Citric acid concentrations in soft drinks, Juice drinks and energy drinks.

Citric acid concentrations in soft drinks, Juice drinks and energy drinks.

Source publication
Article
Full-text available
Citric acid is used as an additive in different drinks to improve flavour and taste. However; higher concentration may cause damage to tooth enamel. The objective of this study was to determine the citric acid level in different drinks by using titration. Citric acid was determined in soft drinks, juice drinks and energy drinks from Najran city in...

Context in source publication

Context 1
... samples were also prepared with low citric acid concentration (1.54 g/L) and high citric acid concentration (19.21 g/L); recoveries were 97.0%, and 98.1% (n = 3), respectively. Results of total citric acid determined in all 27 samples are shown in Table 1. The samples were labeled as soft drinks (DS) juice drinks (DJ) and energy drinks (DE) as shown Table1. ...

Similar publications

Technical Report
Full-text available
At the end of 2011, a study was commissioned by EFSA to the Consortium Nomisma-Areté, with the objective of gathering consumption data for “energy” drinks (ED) in specific consumer groups (adults, adolescents and children) in EU). The study also aims at estimating, for the different consumer groups, the exposure to specific active ingredients (caff...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Caffeinated beverages are consumed daily throughout the world. Caffeine consumption has been linked to dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system. However, the exact effects are still insufficiently understood. Methods Sixteen healthy individuals were included in the present non-randomized cross-over interventional study. All study subjec...
Article
Full-text available
To examine the cognitive and physical changes associated with consuming an energy drink concurrent to video gaming, we examined a convenience sample of nine elite League of Legends (LoL) e-sport players (21 ± 2 y, BMI 25.6 ± 3.4 kg/m 2) consuming an energy drink (Reload TM) or placebo (Placebo) in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cros...
Article
Full-text available
Flunitrazepam is one of the frequently used hypnotic drugs to incapacitate victims for sexual assault. Appropriate diagnostic tools should be available to victims regarding the growing concern about “date-rape drugs” and their adverse impact on society. Miniaturized screen-printed potentiometric sensors offer crucial point-of-care devices that alle...

Citations

... The content of citric acid in all selected sample energy drinks ranged between 1.344% -1.792%. regularly found in common organic products (Orange 1 %, grapefruit 1.5 % and lemon 2.5 %) (Brima et al., 2014). Our results in this investigation for the percentage of acidity are comparable with natural fruits. ...
... The content of citric acid in all selected sample energy drinks ranged between 1.344% -1.792%. regularly found in common organic products (Orange 1 %, grapefruit 1.5 % and lemon 2.5 %) (Brima et al., 2014). Our results in this investigation for the percentage of acidity are comparable with natural fruits. ...
Full-text available
Article
Caffeine is a central nervous system stimulant and an efficient psychoactive stimulant medication when taken in moderate amount. Recently, caffeine has become one of the main substances in the composition of energy drinks. Moreover, various compounds also used to preserve energy drinks, especially citric acid. In present study, the levels of caffeine concentration were determined in six imported energy drinks-Lucozade, Bullet, Monster, Black Bruin, Red Bull and 3 Horses-available in local market of Pakistan, to ensure that whether the companies meet the labeled content of caffeine concentration and FDA recommendation (400 mg/mL) or not. pH level, percentage acidity and sugar content of energy drinks were also determined. Among the six samples, the maximum amount of caffeine was found in Black Bruin (9.96 mg/100 mL) and the lowest in Lucozade (8.36 mg/100 mL), showing a range from 9.96 to 8.36 mg/100 mL. The %age of acidity were found to be 1.536, 1.792, 1.664, 1.344, 1.376 and 1.620 for Lucozade, Bullet, Monster, Black Bruin, Red Bull and 3 Horses respectively. pH meter was used to determine the pH at 20 o C, and result were 3.18, 3.82, 3.93, 3.58, 3.67 and 3.41 for Lucozade, Bullet, Monster, Black Bruin, Red Bull and 3 Horses respectively, showing a range of 3.18 to 3.93. In all energy drinks, caffeine concertation was found below the maximum allowable limit recommended by FDA. Furthermore, it is found that even two serving size packs of any selected sample will have no health impact on individual.
... Moreover, it inhibits the growth of calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate stones, preventing urolithiasis and other kidney diseases. However, high concentrations of citric acid cause the erosion, softening, and damage of the tooth enamel [1,2]. According to Fiume et al., the safe threshold level of citric acid in human blood is~0.13 ...
... The combustion process was initiated at 400 °C, yielding a white powder that was collected and subsequently calcined at 900 °C for 3 h (Figure 11a). The reactions involved in the solution combustion synthesis of BaTiO3 can be expressed using equations (1) and (2). ...
... The combustion process was initiated at 400 • C, yielding a white powder that was collected and subsequently calcined at 900 • C for 3 h (Figure 11a). The reactions involved in the solution combustion synthesis of BaTiO 3 can be expressed using Equations (1) and (2). ...
Full-text available
Article
Although barium titanate (BaTiO3) shows prominent dielectric properties for fabricating electronic devices, its utilization in electrochemical applications is limited. Thus, this study examined the potential of a BaTiO3-based composite in the detection of a food additive, i.e., citric acid. First, a submicron-scale BaTiO3 powder was synthesized using the solution combustion method. Then, a BaTiO3/multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) composite was hydrothermally synthesized at BaTiO3:MWCNT mass ratios of 1:1 and 2:1. This composite was used as a working electrode in a nonenzymatic sensor to evaluate its electrocatalytic activity. Cyclic voltammetric measurements revealed that the BaTiO3/MWCNT composite (2:1) exhibited the highest electrocatalytic activity. Reduction reactions were observed at applied voltages of approximately 0.02 and −0.67 V, whereas oxidation reactions were detected at −0.65 and 0.47 V. With acceptable sensitivity, decent selectivity, and fair stability, the BaTiO3/MWCNT composite (2:1) showed good potential for citric acid detection.
... Previous studies have identified Citrus aurantifolia juice or lime juice (LJ) to have the most concentrated CA compared to other sources of citric acid [40]. In a recent work [41], LJ that consisted citric acid was introduced as a crosslinker to tapioca starch (TS) with nanocellulose extracted from OPEFB waste via acid hydrolysis. ...
Full-text available
Article
Moisture absorption, thermal and biodegradation properties of nanocellulose (NC) reinforced bionanocomposite tapioca starch (TS) films crosslinked with Citrus aurantifolia or lime juice (LJ) were investigated for food packaging applications. The films were synthesized by solvent casting using different amounts of nanocellulose and crosslinkers: lime juice and a commercial citric acid (CA). Nanocellulose as reinforcing filler was obtained from oil palm empty fruit bunches through acid hydrolysis. Crystallinity of all TS bionanocomposites was determined using X-ray diffractometry. TS bionanocomposites interaction with water was studied by means of moisture absorption, moisture content and swelling. Flory-Huggin model was used to measure the crosslinked density of crosslinked TS bionanocomposites which indicated successful crosslinking using LJ and CA for TS. The crystallinity of TS film increased from 43.5% for neat TS to 51.6% for TS film with inclusion of NC. LJ-crosslinked TS film with 1 wt% of NC (based on starch content) had the lowest moisture absorption and swelling ratio. TS bionanocomposites with LJ had better thermal and biodegradation properties compared to commercial CA-crosslinked TS biocomposites, which can be a potential food packaging material among the tested bionanocomposites.
... Citric acid is very soluble weak organic acid that used as an additive in several drinks. Commonly it used to improve the flavor, taste, antioxidant, and to maintain stability (preservative enhancement) [13]. The effect of citric acid addition on the decreasing teak extract pH was very significant (p< 0.01) (Figure 1.). ...
Full-text available
Conference Paper
Teak (Tectona grandis L.) is one of tropical native herbs from Indonesia, which tubers development has been focused and the leaves become wastes. Nowadays, the teak leaves compound has been investigated alike its phenolic compound for coloring agent, mosquito larvicidal, and organic fertilizer composite. This research aimed to analyze the effect of citric acid addition to the teak leaves extraction process and the impact of teak leaves extract proportion to the physical, chemical, and organoleptic syrup characteristics. This research consisted of 2 main steps. The first was citric acid addition (2%, 3%, 4%, 5% and 6%) on extraction process and the second was teak leaves extract addition on syrup production. The Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with 4 levels of factors (30%, 40%, 50%, and 60%) and 3 replications were applied to analyze the parameter. The citric acid addition gave very significant effect (p>0.01) on pH, antioxidant, and color (L), while it gave not significant effect on color (a and b) and anthocyanin of teak leaves extract. The result showed that the effect of teak leaves extract addition was very significant (p>0.01) on the pH, color (L and a), viscosity, and sugar content of syrup. While it was also significant (p>0.05) on anthocyanin content and insignificant on color (b) of syrup. The best treatment was proved by 50% addition of teak leaves with the value of pH (3.86), viscosity (1.57), sugar content (23), color (L= 31.3; a=2.66; b=-0.4), anthocyanin (0.05), and antioxidant (0.728).
... Citric acid can be used both as an acidity regulator and an antioxidant (CODEX GSFA, 2018). Brima and Abbas (2014) determined the level of citric acid in 27 samples of beverages, including 14 soft drinks, 11 juice drinks and 2 energy drinks from Najran City in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and found that energy drinks contained 7.3±0.06 g/L, soft drinks contained 1.76±0.04 ...
Full-text available
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to determine the level of food additives, caffeine and total sugars in locally manufactured beverages in Mauritius and ascertain their compliance with national and international norms. Design/methodology/approach In total, 48 beverages: 21 soft drinks, 14 ice teas, 5 fruit drinks, 5 nonalcoholic sparkling drinks and 3 tonic waters were analysed for the level of sweeteners (aspartame, acesulfame K and saccharin), preservatives (benzoic and sorbic acid), colours (tartrazine, sunset yellow, quinoline yellow, allura red, amaranth, ponceau 4R, carmoisine, erythrosine, brilliant blue, green S and patent blue), citric acid, caffeine and total sugars. High-performance liquid chromatography methods used to quantify the levels of total sugars, caffeine and additives were validated against parameters such as linearity, recovery, accuracy, precision and limit of quantification. Findings Out of 48 beverages, 13 contained at least one sweetener. The most frequently used sweeteners were acesulfame K and aspartame. Benzoic acid was present in 27 samples (42.32–168.03 mg/L). Sorbic acid was present in 14 beverages (13.01–180.38 mg/L). Citric acid (0.7–4 g/L) was present in all the 48 beverages, while caffeine was present in 20 samples in the range of 14.01–129.42 mg/L. Nine samples contained at least one artificial colour and the most frequently used colours were tartrazine, sunset yellow, brilliant blue and carmoisine. The average level of total sugars present in the beverages was 10 g/100 ml. The validation parameters obtained showed evidence for method suitability. Research limitations/implications Beverages sold by individuals on the street, small restaurants and markets were not analysed. Originality/value This study provides an overview of the chemical composition of soft drinks and their compliance with Food Regulations. It also paves the way to investigate weaknesses, knowledge, attitudes and practices of local manufacturers, which leads to non-adherence to Regulations regarding food additives.
... The sample was titrated with 0.1N NaOH until the sample reached endpoint where its color becomes pink. 26 The %TTA was computed using the following equation: ...
Full-text available
Article
Probiotic drink like yoghurt from dairy milk is one of the most popular functional food. However, some people are not able to consume dairy milk due to lactose intolerance. Thus, a substitute substrate such as fruit juice, is needed. It refers to prebiotic compounds that are found in some of fruits like banana and guava. The aim of this research was to determine the effect of fermented banana and guava juices on the viability of fecal microflora. The juices were made from banana or red guava fermented by Lactobacillus casei (15% v/v). In vitro test was conducted using indigenous human fecal bacteria (1% w/v). The viability of enteropathogens, lactic acid bacteria (LAB), and total microbes was determined by enumeration as well as the prebiotic index of the fermented juices. The in vitro test results showed that both fermented juices could elevate the total microbes and LAB as compared to control sample. The viability of the total microbes and LAB increased by 2.16 log CFU/mL and 2.90 log CFU/mL for fermented banana juice (FBJ), respectively. The same trend was also observed in fermented guava juice (FGJ) with an increase by 1.92 log CFU/mL for total microbes and 2.99 log CFU/mL for LAB. Interestingly, both fermented juice could decrease the population of most enteropathogens compared to control sample. FBJ could decrease the population of E. coli, Klebsiella sp. and Salmonella as low as 3.78, 3.32, and 1.37 log CFU/mL respectively. Meanwhile, FGJ could drop the number of E. coli (1.44 log CFU/mL), and Klebsiella sp. (1.29 log CFU/mL). Moreover, the prebiotic index for FBJ and FGJ were 2.57 and 2.16. In conclusion, both FBJ and FGJ were potential substrate for probiotic drink and had good effect for fecal microflora health.
... In the food industry it is commonly used as a flavourant due its sour taste and also as a preservative to reduce microbial growth [27]. When added to body scrubs and washes it serves a dual purpose, acting as an exfoliant and an anti-aging compound due to its antioxidant properties and slight acidity [25,28]. In excess however, it can lead to various ailments such as stomach cramps, nausea, skin irritation and erosion of enamel [28]. ...
... When added to body scrubs and washes it serves a dual purpose, acting as an exfoliant and an anti-aging compound due to its antioxidant properties and slight acidity [25,28]. In excess however, it can lead to various ailments such as stomach cramps, nausea, skin irritation and erosion of enamel [28]. This has necessitated the need for careful monitoring of the amount of citric acid. ...
Article
Metal-organic frameworks have poor electrochemical properties. However their electron transfer kinetics can be improved by doping these materials with known conductive materials. In this contribution we have proved that electron transfer kinetics of [Cu3(benzene‐1,3,5‐tricarboxylate)2(H2O)3]n (HKUST-1) can be improved by loading its channels using copper oxide nanoparticles to give CuO@HKUST-1. Electrochemical studies showed that the synergy of copper oxide nanoparticles and HKUST-1 in the nanocomposite lead to high electrocatalysis, fast response for catalysis (less than 5 s) with good signal strengths and excellent selectivity toward the oxidation of citric acid (CA). It was also noted that the oxidation of CA occurred at lower potential (+ 0.47) in comparison to the commonly observed (+ 1.00) for most reported systems and displayed a very high resistance to passivation. This result was attributed to the presence of numerous catalytically active sites and the large surface area of the nanocomposite material which can lower the activation energy barrier for the oxidation of CA. Compared to the precursors, the composite displayed superior electron transfer kinetic suggesting that a synergistic relationship was formed. This work, strongly suggests that the combination of MOFs and conductive nanoparticles maybe used for the development of novel electrochemical sensors.
... Sodium benzoate and citric acid ( Figure 1) are food additives which are often combined as preservatives and regulators of acidity in beverage products (Brima and Abbas, 2014;Ciriminna et al., 2017;Penniston et al., 2008). The use of both compounds excessively can cause various side effects such as asthma, urticaria, hyperactivity, renal and hepatic disorders, and tooth enamel damage (Abd-Al Gadir et al., 2009;Chen et al., 2015Chen et al., , 2014Keshavarz et al., 2012;Ren et al., 2009;Shahmohammadi et al., 2016;Shu et al., 2016). ...
Full-text available
Article
The development and validation of chemometrics-assisted spectrophotometry have been successfully performed for determination of sodium benzoate and citric acid that have overlapping of ultra violet absorption spectra. The study aimed to develop, validate, and apply spectrophotometric method with chemometrics approach for determination of both compounds in beverage products simultaneously. The analytical method was performed by making a calibration model using 16 training sets and 10 test sets of mixed solution followed by absorbance measurenment at wavelength of 190 nm up to 400 nm. In addition, the absorbance data was processed by multivariate calibration models of principal component regression (PCR) and partial least square-1 (PLS-1) and validated internally and externally to obtain optimum model. Validation of analytical methods was done by evaluating some parameters such as linearity and ranges, accuracy, precision, detection limits and quantification limits. The results showed that the optimum wavelength was 235 nm to 250 nm for sodium benzoate and 220 nm to 240 nm for citric acid with the selected optimum principal components (PCs) value were 6 (PCR) and 4 (PLS-1) for sodium benzoate and PCs 2 (PCR and PLS-1) for citric acid. The parameters of the analytical method validation developed were suitable and the analytical methods could be applied for the determination of the sodium benzoate and citric acid contents simultaneously in the beverage products.
... Although, the addition of citric acid could decrease the pH and approach to the isoelectric pH. [14] point out that the citric acid was added all to the good as the stabilizer of pH that could be extending the storage period of food product including the egg. The addition of citric acid at the rate of 2.4% gave the most significant different on Arabian chicken egg white pH up to 21 days storage. ...
... The author are very gratefull to Directorate General of Higher Education Departement of National Education Republic of Indonesia that funded this experiment by Hibah Kompetitif Penelitian Strategis Nasional, Contract No. 394/SP2H/PL/Dit.Litabmas/IV/2012, date April, 14, 2012 ...