City-level weekly normalized visitation patterns for Black-owned restaurants and ownership-unreported restaurants based on 100 shuffles
Black communities in the U.S. have been disproportionately affected by the COVID-19 pandemic; however, few empirical studies have been conducted to examine the conditions of Black-owned businesses in the U.S. during this challenging time. In this paper, we assess the circumstances of Black-owned restaurants during the entire year of 2020 through a...
The restrictive measures in the first and second wave of COVID-19 outbreak have significantly affected mainly HORECA segment. Accounting entities recorded drop in sales, drop in profit or loss. Their financial position in 2020 was worse compared to 2019. Many restaurants, fast food and pubs have been swept away by the first and second wave of pande...
The COVID-19 pandemic is not only a medical disease outbreak but also a social inequality and health disparity problem. This study analyzed dynamic temporal and spatial associations between confirmed COVID-19 cases and socioeconomic status (SES) variables at the neighborhood level with three case studies to (1) analyze five temporal stages in the County of San Diego, California; (2) compare six U.S. metropolitan areas; and (3) compare SES associations across two spatial scales (counties and zip code units). We identified eleven SES variables as potential contributors to the social determinants of health that influence COVID-19 outbreaks and showed how their correlation coefficients vary over five phases. We found that changes in COVID-19 hot spots and clusters are minimal across the five stages. The consistent spatial patterns through the five outbreak periods imply that the place effects associated with fundamental health disparity factors are persistent and not easily changed. The impact of COVID-19 on SES varies in different local contexts. We also found that Hispanic populations, uninsured groups, Spanish-speaking families, those with less than a ninth-grade education level, and high household densities strongly correlated with COVID-19 cases in all six metropolitan areas. We did not find high scale dependency in SES association patterns between county and zip code spatial units, but analysis at a finer level can provide more association patterns.
The COVID-19 pandemic altered the local economic geographies of many U.S. cities, and it remains unclear how long these changes will persist. This study analyzed the sociospatial dynamics of business closures in Miami-Dade County, Florida, from August 2020 to August 2021 with an explicit focus on reconciling the pandemic’s effects in the context of location theory. We found that traditional urban centers and transit-concentrated areas experienced disproportionately higher rates of business closures during the study period, suggesting a potential wave of commercial suburbanization in Miami. Middle-class and working-class Hispanic neighborhoods suffered the most business closures. The results of correlation analysis and spatial regression models suggested a positive association between the incidence of COVID-19 cases and business closures at both zip code and individual business levels. These results also beckon a revaluation of the role of certain urban externalities in traditional location theory. The importance of automobile accessibility and agglomeration effects are poised to persist beyond the pandemic, but the benefits of proximity to the public transport system might decline. The trends observed in Miami suggest that the pandemic could generate more automobile-reliant employment subcenters in U.S. cities and amplify problems of intraurban inequality and urban sprawl.
Between June 27–29, 2022, the American Association Geographers Organizing Committee hosted an in-person Summit bringing together a breadth of disciplines, including social scientists, computer scientists, humanists, and legal scholars and professionals, to further discuss locational information and the public interest. The participants were brought together by a common concern for the uneven ethical, legal, and social implications of location information. They represent a range of junior to senior positions with different specializations, abilities, and situations, all driven by the goal of more ethical use of locational information. The eighteen experts at the Summit worked to collaborate on a high-level report that would build a framework for continued and collaborative work in the coming years, and would target different audiences including academic scholars, educators, public policy makers, certifying bodies, geographic information systems (GIS) professionals, geospatial data scientists, and students across the increased range of disciplines that use locational information. This report addresses four goals, each of which is discussed in an appropriately structured section