is shown in Table 33. ...
Context 6
... may particularly be the case if BP control is accompanied by healthy lifestyle changes such as weight loss, exercise habit, and a low-fat and low-salt diet, which remove environmental pressor influences. A reduction of medications should be made gradually, and the patient should be checked frequently Table 33 Interventions that may improve drug adherence in hypertension ...

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... In clinical practice, the treatment for hypertensive crisis focuses on preventing or minimising acute hypertension-mediated organ damage (HMOD) by appropriately controlling blood pressure (BP) [2][3][4]. This presupposes that appropriate screening and preemptive management of individuals at risk for acute HMOD could improve the clinical outcomes of these patient groups. ...
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... The normal blood pressure corresponds to measurements below 139 mmHg in systolic pressure and below 89 mmHg in diastolic pressure. These measurements are based on the European guidelines for the management of hypertension [30]. ...
... Additionally, another classification is defined, which is called isolated systolic hypertension, and this may occur when the systolic pressure is higher than or equal to 140 mmHg, but the diastolic pressure is lower than 90 mmHg [30]. ...
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... Patients with an insufficient night fall of BP values are referred to as "non-dippers". However, more precisely, we can distinguish four different circadian BP rhythms: extreme dippers (over 20% decline in night BP values compared to daytime), dippers (between 20% and 10%), non-dippers (between 10% and 0%), and reverse dippers (nighttime surge in BP) ( Table 1) [2]. Table 1. ...
... Table 1. Nocturnal blood pressure dipping patterns according to the European Society of Hypertension [2]. ...
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... Несмотря на то, что полного понимания причинно-следственных связей нет, все-таки, гиперурикемия связана с высоким риском возникновения CCЗ. В Ев- [62,63] ропейских рекомендациях 2018 г. по диагностике и лечению АГ [1], а также в Российских рекомендациях 2020 г. [64], повышение уровня МК (≥360 мкмоль/л у женщин, ≥420 мкмоль/л у мужчин) официально отнесено к факторам сердечно-сосудистого риска. Но для лечения бессимптомной гиперурикемии указаний на необходимость использования специфических препаратов в рекомендациях нет, причина в том, что в рандомизированных клинических исследованиях пока нет подтверждающих данных о пользе терапии. ...
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Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in the course of atherosclerosis are one of the most critical public health problems in the world. Endothelial cells synthesize numerous biologically active substances involved in regulating the functions of the cardiovascular system. Endothelial dysfunction is an essential element in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Thus, the assessment of endothelial function in people without overt CVD allows for a more accurate estimate of the risk of developing CVD and cardiovascular events. The assessment of endothelial function is primarily used in scientific research, and to a lesser extent in clinical practice. Among the tools for assessing endothelial function, we can distinguish biochemical and physical methods, while physical methods can be divided into invasive and non-invasive methods. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) is based on the ultrasound assessment of changes in the diameter of the brachial artery as a result of increased blood flow. FMD is a non-invasive, safe, and repeatable test, but it must be performed by qualified and experienced medical staff. The purpose of this paper is to present the literature review results on the assessment of endothelial function using the FMD method, including its methodology, applications in clinical practice and research, limitations, and future perspectives.