Chord diagram and circular barplot showing the number and area of counties and species composition of hotspots, NNRs and PNRs. The inner arcs are linked up with circular barplot through the same color to represent the same taxa. The colored segments in the inner arc represented the number of species of certain taxa, or different species numbers of certain taxa in different areas. The part of all species (All_sp) presents species composition of TLPCs in inner segments and proportion of different taxa in histogram in outer

Chord diagram and circular barplot showing the number and area of counties and species composition of hotspots, NNRs and PNRs. The inner arcs are linked up with circular barplot through the same color to represent the same taxa. The colored segments in the inner arc represented the number of species of certain taxa, or different species numbers of certain taxa in different areas. The part of all species (All_sp) presents species composition of TLPCs in inner segments and proportion of different taxa in histogram in outer

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There are about 10% of the world's land plants in China, of which 11% are threatened species. Here, we used China as a proxy to identify hotspots of threatened species, evaluate the effectiveness of current conservation networks and assess the correlations between distribution patterns of different groups. We built the most complete database of 3,8...

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... To effectively protect species diversity, conservationists focused on identifying priority areas for conservation (Tang et al., 2006;Zhang et al., 2015b;Huang et al., 2016;Hu et al., 2017;Xie et al., 2021;Xia et al., 2022). Species diversity is measured using several metrics, with species richness and endemism being the most commonly used metrics for developing conservation strategies (Zizka et al., 2019;Noroozi et al., 2019a;Xie et al., 2021;Moreira-Munoz et al., 2022;Qin et al., 2022). The spatial congruence of species richness and endemism hotspots is the basis for identifying priority areas for conservation (Orme et al., 2005) but is rarely evaluated in insects. ...
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The rapid extinction of species is of considerable concern for biodiversity conservation. Identifying the drivers of species diversity and hotspots is beneficial for developing conservation strategies. Studies on insects have mainly focused on terrestrial species and rarely on semiaquatic species. Using 135,208 georeferenced occurrence records of 296 damselflies across North America, their species richness and endemism (represented by weighted endemism) patterns were mapped in a 100 × 100-km grid size, and the effects of environmental variables on species richness and endemism were investigated using generalized linear models and hierarchical partitioning. Subsequently, the top 5% grids with species richness and weighted endemism were separately selected as hotspots and their congruence was evaluated. Finally, species diversity hotspots were identified by integrating two types of hotspot grids, and gap analysis was performed to evaluate their conservation status. Temperature conditions and water availability had the strongest influence on species richness and endemism, respectively. Low congruence among species richness and endemism hotspots was observed. Moreover, four species diversity hotspots were identified, namely, region of the eastern United States and southeastern Canada, southwestern United States, central Mexico, and southernmost North America. Approximately 69.31% of the hotspot grids are not a part of the existing protected areas, presenting a significant conservation gap. The habitats of taxonomic groups should be considered while identifying the most common driving mechanisms of endemism. Strengthening the establishment of protected areas in regions with conservation gaps is urgently needed to promote the conservation of damselflies in North America.
... We determined the final diversity hotspots of NKPWPs based on the integration of the hotspots identified using each method (Yang et al., 2021a;Xie et al., 2022;Qin et al., 2022). The final hotspot grid cells were divided into three classes for priority conservation plans depending on whether they were identified by three, two, or one indices or methods Xie et al., 2022;Xue et al., 2022). ...
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National key protected wild plants (NKPWPs) are species with important conservation value based on genetics, ecology, culture, and/or scientific research, which are also confronted with serious threats. However, their geographical distribution patterns and conservation status remain unclear. In this study, we compiled 1,032 species of NKPWPs. We measured the diversity to identify NKPWPs hotspots based on species richness, weighted range size rarity and a complementarity‐based analysis. Comparing the distribution and hotspots of NKPWPs with the coverage of Chinese nature reserves (NRs), we assessed conservation effectiveness and identified conservation gaps. The results identified 13 diversity hotspots; only 9.5% of them were covered by NRs with >30% of the grid cell area, and even 19.5% were not covered at all by NRs. Overall, 44.7% of NKPWPs are effectively protected by national NRs. Despite this success, 571 species in Yunnan, Guizhou, Sichuan, Chongqing, Guangxi, Guangdong, southern Hainan, Taiwan, and northern Xinjiang remain unprotected by NRs. The protected proportion of plants with first‐level protection was lower than that of plants with second‐level protection. The low overall proportion of protected hotspots indicates that the conservation outlook for NKPWPs is not optimistic. This study identifies priority conservation areas and conservation gaps and provides a scientific reference for the conservation of wild plants in China. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... A lot of evaluation work was carried out under the guidance of this framework, but gaps still exist. For example, most assessments based on this evaluation framework focused on ecological indicators, including the number of species [10,11], habitat quality [12], and ecosystem service [13]. Although these indicators may accurately reflect the changes in protected objects before and after establishing protected areas, it is not easy to rapidly Land 2022, 11, 1071 2 of 12 evaluate the management effectiveness of large protected areas and multiple protected areas. ...
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The management effectiveness of protected areas plays a key role in biodiversity and ecosystem services conservation. We evaluated the effectiveness of Qilian Mountain Nature Reserve (QMNR) in reducing human footprint (HF). Four dominant human activity factors, including population density, land use, road distribution, and night light, were incorporated for HF mapping. Comparisons of the HF value between inside and outside QMNR and its four functional zones were conducted. The results show that both the HF inside and outside of QMNR were increasing, but the difference between them was increasing, indicating partial management effectiveness. The north part of the central reserve has a good effect in reducing human impacts, while the effectiveness was poor at both ends of the reserve. The HF value of the most strictly managed core and buffer zones increased by 10.50 and 6.68%, respectively, for 2010–2020. The QMNR was effective in controlling population density and land use, but ineffective in reducing road construction, mining, and construction of hydropower facilities.
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This study aimed to identify the main factors driving species richness and endemism patterns of Chinese wild Rhododendron as well as to assess the hotspots of species diversity and their conservation status. We initially mapped the species richness and endemism (expressed by weighted endemism) patterns of 546 wild Rhododendron in China in 100 × 100 km grids using 13,969 occurrence records. Subsequently, the effects of environmental variables on species richness and endemism patterns were assessed using regression models, and hotspots were identified based on the areas overlapping in 10% of the grids with the highest species richness and endemism. Finally, the conservation status of the hotspots was evaluated via gap analysis. The key environmental variables affecting species richness and endemism patterns differed. Species richness patterns were significantly influenced by moisture index, whereas endemism patterns were significantly influenced by elevation range. Moreover, the following five species diversity hotspots were identified: southern Xizang, Hengduan Mountains, south-central Sichuan, eastern Yungui Plateau, and central Gansu; however, these hotspots are not fully covered by the existing nature reserves. Our results indicate that the establishment of nature reserves should be actively promoted to effectively protect wild Rhododendron in hotspots with a conservation gap.