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Circle of Security. Source: Cooper, Hoffman, Marvin, and Powell (1999).

Circle of Security. Source: Cooper, Hoffman, Marvin, and Powell (1999).

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Article
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The expression of attachment to the divine in certain places among different groups has been documented by anthropologists and sociologists for decades. However, the psychological processes by which this happens are not yet fully understood. This paper focuses on the concept of “place spirituality” (PS) as a psychological mechanism which allows the...

Contexts in source publication

Context 1
... demonstrates the interactions with objects of attachment, such as a place and a divine entity, serving as targets for proximity-seeking behaviour. These interactions allow for a to-and-fro oscillation of behaviour between two antithetical poles, as shown in Figures 1 and 2, which portray the transactional model of PS using Cooper, Hoffman, Marvin, and Powell's (2002) Circle of Security model (CoS). The CoS framework was developed by Marvin and colleagues in order to investigate the child's circular pattern of movement with the attachment caregiver in the physical environment. ...
Context 2
... CoS framework was developed by Marvin and colleagues in order to investigate the child's circular pattern of movement with the attachment caregiver in the physical environment. According to CoS, the primary caregiver is seen as a safe haven for affect regulation and serves as a secure base for exploring the world, as seen in Figure 1. We have adapted the CoS model to design a 'Circle of Place Spirituality' (CoPS), which is the circular pattern of movement with objects of attachment in a transactional chain (also see Counted, 2018). ...
Context 3
... demonstrates the interactions with objects of attachment, such as a place and a divine entity, serving as targets for proximity-seeking behaviour. These interactions allow for a to-and-fro oscillation of behaviour between two antithetical poles, as shown in Figures 1 and 2, which portray the transactional model of PS using Cooper, Hoffman, Marvin, and Powell's (2002) Circle of Security model (CoS). The CoS framework was developed by Marvin and colleagues in order to investigate the child's circular pattern of movement with the attachment caregiver in the physical environment. ...
Context 4
... CoS framework was developed by Marvin and colleagues in order to investigate the child's circular pattern of movement with the attachment caregiver in the physical environment. According to CoS, the primary caregiver is seen as a safe haven for affect regulation and serves as a secure base for exploring the world, as seen in Figure 1. We have adapted the CoS model to design a 'Circle of Place Spirituality' (CoPS), which is the circular pattern of movement with objects of attachment in a transactional chain (also see Counted, 2018). ...

Citations

... A sense of place may "allude to the complex relationship between humans and their environment" (Qazimi, 2014, p. 307). This relationship may evoke a sense of attachment or belonging to a specific environment (Najafi & Shariff, 2011), which may foster spirituality (Counted & Zock, 2019). Tacey (2000Tacey ( , 2003 more broadly refers to a spirit of place. ...
... Multiple scholars have called for more study to be conducted regarding a sense of place (Counted & Zock, 2019;Najafi & Shariff, 2011;Perriam, 2015). In some instances, experiencing a sense of place evokes a sense of wonder and awe (Hay & Nye, 2006;Wilson, 1984) which may in turn influence spiritual growth (Counted & Zock, 2019). ...
... Multiple scholars have called for more study to be conducted regarding a sense of place (Counted & Zock, 2019;Najafi & Shariff, 2011;Perriam, 2015). In some instances, experiencing a sense of place evokes a sense of wonder and awe (Hay & Nye, 2006;Wilson, 1984) which may in turn influence spiritual growth (Counted & Zock, 2019). As there appears to be a paucity of literature, especially about the link between spiritual growth and sense of place, more study in this specific area is perhaps warranted. ...
... In both Colombian and South African populations, R/S struggles during the public health crisis were positively associated with depression. From the perspective of embodied or place spirituality, believers' relationship to the sacred is rooted within the physical world, and often, a religious community Counted & Zock, 2019). It follows, then, that the COVID-19 pandemic may have significant impacts on individuals' subjective experience of divine presence, exacerbating preexisting R/S struggles or precipitating new questions and doubts. ...
Article
Physical and existential threats stemming from the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic may provoke religious/spiritual (R/S) struggles or exacerbate preexisting angst and questions. In the Global South, where pervasive social–structural disadvantages limit resource availability to mitigate psychosocial consequences, doubts about divine presence and purpose amidst suffering, loss, and uncertainty may be especially salient factors in spiritual and mental health. With two independent samples of Colombians and South Africans recruited during an early phase of lockdown in each country, the current set of studies (N Study 1 = 1,172; N Study 2 = 451) examined positive religious coping (Study 1) and state hope (Study 2) as potential resources that may support the mental health of people living in the Global South who experienced R/S struggles during the public health crisis. Results of hierarchical regression analyses across both studies revealed that R/S struggles were positively associated with depression. In Study 1, there was a two-way interaction between R/S struggles and positive religious coping, such that the relation between R/S struggles and depression was attenuated when positive religious coping was higher for both men and women. In Study 2, a three-way interaction emerged among R/S struggles, state hope, and gender; R/S struggles were associated with higher levels of depression when state hope was low in women and when state hope was high in men. We discuss the implications of these findings for promoting psychological and spiritual well-being in low- and middle-income countries during the COVID-19 pandemic.
... A caregiver functions as a secure base from which the infant explores the broader social environment. Research on attachment experiences has been extended to adults, with adult attachment theorists arguing that the mechanism of attachment is from the cradle to the grave because people grow into seeking substitute relationships with other objects of attachment later in life (Counted & Zock, 2019;Counted, 2018;Granqvist, 2020;Scannell & Gifford, 2014). ...
Chapter
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The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is an international health crisis. When the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged, a lack of available treatment prompted widespread public health concerns (Govender et al., 2020). Countries and territories around the world implemented public health measures (e.g., stay-at-home orders, social distancing) to control the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 (Cowden et al., 2021). Non-essential travel and in-person social interactions were restricted. In several countries, educational institutions postponed in-person learning and places of worship were forced to substitute in-person services with online services. Employers also had to adapt to the legislative changes that were prompted by the public health crisis, with many reducing operations and requiring employees to work from home. The public health measures that were imposed in almost every part of the world forced people to change behavior patterns and reconfigure lifestyles to meet the public health and safety challenges of the COVID-19 pandemic (Counted et al., 2020). Although those measures were considered a necessary part of the public health response, an indirect consequence was that our interactions and bonds with significant places were disrupted. That disruption in people–place relationships has heightened our sense of awareness about the extent to which human life is inextricably tethered to places. It has also prompted us to more fully understand how the public health crisis has shifted people–place relationships, what our bonds with places might look like after the COVID-19 pandemic, and how connections between people and places can be restored and built again. Against the backdrop of the COVID-19 pandemic, this book discusses the implications of a public health crisis for our relationships with place. It also explores how society may recover and foster positive relations with places after a pandemic.
... Separation from a place of attachment may trigger separation distress (Counted, 2018;Counted & Zock, 2019). During the COVID-19 pandemic, separation distress may arise after being physically separated from a place that is part of our daily rounds or when our bond with a place has been threatened by pandemic-related public health measures. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
In Chapter 1, we introduced place as a relational object of attachment. This conceptualization of place allows us to consider what happens when a global pandemic threatens the bonds that people have with places of significance. It also provides a framework for understanding how separation from a place of significance can lead to a reparative process in which people either rebuild their sense of connection to the place of attachment that has been disrupted or replace that attachment bond with an alternative attachment object. Using the framework offered by Counted et al. (2021), this chapter will explore the three theorized response phases—protest, despair, and detachment—that follow place attachment disruption.
... In addition to place attachment itself, religious motivation and spiritual beliefs (including those pertaining to religious places) were both positively associated with intentions to visit religious places. These findings resonate with place spirituality theory, which emphasizes the many ways that religious/spiritual experiences are embedded in or facilitated by the relationships that people have with places (Counted, 2018;Counted & Zock, 2019). Even though there may be risks associated with traveling to religious destinations during the COVID-19 pandemic, it is possible that participants were motivated to visit religious places because physical closeness to a sacred geographical object of attachment may bring about a sense of security during a global pandemic (Billig, 2019). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Early reports in 2021 show that the COVID-19 pandemic has affected many people, communities, and societies (Huang et al., 2021). Interactions and bonds with places that are a valued part of our lives have also been impacted by the public health crisis (Counted et al., 2021; Devine-Wright et al., 2020). People have been emplaced in their homes and displaced from places of significance, in part because of stay-at-home orders that were implemented to control the spread of SARS-CoV-2 (Devine-Wright et al., 2020). Emplacement and displacement experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic have contributed to changes in the emotional connections that people have with their environments (Devine-Wright et al., 2020; Meagher & Cheadle, 2020; Stieger et al., 2021). Ramkissoon (2020) used the term place confinement to describe the way that people have been confined to their homes in order to control or limit transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Place confinement within the context of the COVID-19 pandemic has restricted people from accessing, interacting, and connecting with the broader environment, which can have consequences for mental, physical, spiritual, and social well-being (Counted et al., 2021; Meagher & Cheadle, 2020; Ramkissoon, 2020). However, some empirical research suggests that place confinement may be a generative experience because it can foster or reinforce attachment to one’s home. For example, social (e.g., kinship, family members) and physical (e.g., interior design, restorations) features of people’s homes have been among the predictors of place attachment during the COVID-19 pandemic (Meagher & Cheadle, 2020). Although research addressing the impact of the public health crisis on human–environment interactions is ongoing, taking stock of the existing evidence on people–place relationships during the COVID-19 pandemic could help to inform future research and relevant policies. Based on a preliminary search performed in PubMed, PROSPERO, PsycINFO, and Web of Science databases during September 2020, we did not identify any scoping or systematic reviews focusing on people–place relationships during the COVID-19 pandemic. In this chapter, we perform a scoping review to synthesize and descriptively map empirical research on place attachment within the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. We discuss the implications of the findings for research and policymaking decisions centered on promoting post-pandemic recovery.
... Visits to religious sites aroused strong feelings of religious fervor among the pilgrims (Nyaupane et al., 2015). Within the psychology of religion, God is the most secure figure of devotion for believers who seek proximity to God for emotional support and experience companionship (Counted & Zock, 2019). Similarly, sacred religious figures are essentially believed to possess divine powers to facilitate people's connection with God. ...
Article
This study investigates the timely, yet academically unexplored, topic of travel burnout. The study explores the return journeys of pilgrim-tourists from Iran to Pakistan during COVID-19 pandemic and contextualizes travel burnout as a negative emotional state placed in the existing theoretical streams. The conservation of resources theory (Hobfoll, 1989; 2004) provided theoretical support to guide current study's research agenda. On the basis of a qualitative grounded theory research design, 47 in-depth interviews of pilgrim-tourists were conducted. Travel burnout emerged as a multidimensional concept comprising 3 core dimensions, i.e., low tourist self-efficacy, travel exhaustion and emotional maladaptation. Travel burnout anchors emerged as those factors that facilitated preservation of the tourists' resources when travel circumstances became beyond their regulation. The results pave the way for a more theoretically sound conceptualization of travel burnout. For destination marketing organizations, various avenues are identified that need attention to alleviate the tourist concerns that lead to burnout.
... Environmental psychologists and geographers conceptualize this place-based bond as place attachment, the "affective bond or link between people and specific places" (Hidalgo & Hernandez, 2001, p. 274). In some contexts, people relate to place as an object of attachment, forming a symbolic connection to their environment due to its anthropomorphic attributes (Counted, 2018;Counted & Zock, 2019). Empirical studies have shown, for example, that migrants and refugees develop an attachment with their new countries of abode (Counted, 2019;Counted et al., 2020). ...
... First, non-believers may form new types of relationships with the sacred to cope with their felt loss of place. This process has been conceptualized as the circle of place spirituality in which there is circular movement between place and the sacred (Counted, 2018;Counted & Zock, 2019). Second, people of faith are likely to rekindle their relationship with God as their source of hope within disaster and vulnerable contexts (Chen et al., 2019;Counted et al., in press). ...
... One explanation for this effect is the provision of a commonly held framework that helps people "make sense of their lives and experiences, sustain a sense of higher purpose and direction, and maintain a sense of sacred significance and value" (Davis et al., 2018, p. 1). However, this framework interacts with and in some ways is dependent on place spirituality (Counted, 2018;Counted & Zock, 2019), such that "spiritual meaning-making is an inherently relational process rooted in particular places" (Captari et al., 2019, p. 58). ...
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic has plagued the world, bringing everyday activities to a standstill. Many people are wrestling with the impact of the public health crisis on the connections they have with their environment (e.g., neighborhoods, cities), specific places (e.g., workplaces, places of worship), and people (e.g., loved ones, faith community) that are part of their daily lives. In this paper, we introduce the phenomenon of place attachment disruption as a common challenge for people who have been disconnected from their environment since the outbreak of SARS-CoV-2. We conceptualize place as a relational object and argue that the COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted the attachment that people have with the physical elements of their environment, the lifeforms of the environment, and to some extent the ‘soul’ of their cities. We then consider defensive responses that may be triggered by disruptions to place attachment during the public health crisis, including the emergence of spiritual/religious struggles. The experience of place attachment disruption is discussed as an opportunity to transcend place-related COVID-19 loss by detaching from ‘what no longer serves us’ in a way that builds resilience. We conclude by highlighting some practical approaches that could facilitate psychospiritual transformation (e.g., meaning-making) to disrupted place attachment during the public health crisis, as well as those that could support the formation of new (or renewed) connections to place in the aftermath of the COVID-19 pandemic.
... Research has also focused on the relationship between attachment to parents and God (Birgegard and Granqvist 2004) and attachment theory and the psychology of religious conversion (Kirkpatrick 2005;Rambo and Bauman 2012). Some research has also pointed to spirituality as a place that can be perceived as a safe haven and a secure base (Counted and Zock 2019). Granqvist and Kirkpatrick's (2016) research on religious attachment has shown that God is often approached as a safe haven to turn to in stressful times. ...
... Our modified model is based on the notion of religious attachment processes, particularly in adults (Counted and Zock 2019;Granqvist and Kirkpatrick 2016). 12 Faith may provide confidence and give assurance. ...
... 11 Insecure relationships to attachment-like figures tend to negatively affect children's ability to explore the world (Mothander et al. 2010). 12 Counted and Zock (2019) adapted the circle of security model to understand religious and spiritual attachment to places. In this perspective, sacred places can be understood as performing the function of safe havens and secure bases (Counted & Zock 2019). ...
Article
Full-text available
This article focuses on religious healing experiences related to resources from Christian faith and practices and attachment theory. Qualitative interviews were conducted with nine informants. The results indicate that they perceived healing experiences as intense encounters with a loving, sensitive, external power with detailed insights into their burdens. The respondents interpreted the external power as the Christian God. They characterized these experiences as life-changing spurs to further healing processes. We suggest that these encounters can be understood as perceived experiences of God as an attachment-like figure. Earlier research on religious attachment showed that God is often approached as a safe haven in stressful times. Although there is less evidence implying that God is seen as a secure base or a starting point for new exploration, our respondents indicated that these experiences prompted new explorations of their lives, selves, others, and God. We discuss how healing experiences may provide a sense of earned security that changes insecure internal working models into more secure models and argue that this insight can be relevant in the field of pastoral care.
... In contrast, tensions, struggles, and conflicts with one's religious faith (negative religious coping) associated negatively with well-being. Previous research suggests that relationships with the sacred are often tethered to places of worship (Counted & Zock, 2019), and religious participation is linked to better health and well-being (Aten et al., 2019;VanderWeele, Tsai, & Kawachi, 2016). Lockdowns imposed in Colombia and South Africa during the COVID-19 pandemic deprived people of access to places of worship and their broader religious communities, which may have strained spiritual connection with the divine and thwarted opportunities to engage in faith-based activities that typically supported well-being. ...
Article
Full-text available
To identify potential protective mechanisms that might buffer the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on well-being, the current set of studies (NStudy 1 = 1172, NStudy 2 = 451) examined the roles of hope and religious coping (positive and negative) in promoting well-being during stay-at-home orders that were implemented in Colombia and South Africa. After controlling for relevant sociodemographic characteristics (Study 1), subjective health complaints, and sleep quality (Study 2), hope was positively associated with well-being and the relation between hope and well-being was moderated by religious coping. Whilst well-being was highest when levels of hope were high (irrespective of positive or negative religious coping levels), when reported hope was low, well-being tended to be higher when positive religious coping was high (Study 1) and negative religious coping was low (Study 2). Implications of the findings for maintaining well-being during a public health crisis are discussed.
... Some evidence in literature shows that people may embrace spirituality when a disaster strikes (Captari et al., 2019); place affect can hence contribute to spiritual wellbeing. Researchers argue spiritual wellbeing continues to attract significant interest (Counted and Zock, 2019;Counted et al., 2020) in contributing to residents' overall quality of life. ...
Article
Full-text available
Residents’ wellbeing in the present COVID-19 global health crisis requires a deeper understanding to determine appropriate management strategies to promote sustainable behaviors and contribute to human and planetary health. Residents’ behavior can have a profound influence in contributing to personal and global community’s health by responding effectively to emergency strategies in disease outbreaks such as the Coronavirus. It is evident that an understanding of residents’ behavior(s) pre COVID-19 across fields have relied on over-simplistic models, many of which will need to be revisited. Our interaction with people and nature while respecting social distancing has profound positive impacts on our physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual wellbeing. The current health pandemic has called that people be confined in their homes across many nations as a means to control the spread of the virus and save lives. This calls for research exploring the mechanisms; this paper develops and proposes a conceptual framework suggesting that place confinement promotes pro-social and household pro-environmental behaviors which could become habitual and contribute further to our people’s and our planet’s health. Some evidence shows that human connectedness to place may contribute to engagement in desirable behaviors. Interaction with other members of the household can help create meanings leading to collective actions promoting psychological wellbeing. Promoting hygienic behaviors in the household (frequent hand washing) while at the same time being conscious not to keep the water flowing when not required would contribute to a range of benefits (health, financial, biospheric, altruistic) and promote wellbeing. Engaging in pro-social behaviors may result in positive effects on psychological wellbeing, reducing mental distress giving rise to a sense of attachment and belongingness, trust and overall life satisfaction. Engaging people in low-effort pro-environmental behavior to maintain some levels of physical activity and biological harmony with natural environmental settings (e.g. gardening) may help reduce anxiety and distress. This is the first study exploring the interplay of relationships between place confinement, pro-social behavior, household pro-environmental behaviors, place attachment as a multi-dimensional construct and presenting their relationships to residents’ wellbeing. Behavioral change interventions are proposed to promote lifestyle change for people’s wellbeing and broader societal benefits. Keywords: COVID-19, Place confinement, pro-social behavior, Pro-environmental behavior (PEB), place attachment, habits, Residents' wellbeing, behavior change