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Classification of different battery thermal management techniques

Classification of different battery thermal management techniques

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Li-ion battery cells are temperature sensitive devices. Their performance and cycle life are compromised under extreme ambient environment. Efficient regulation of cell temperature is, therefore, a pre-requisite for safe and reliable battery operation. In addition, modularity-in-design of battery packs is required to offset high manufacturing costs...

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... recent years, a number of techniques for readily removing heat from a battery pack have been tried and tested by various research groups across the globe. They can be classified in various ways, as seen in Fig. 3. A brief explanation is provided in the following ...

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Citations

... The thermoelectric device is successful for the battery's preheating and cooling with a little input electrical energy, which improved the battery's reliability and operating efficiency. Although there have been various attempts to employ TEC for BTM, the Seebeck method's poor efficiency continues to limit its usage in BTMS [257]. However, when thermoelectric materials with a higher Seebeck coefficient are produced in the future, it provides a possible answer for BTMS. ...
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... In addition, very high temperatures overheat the cells, causing irreversible chemical reactions which leads to thermal runaway of the cells; raising the issue of vehicle safety [8]. Therefore, to ensure the safe operation of the battery pack and the EV, extensive research is being carried out on battery thermal management systems (BTMS) [9][10][11][12]. In addition to limiting the operating temperature of the battery pack, BTMS is also required to reduce the temperature heterogeneity at the cell and pack levels. ...
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... Battery thermal management systems can be classified into three groups: active, passive and hybrid methods [5,6]. The rate of cooling/ heating in active BTMSs is controlled by a piece of power-consuming equipment. ...
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... The thermal runaway occurs when the reaction rate is increased by high temperature with high power output and later then it will increase the heat dissipation that will generate even higher temperatures. Fig. 1 shows the stages of the thermal runway in the battery mechanism [14]. Generally, it happens when heating starts to generate at the anode. ...
... Thermal runaway in lithium-ion mechanism[14]. ...
... A thermal management system, to employ active or passive ways for the safe operation of cells within a certain temperature range. The active way of thermal management is a conventional way that uses forced air, water, and liquid to tackle during high charging and discharging rates [61]. For instance, Nissan LEAF uses an air cooling method whereas Tesla uses liquid tubes passing through each cell filled with Glycol [62]. ...
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... 2 Several steps are involved in the thermal runaway process. 3 Catastrophic thermal runaway may be initiated through several mechanisms including overheating, overcharging, or short circuit. 4 At an elevated temperature of 80−120°C, the metastable solid−electrolyte interphase (SEI) passivation layer exothermically decomposes, further increasing the internal temperature. ...
... [6,9] In addition to conventional bulk materials, [1] many new-type TE materials such as superlattices, [10][11][12][13][14][15] 2D thin/thick solid films, [16][17][18][19][20] 1D nano/ microfibers, [21,22] and organic conducting polymers(CPs), [23,24] have been developed and applied to TECs. TECs have been applied to much wider scenarios including space cooling, [25][26][27] wearable/ portable cooler for personal thermal management, [22,[28][29][30][31][32][33] processors and on-chip cooling, [11,[34][35][36][37][38][39][40][41] lightemitting diodes (LEDs), [42][43][44][45][46] batteries and battery pack, [47][48][49][50][51] solid/portable refrigerators, [52][53][54][55] fresh water generators, [56,57] medical and biological applications, [58][59][60] and solar-panel-related cooling systems of the building, [61][62][63][64][65][66][67][68][69][70][71][72][73][74] as displayed in Figure 1. ...
... Because of their characteristics such as low toxicity, free of noise, mechanical component, working fluid, and chemical reaction, and good durability without maintenance in the long term, TECs are especially suitable for cooling wearable and miniature electronics, [30,32] central processing unit (CPU), [35,37,40,41] LED light. [43,46,107] dryer, [76] refrigerator, [54] battery pack, [47,48,51,212] and even air conditioner. [212] By further improving the performance and stability of TEC, it can be regarded as the main role in the field of biomedicals, [58] green building, [74] and smart city. ...
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