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Chemical structure of hyaluronic acid.

Chemical structure of hyaluronic acid.

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Hyaluronic acid (HA) plays multifaceted role in regulating the various biological processes such as skin repairmen, diagnosis of cancer, wound healing, tissue regeneration, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulation. Owing to its remarkable biomedical and tissue regeneration potential, HA has been numerously employed as one of the imperative component...

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... acid (HA) (molecular formula C 28 H 44 N 2 O 23 ) is a non-sulfated glycosaminoglycan that is composed of repeating polymeric disaccharides of D-glucuronic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine linked via glycoside bond in the arrangement of alternating β-(1 → 4) and β-(1 → 3) bonds ( Fig. 1) [1]. The stability of HA structure confides in the stereochemistry of the disaccharides. Due to the natural abundance (animals and human bodies) of this biopolymer, its biodegradability, and biocompatibility appeals for its versatile uses as prognostic molecules and for treatment of a wide range of human and animal diseases. The ...
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... that is composed of repeating polymeric disaccharides of D-glucuronic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine linked via glycoside bond in the arrangement of alternating β- (1→4) and β-(1→3) bonds (Figure 1) [1]. The stability of HA structure confides in the stereochemistry of the disaccharides. ...

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... A recent study reported that HA's negative potential and high biocompatibility could reduce the cytotoxicity of metal-NPs for mammalian cells, consequently enhancing the wound healing capacity of hydrogels. Additionally, several bacteria could secret hyaluronidase; thus, these bacteria could degrade the HA, and the metal-NPs could be released to inactivate bacteria [126][127][128]. ...
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... During the aging process, a large amount of HMW-HA or vHMW-HA is underwent depolymerization in skin tissues, which attributes to the accumulation of cellular metabolites. The injection of cosmetic HA filler, normally makes of HMW-HA or vHMW-HA, can postpone this cell aging progression in the skin [41]. Evidence in rodent models illustrated that older mice contained lower HA amounts than their younger counterparts [42]. ...
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    ... As examples, among the ingredients of more common use are: Ascorbic acid (vitamin C), utilized for its antioxidant properties in the pigment-lightening formulations together with alpha lipoic acid, arbutin and Kojic acid [42]; aloe vera, which finds applications for its antibacterial, antiviral and immune modulating effectiveness [43]; grape seed oil, used as anti-aging agent thanks to its antioxidant and healing properties [44]; and green and black tea rich in antioxidant and antibacterial molecules, which are also able to inhibit the virus entry [45]. Some selected natural ingredients of common use in the cosmetic field and obtained from waste, micro algae and bacteria are reported in Table 1 as an example [46][47][48][49][50][51][52][53][54][55][56], while the more used ones, such as hyaluronic acid, oligopeptides, biomimetic peptides and collagen, are described reporting their supposed mechanism of action. ...
    ... Hyaluronic acid [HA] is an important ingredient of great interest used as a component of cosmetics, diet supplements and injected medical fillers for its moisturizing and anti-wrinkle effectiveness [46,57,58]. It is, in fact, a linear polysaccharide that plays multifaceted roles in regulating different biological functions, such as anti-inflammatory [59], immunomodulatory [60], antiaging [61] and skin repairing activities [62,63]. ...
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    ... HA is widely distributed in the synovial and extracellular matrix and exhibits biocompatibility, biodegradability, high moisture retention, and tunable viscoelastic properties (Jiao et al., 2016). Due to its various biological effects including anti-inflammation, wound recovery, antiaging, tissue regeneration, and skin-repairing properties, HA has been extensively explored in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries (Narurkar et al., 2016;Bukhari et al., 2018). ...
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    ... Whereas high molecular weight HA is widely used as filler to shape lips, contour cheeks and correct facial lines [2]. Thus, HA-based cosmetic formulations such as hydrogels, gels, dermal/intradermal filling injections, lotions, creams, and serums, have purported noticeable skin anti-wrinkle and anti-aging properties [3]. HA has favourable properties due to its biocompatibility, non-immunogenicity, and biodegradability [4]. ...
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    ... The special role of HA hydrogels in cosmetology should be noted. Owing to the great potential of HA in regulating inflammatory response, skin repairment, tissue regeneration, and immunomodulation, HA hydrogels have become the most crucial ingredients in cosmetic as well as nutricosmetic products (fillers, masks, gels, etc.) [17,18]. Inflammatory skin disorders can cause dryness, redness, and other unpleasant consequences [8]. ...
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    ... Glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans are also abundantly found in ECM. One of the most important glycosaminoglycan in skin is hyaluronic acid, which is a non-sulphated form of glycosaminoglycan [40]. Hyaluronic acid is considered as a principal molecule for skin moisture. ...
    ... The depletion of hyaluronic acid leads to the impairment of water retention ability causing loss of skin moisture. In addition to that, the presence of hyaluronic acid also ensures the proper configuration of collagen and elastin to remain intact [40]. Thus, the reduction in hyaluronic acid and increased collagen and elastin disorganization in aged skin leads to the prominence of fine lines, wrinkles, and nasolabial folds. ...
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    ... Hyaluronic acid is a natural polysaccharide, which has been used in various forms and with numerous functionalization [69][70][71][72][73]. From topical applications to drug delivery, it has been adopted for biomedical and cosmetic solutions. Alone, it has demonstrated pharmacological activity against inflammation [74] and promising results in anti-ageing [75]. In the right formulation, it can easily encapsulate nanometric particles, and it is widely used for controlled drug release [46,76]. ...
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    ... Moreover, HA has been reported to facilitate collagen and elastin interaction and, therefore, to promote a proper tissue matrix configuration. In contrast, during aging, loss of HA may contribute to the disorganization of collagen and elastin fibers [51]. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, bioactive collagen peptide VERISOL ® given at the dose of 2.5 g daily for 8 weeks enhanced the skin content of both procollagen type I (65%) and elastin (18%) [52]. ...
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    ... Recently, to expand the range of applications, the use of a mixture of this drug with traditional dermatological agents, for example, a mixture with hyaluronic acid, has become relevant. Hyaluronic acid plays an important role in the regulation of various biological processes, such as skin repair, wound healing, tissue regeneration, and is also an antiinflammatory and cosmetic agent [25]. Compositions based on hyaluronic acid are used against wrinkles, nasolabial folds, aging, etc. [26]. ...