Classification of antioxidants. 

Classification of antioxidants. 

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... are a class of compounds of great interest for the pharmaceutical industry and biochemists and other health professionals because they are designed to reduce damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitrogen (RNS), or even chlorine (RCS). The discovery of the role of free radicals in cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, autoim- mune diseases, neurodegenerative disorders, aging, and other diseases has led to a medical revolution that is promising a new paradigm of health care. There is also great interest in trying to achieve partial or total replacement of synthetic antioxidants with natural ingredi- ents, in view of concerns about possible side effects—including cancer—of some synthetic antioxidants in food. The importance of the mechanism of oxidation in the body as well as in food is widely accepted. Oxidative metabolism is an essential process for cell survival. A side effect of this metabolism is that excess production of free radicals and other ROS can cause undesirable oxidative changes. There is increasing evidence for the involvement of high reactivity of these species in a variety of diseases. Antioxidants are substances that counteract free radicals and prevent damage caused by them. These can greatly reduce the adverse damage due to oxidants by crumbling them before they react with biologic targets, preventing chain reactions or preventing the activation of oxygen to highly reactive products (17). Antioxidants can be classified into two major groups; that is, enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants. Some of these antioxidants are endogenously produced, including enzymes, low-molecular-weight molecules, and enzyme cofactors. Many nonenzymatic antioxidants are obtained from dietary sources. Dietary antioxidants can be classified into various classes (18), of which polyphenols is the largest class. Polyphenols consist of phenolic acids and flavonoids. The other classes of dietary antioxidants include vitamins, carotenoids, organosulfural compounds, and minerals (Figure 1). Many methods reported for determination of antioxidant activity (19). Table 1 lists the major methods involved in antioxidant activity ...

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... Enzymatic antioxidants will break down and eliminate free radicals while non-enzymatic antioxidants operate by intersecting with the chain reactions of free radicals (Nimse and Pal, 2015). Many non-enzymatic antioxidants are not naturally synthesized by the human body but are obtained from organic nutritional sources consumption (Bunaciu et al., 2012). In these pathways, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase predominantly partake significant functions. ...
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... The FTIR assay, was carried out on the SGTC to measure the antioxidant capacity of the component [17], by Nicolet ™ 380 (thermos Science, USA). The results were then processed using hyperSpec package in the R programming language version 3.6.0. ...
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... Rapid, low cost and reliable analytical methods will be of benefit in order to determine and quantify the nutritional and compositional value of the sample, as well as to evaluate the contribution to the overall bioavailability of different compounds and to allow the identification of specific biomarkers (Bunaciu et al., 2012;Cozzolino, 2015;García-Cañas et al., 2010;Ignat et al., 2001;Lu & Rasco, 2012;McGoverin et al., 2010). In recent years, both mid-infrared (MIR) and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy with its intrinsic benefits such as non-invasive, rapid, almost no necessary sample preparation, ability to perform on-/inline measurements, have been able to determine a wide range of physical and chemical parameters in a wide range of foods. ...
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... On the same review, Hermund [24] defined secondary enzymes as preventive antioxidants, since they act indirectly on lipid oxidation and can also have a synergistic effect by regenerating primary antioxidants, like glutathione reductase, which is responsible for regenerating GSH and its action is triggered by oxidative stress and low levels of GSH in the organism [14]. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glutathione-s-transferase are also examples of secondary enzymes [22], although the number of studies that focus on ...
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... In contrast, the last group contains a mixed combination of enzymes that can fix broken DNA, degraded proteins, oxidized lipids, and peroxide as lipase (Sindhi et al., 2013). Moreover, the antioxidants can be divided into enzymatic (primary and secondary) and non-enzymatic antioxidants (Bunaciu et al., 2012). The antioxidants can be synthetic, which have recently tested their capability to reduce free radicals plus investigating their safety to the consumer, such as butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). ...
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... tocopherols (Bunaciu et al.,2012). ...
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Plant Science research in last few years has made major contribution to our understanding of biology.The research interventions and innovative research ideas benefited from insights gained from studies on various aspects of plant science. Our edited book brings together expert authors under the skilled editorship of leading scientists to produce state- of-the-art compendiums of current research. Aimed at the research scientist, graduate student, medical researcher and other professionals, this book is highly recommended for all plant science researchers. Research Interventions and advancements in plant sciences seek to provide all scientists, from the tenured to the tenderfoot, with concise and curated updates on the latest research. It is our aim to highlight new scientific developments in plant science. Our high-caliber articles are cutting edge, provocative, yet accessible and are written by the most authoritative voices in science today. They are intended not only to bring readers up to speed on recent progress in the field, but also to serve as platforms for debate and to push the boundaries of conventional thinking. The articles in the book have been contributed by eminent scientists and academicians. Our special thanks and appreciation goes to our esteemed experts and research workers whose contributions have enriched this book. We thank our publisher Bhumi Publishing, India for taking efforts in bringing out the book. Finally, we will always remain a debtor to all our well-wishers for their blessings, without which this book would not have come into existence.
... These methods can have a high precision degree when applied for analysis of concentration and antioxidant activity of compounds present in food and pharmaceutical. [15][16][17][18] Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, together with ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, has been developed as a promising method of analysis providing simultaneous, on-line, rapid, and non-destructive qualitative and quantitative analysis of the major components in many plant materials and agricultural products. 17,[19][20][21] Since absorption spectra are often complex and possess broad overlapping absorption bands, special mathematical procedures are required for processing of NIR spectra, and they include application of multivariate statistical methods (chemometrics), such as principal component analysis (PCA), canonical correlation analysis, principal component regression, multiple linear regression, and partial least squares. ...
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Objectives The aim of this study was to develop artificial neural network (ANNs) models for prediction of physical (total dissolved solids, extraction yield) and chemical (total polyphenolic content, antioxidant activity) properties of industrial hemp extracts, prepared by two different extraction methods (solid‐liquid extraction and microwave‐assisted extraction) based on combined UV‐VIS‐NIR spectra. Spectral data were gathered for 46 samples per extraction method. Results The PCA analysis ensured efficient separation of the samples based on the amount of ethanol in extraction solvent using NIR spectra for both conventional and microwave‐assisted extraction. Conclusions Results showed that reliable ANN models (R²>0.7000) for describing physical, chemical, and simultaneously physical and chemical characteristics can be developed based on combined UV‐VIS‐NIR spectra of industrial hemp extracts without spectra pre‐processing.