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Chemical structures of stereoisomers of hydroxycitric acid. 

Chemical structures of stereoisomers of hydroxycitric acid. 

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(-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA) is a principle constituent (10-30%) of the dried fruit rind of Garcinia cambogia, a plant native to Southeastern Asia. The dried rind has been used for centuries throughout Southeast Asia as a food preservative, flavoring agent and carminative. Extensive experimental studies show that HCA inhibits fat synthesis and redu...

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... It has been reported that HCA in solvent converts to the less reactive lactone over time (Soni et al. 2004;Venkateswara Rao et al. 2010;Bakhiya et al. 2017) (Figure 1). This combined with the poor solubility of HCA in organic solvents (LogP −2.6) (PubChem 2021) led us to utilize size exclusion with Amicon ultra centrifugal filter units and 1% formic acid in ASTM Type 1 water for sample clean up instead of protein precipitation using organic solvents. ...
Article
Garcinia cambogia extract (GCE) is a popular botanical supplement used in weight loss products. Hydroxycitric acid (HCA) is the principal component in GCE. Due to lack of adequate toxicity data to assess the safe use of GCE, the National Toxicology Program is testing GCE in Hsd:Sprague Dawley SD rats following perinatal exposure and in adult B6C3F1/N mice. We report a validated method utilizing sample clean up with ultrafiltration followed by liquid chromatography—tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis to quantify HCA in rat plasma across the concentration range from 20 to 800 ng/mL. The method was linear (r² ≥ 0.99) with limits of quantitation (LOQ) and detection (LOD) equal to 20.0 and 3.9 ng/mL plasma, respectively. The accuracy (determined as the relative error, RE) and precision (determined as the relative standard deviation, RSD) using quality control standards analyzed over multiple days were ≤ ± 7.5% and ≤9.5%, respectively. The method was applied to quantify HCA in study matrices (relative error ≤ ± 23.0%; relative standard deviation ≤ 6.0) except gestational day (GD)18 fetus. The method was partially validated in GD18 fetal homogenate across the concentration range from 60 to 3000 ng/g (r² ≥ 0.99, relative error ≤ ± 11.9%, and relative standard deviation ≤ 5.5%; LOQ 60.0 ng/g; LOD 7.77 ng/g). Standards as high as 20,000 ng/mL (plasma) and 502,000 ng/g (fetus) were successfully quantified after dilution into the validated range (relative error ≤ ± 2.6%; relative standard deviation ≤ 5.2%). These results demonstrate that the method is suitable to quantify HCA in rodent matrices and may be adapted to other biological matrices.
... Garcinia gummi-gutta is a dicotyledon belonging to the family Guttiferae (Clusiaceae). These polygamous trees or shrubs are (Soni et al., 2004) one of the most medicinally important members of the Guttiferae family. The tree is a small or medium size which grows with a globular cover and hanging branches. ...
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Uncontrolled emergence of multiple antibiotic resistances of microbial strains and the problems associated with the usage of chemical disinfectants in food processing units is a major concern to have been focused on. Herbal extracts had been used in treating against several microbes during ancient years. So they need to be explored to develop plant based antimicrobials for avoiding the complications due to the antibiotic resistant strains. The present study aimed to analyse the broad spectrum bactericidal activity of aqueous and methanolic extracts and for separating the bioactive principle from fresh exocarp of Garcinia gummi-gutta using separation techniques and to perform the technique of bioautography to identify the bioactive compounds. In the present study the extract were tested against one gram positive and four gram negative strains. The diameter of zone of inhibition was highest (47mm) in controlling Vibrio parahaemolyticus. The result confirms its broad spectrum activity by controlling both Gram positive and negative strains. Bioautography of TLC plates reveal that the antibacterial compound of Garcinia gummi gutta is found in the active band with Rf value 0.63.
... Studies of acute, short-term, sub-chronic, and chronic toxicity, as well as studies of genotoxicity, cytotoxicity and toxicity in reproduction, have been conducted in different animal species, although mainly in rats and rabbits. These studies have shown that Garcinia/HCA have good safety profiles, so that they may be used as nutritional supplements for the treatment of obesity [34][35][36]. Ohia et al. (2002) evaluated the effects of Super Citri-Max™, a novel calcium/potassium-HCA extract (HCA-SX), containing 60% HCA, administered for 14 days. This extract is considerably more soluble and bioavailable than calcium-based HCA ingredients [37]. ...
... Based on toxicological studies, Soni et al. (2004) noted that there was sufficient quantitative and qualitative scientific evidence, from both animal and human data, to suggest that HCA intake up to 2800 mg/day is safe for human consumption [35]. As a result, a NOAEL of 2800 mg/d was established [34,35]. ...
... Based on toxicological studies, Soni et al. (2004) noted that there was sufficient quantitative and qualitative scientific evidence, from both animal and human data, to suggest that HCA intake up to 2800 mg/day is safe for human consumption [35]. As a result, a NOAEL of 2800 mg/d was established [34,35]. ...
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Nowadays, obesity is one of the great nutritional problems facing public health. The prevalence of this pathology has increased in a worrying way over recent years, currently reaching epidemic proportions. In this context, nutritional supplements are presented as a therapeutic alternative to which more and more people are turning to. Nutritional supplements to lose weight based on the Garcinia plant, specifically on Garcinia cambogia, are commonly used. The active principle of this plant to which these properties have been attributed, is hydroxycitric acid (HCA). The aim of the present review is to gather reported data concerning the effectiveness of nutritional supplements based on Garcinia extracts on weight loss and their possible negative effects. Contradictory results have been observed regarding the effectiveness of the supplements. While statistically significant weight loss was observed in some studies, no changes were found in others. Regarding safety, although Garcinia supplements have been revealed as safe in the vast majority of the studies carried out in animal models and humans, some cases of hepatotoxicity, serotonin toxicity and mania have been reported. In conclusion, the results suggest that Garcinia-based supplements could be effective in short-term weight loss, although the data are not conclusive. In addition, the safety of the complement should be further studied.
... Garcinia is one of the largest genera of the Clusiaceae family comprising of 390 species and it is one in all the foremost medicinally important members. These polygamous trees or shrubs are mainly spread in tropical Asia, Polynesia, and Africa (Soni et al., 2004). In Ayurveda, it is said that the sour flavours, like those from Garcinia, activate digestion. ...
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Natural compounds originally derived from plants are historically considered a useful source of potential therapeutic agents, and are known to play essential roles in human diseases. The aim of the current study was to investigate the presence of bioactive compounds in hexane and methanol extracts of Garcinia cambogia and G. indica plant leaves. Both plant leaves were collected, shade dried, made into fine powder and extracted with organic solvents using Soxhlet extractor. The extracts were then analysed for the presence of phytochemicals by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The mass spectrum of the chromatography was matched with NIST and WILEY libraries. The GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of 11 and 17 bioactive compounds from the hexane and methanol extracts of G. cambogia respectively. Likewise, G. indica showed 14 compounds each from hexane and methanol extracts. The potent medicinal property within the plant extracts is due to the secondary metabolites present in the plant, which are identified by GCMS. The present investigation revealed preliminary information on bioactive components present in G. cambogia and G. indica leaf extracts, which can open a big platform for pharmacological companies to formulate various drugs from Garcinia species.
... Hydroxycitric acid (31), garcinia acid (32), and citric acid (33) (Figure 3; Table 1) were reported to be the major organic acids in the leaves of Indian gamboge [3,4]. Hydroxycitric acid is a derivative of citric acid found in the highest amount in G. cambogia fruits [27], and the majority of scientific evidence suggests that it possesses therapeutic value Molecules 2020, 25, 5690 6 of 15 and promotes weight loss, suppresses de novo fatty acid synthesis, and increases lipid oxidation [28]. However, different case studies have demonstrated acute liver toxicity/failure in women consuming G. cambogia extract for weight loss. ...
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Garcinia morella (Gaertn.) Desr. is an evergreen tree that yields edible fruits, oil, and resin. It is a source of "gamboge", a gum/resin that has a wide range of uses. The fruits, leaves, and seeds of this tree are rich in bioactive compounds, including xanthones, flavonoids, phenolic acids, organic acids, and terpenoids. Evidence from different studies has demonstrated the antioxidant, antifungal, antiviral, hepatoprotective, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and larvicidal activities of the fruit, leaf, and seed extracts of G. morella. This review summarizes the information on the phytochemicals of G. morella and the biological activities of its active constituents.
... Vários fabricantes empregaram diferentes procedimentos para preparar sais de HCA com melhores biodisponibilidade como o Sal de cálcio/potássio de HCA extraído de Gc, comercialmente conhecido como Super CitriMax® (HCA-SX). As estimativas quantitativas mostram que o HCA-SX consiste em 95% de cálcio / potássio-HCA fornecendo 60% de ácido hidroxicítrico [26]. ...
... As noted above, GC is a common dietary component in some cuisines with no apparent adverse effects noted, though the amount of dietary HCA consumed would likely be less than when being used as a pharmaceutical. Soni et al. reported that over a 10 year period, approximately 5 billion doses of single HCA supplement had been sold without negative side effects being noted [25]. Multiple trials of HCA in humans have reported HCA to be well tolerated, with no significant adverse events [25]. ...
... Soni et al. reported that over a 10 year period, approximately 5 billion doses of single HCA supplement had been sold without negative side effects being noted [25]. Multiple trials of HCA in humans have reported HCA to be well tolerated, with no significant adverse events [25]. However, there have been sporadic case reports of adverse events, particularly liver toxicity, associated with HCA consumption [26]. ...
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Alkali supplements are used to treat calcium kidney stones owing to their ability to increase urine citrate excretion which lowers stone risk by inhibiting crystallization and complexing calcium. However, alkali increases urine pH, which may reduce effectiveness for patients with calcium phosphate stones and alkaline urine. Hydroxycitrate is a structural analog of citrate, widely available as an over-the-counter supplement for weight reduction. In vitro studies show hydroxycitrate has the capacity to complex calcium equivalent to that of citrate and that it is an effective inhibitor of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystallization. In fact, hydroxycitrate was shown to dissolve calcium oxalate crystals in supersaturated solution in vitro. Hydroxycitrate is not known to be metabolized by humans, so it would not be expected to alter urine pH, as opposed to citrate therapy. Preliminary studies have shown orally ingested hydroxycitrate is excreted in urine, making it an excellent candidate as a stone therapeutic. In this article, we detail the crystal inhibition activity of hydroxycitrate, review the current knowledge of hydroxycitrate use in humans, and identify gaps in knowledge that require appropriate research studies before hydroxycitrate can be recommended as a therapy for kidney stones.
... The plant extracts from Hibiscus varieties are known to possess an anti-obesity agent, L-hydroxycitric acid (HCA). HCA acts as a competitive inhibitor of the enzyme ATP-citrate lyase, which catalyzes the conversion of citrate and coenzyme A to oxaloacetate and acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA), primary building blocks of fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis [14]. Earlier workers [15] identified the principal acid (−)-hydroxycitric acid in the highly acidic fruits of Garcinia species, (+)-allo-hydroxycitric acid in the leaves of H. cannabinus, and its isomer in H. sabdariffa. ...
... Garcinia cambogia is used as a dietary supplement to lose weight. Its primary component is (-)-hydroxycitric acid, and supplementation in experimental animals has showed that hydroxycitric acid can suppress appetite and inhibit body fat biosynthesis (Soni et al., 2004). In rat brain cortex, hydroxycitric acid was shown to increase availability of 5-hydroxytryptamine or serotonin. ...
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Abstract Background: Until recent times, being obese was considered to be an evidence of wealth in the South-Western part of Nigeria. As a result of a combination of wrong attitudes, ignorance and carefree lifestyle, a sizeable percentage of the population has become predisposed to obesity an emerging problem in developing economies of the world. Objective: To identify and document medicinal plants used in ethno-medical management of obesity in selected rural and urban communities within Ibadan metropolis. This is with the aim of contributing to a database of plants for future systematic biological and chemical evaluation for possible source of anti-obesity agents and drug leads. Materials and methods: An inventory of plant species/natural remedies used in folk medicine to manage obesity in two Local Government Areas of Oyo State was undertaken. Interviews using semi-structured questionnaires and open-ended conversations were conducted among eighty (80) respondents (30% men and 70% women) aged 25 years and above to obtain relevant information.. Results: A total of fifteen (15) plants belonging to twelve (12) genera and twelve (12) families were identified. The usage profiles of the plants were quantified by the quotation frequency/mention index. Respondents from the urban rely more on finished products from local and foreign blends which are mostly multi-component remedies. Conclusion: The study revealed that Ibadan is a rich source of plants indicated in management of obesity. More scientific work especially biological studies are needed to ascertain the efficacy, toxicity, safety and appropriate dosage regimen of these ethno-medicinal remedies. Keywords; Obesity, Citrullus lanatus, Overweight
... There were no differences observed in the contents of total protein, albumin, globulin, T-Bil and the activities of ALT, AST, LDH, which represent hepatic functions in the body. Soni et al. (2004) and Anton et al. (2011) reported that consumption of (À)-HCA or HCA-SX (extract) at dose levels of 2800 or 4667 mg/day, respectively, is considered safe. The histological investigation on major tissues did not reveal any treatment-related pathological changes in rats administrated with HCA-SX at doses up to 2500 mg/kg/day for 90 days (Ohia et al. 2002). ...
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This study was conducted to determine the impact of (-)-hydroxycitric acid ((-)-HCA) on biochemical indices and lipid metabolism parameters in chicken embryos. Two hundred and forty fertilized eggs were divided into six groups and injected with (-)-HCA at concentrations of 0, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 10.0 and 50 mg/kg (n = 40). After 19 days of incubation, serum and liver were collected for analysis of biochemical indices and lipid metabolism parameters. Results showed no significant differences on serum biochemical indices: 1-50 mg/kg (-)-HCA significantly increased serum glucose and hepatic glycogen contents (P < 0.05). Oil Red O staining analysis showed total area, counts of lipid droplets and hepatic triglyceride content were significantly decreased (P < 0.01), meanwhile hepatic lipase and lipoprotein lipase activity were significantly increased (P < 0.05). ACLY, ME1, SREBP-1c messenger RNA (mRNA) levels in 0.5-10 mg/kg groups and FAS mRNA level in 1-10 mg/kg groups were significantly decreased (P < 0.05), while PPARα mRNA level, serum adiponectin content and AdipoR1 mRNA level were significantly increased in 0.5-50 mg/kg groups (P < 0.05). These results indicated (-)-HCA treatment inhibited triglyceride synthesis via decreasing lipogenesis-related factors, mRNA expression level and accelerated lipolysis by enhancing lipoprotein lipase and hepatic lipase activity, which finally reduced lipid droplet accumulation, and this action may be associated with activating the adiponectin signaling pathway.