Chemical structure of flavonoids isolated from genus Salsola.

Chemical structure of flavonoids isolated from genus Salsola.

Source publication
Article
Full-text available
The genus Salsola L. (Russian thistle, Saltwort) includes halophyte plants and is considered one of the largest genera in the family Amaranthaceae. The genus involves annual semi-dwarf to dwarf shrubs and woody tree. The genus Salsola is frequently overlooked, and few people are aware of its significance. The majority of studies focus on pollen mor...

Citations

... The name Salsola is derived from the Latin name "Salsus" which means salty, referring to the salt tolerance plants belonging to the genus. Plants of genus Salsola are widespread halophytes found in arid and semi-arid regions of Africa, Middle East, Europe and Central Asia (Murshid et al., 2022). More than 140 species of genus Salsola have been reported in literature, but the exact number of species has not been reported yet (Hanif, Ali, Rasool, Tanveer, & Chauhan, 2018). ...
... Because of their salt tolerance, different species in this genus and closely related genera go by the common name saltwort. Salsus, which means "salty" in Latin, is the source of the genus name Salsola (Murshid et al., 2022). Some Salsola species are edible plants, for instance, the buds of Salsola soda are consumed as vegetables in Italy named as "agretti" (Murshid et al., 2022). ...
... Salsus, which means "salty" in Latin, is the source of the genus name Salsola (Murshid et al., 2022). Some Salsola species are edible plants, for instance, the buds of Salsola soda are consumed as vegetables in Italy named as "agretti" (Murshid et al., 2022). The plant, known as gannabos in Namibia, is a prized fodder plant. ...
Article
Many of the plants of genus Salsola are edible halophytes which are known for their use in treatment of inflammation as well as their nutritional content. This study aims at comprehensive chemical profiling of two Salsola species that are widely distributed in arid areas; S. imbricata and S. jordanicola, using UHPLC-QqQ-MS in an attempt to decipher the bioactive constituents of the aerial parts of the selected plants and their ex-vivo anti-inflammatory activity. 73 chromatographic peaks were annotated where phytosterols dominated the metabolites in S. imbracta while phenylalkylamines were the major constituents detected in S. jordanicola. OPLS-DA model coefficients plot indicated that tetradecanoic acid, beta sitosterol and pentacosane were positively correlated to discrimination of S. imbricata species while N-feruloyloctopamine, N-feruloyltyramine, and ferulic acid, were positively correlated to discrimination of S. jordanicola species. Meanwhile, fractions of S. imbracta, reduced the 5 upregulation of TNF-α caused by LPS to levels lower than those produced by piroxicam while the petroleum ether and n-butanol fraction of S. jordanicola were more effective than piroxicam in reducing IL-6 gene expression. The coefficients plot depicted that methyl palmitate, aegicin, cleomiscoside, beta sitosterol and sitostanol possessed strong positive correlation to the down regulation of the pro-inflammatory marker TNF-α, IL-1β and IFN-γ while only norepinephrine derivatives were the major metabolites that showed strong positive correlation to the inhibition of IL-6 pro-inflammatory marker. The results obtained may help to explain chemically, the potential anti-inflammatory effect of the various Salsola species fractions increasing the value of the Salsola species as a putative functional foods.
... Extracts and decoctions of plants of this genus are used in world folk medicine to treat bacterial and viral, cardiovascular, skin diseases, coughs and flu, and in cosmetics [2]. Previously, several biologically active compounds were isolated from different types of Salsola: flavonoids, phenolic acids, saponins, triterpenes, lignans, sterols, fatty acids, alcohols, alkaloids, coumarins, as well as nitrogenous cyanogenic, isoprenoid and sulphur-containing compounds [3][4][5][6][7]. Most of these studies focus on phenolic compounds (PCs), which attract a lot of attention because of the great antioxidant activity. ...
Article
Full-text available
The above-ground part of the Salsola passerine was found to contain ~13% (w/w) of polysaccharides extractable with water and aqueous solutions of ammonium oxalate and sodium carbonate. The fractions extracted with aqueous sodium carbonate solutions had the highest yield. The polysaccharides of majority fractions are characterized by similar monosaccharide composition; namely, galacturonic acid and arabinose residues are the principal components of their carbohydrate chains. The present study focused on the determination of antioxidant activity of the extracted polysaccharide fractions and elucidation of the structure of polysaccharides using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Homogalacturonan (HG), consisting of 1,4-linked residues of α-D-galactopyranosyluronic acid (GalpA), rhamnogalacturonan-I (RG-I), which contains a diglycosyl repeating unit with a strictly alternating sequence of 1,4-linked D-GalpA and 1,2-linked L-rhamnopyranose (Rhap) residues in the backbone, and arabinan, were identified as the structural units of the obtained polysaccharides. HMBC spectra showed that arabinan consisted of alternating regions formed by 3,5-substituted and 1,5-linked arabinofuranose residues, but there was no alternation of these residues in the arabinan structure. Polysaccharide fractions scavenged the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical at 0.2–1.8 mg/mL. The correlation analysis showed that the DPPH scavenging activity of polysaccharide fractions was associated with the content of phenolic compounds (PCs).
... Rubia tinctorum Rubiaceae Diuretic action; treatment of type II diabetes mellitus [134,135] Tamarix gllica Tamarixaceae Astringent, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, wound-healing, and diuretic properties [136] Limoniastrum monopetalum Plumbaginaceae Cardioprotective, antidysenteric, antioxidant, antidiarrheal properties [137,138] Verbena officinalis Vebenaceae Analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, neuroprotective, and anticonvulsant activity [139] Plantago lanceolata, P. major, P. ovata Plantaginaceae Anticancer, anti-infectious, anti-inflammatory action in hepatitis; treatment of cold, cough, and digestive disorders [140,141] Teucrium genus Labiatae Antispasmodic, hypoglycemic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic properties [142] Caesalpinia crista Leguminosae Treatment of headaches, cough, asthma, neurodegenerative diseases, and upset stomach [143,144] Terminalia catappa Combretaceae Preventing hepatoma, hepatitis, fever, and diarrhea [145][146][147] Cakile maritima Brassicaceae Diuretic, antiscorbutic, anti-inflammatory, purgative and digestive properties [148,149] Salsola kali Amaranthaceae Hypotensive, hypoglycemic, anticancer, procognitive, antiviral, antimicrobial, hepatoprotective properties [150] Inula viscosa Asteraceae Antiseptic, antiscabies, antipyretic, anticancer, anti-inflammatory agent [151,152] This section however focuses on a detailed analysis of the pharmacological profile of Lobularia maritima. This plant has been traditionally used in the Mediterranean region as a diuretic, antiscorbutic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory agent [153]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Halophytes are plant species widely distributed in saline habitats, such as beaches, postindustrial wastelands, irrigated lands, salt flats, and others. Excessive salt level, known to limit plant growth, is not harmful to halophytes, which have developed a variety of defense mechanisms allowing them to colonize harsh environments. Plants under stress are known to respond with several morpho-anatomical adaptations, but also to enhance the production of secondary metabolites to better cope with difficult conditions. Owing to these adaptations, halophytes are an interesting group of undemanding plants with a high potential for application in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Therefore, this review aims to present the characteristics of halophytes, describe changes in their gene expression, and discuss their synthesized metabolites of pharmacognostic and pharmacological significance. Lobularia maritima is characterized as a widely spread halophyte that has been shown to exhibit various pharmacological properties in vitro and in vivo. It is concluded that halophytes may become important sources of natural products for the treatment of various ailments and for supplementing the human diet with necessary non-nutrients and minerals. However, extensive studies are needed to deepen the knowledge of their biological potential in vivo, so that they can be introduced to the pharmaceutical and food industries.
... Numerous species of this genus are still employed in traditional medicine. 3,4 Salsola imbricata Forssk. (syn. ...
Article
Full-text available
This work describes the first report of the known glycosidic constituents β-sitosterol-3-O-β-d-glucoside-6'-palmitate (1), β-sitosterol-3-O-β-d-glucoside (2), momor-cerebroside I (3), phytolacca cerebroside (4), 1,2-di-O-palmitoyl-3-O-(6-sulfoquinovopyranosyl)-glycerol (5), isorhamnetin-3-robinobioside (6), and isorhamnetin-3-rutinoside (7) from the plant Salsola imbricata Forssk. grown in the eastern region of Saudi Arabia. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated from extensive 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), and chemical analyses. Compound 1 is reported for the first time from the Amaranthaceae family. In addition to the isolated and identified fatty alcohols, compounds 3, 4, 5, and 6 are also reported for the first time from the genus Salsola. The findings of this study suggest a contribution of the isolated compounds to the various biological activities reported for this plant.
Article
In this phytochemical study, a novel arborinane-type triterpenoid glycoside (1) and three known megastigmanes (2–4) were isolated from the dried roots of Cyathula officinalis K.C.Kuan. The structures of these compounds were elucidated using NMR spectroscopy. This is the first report of arborinane-type triterpenoids in the Amaranthaceae family. Among these known megastigmanes, compound 3 was isolated from the Amaranthaceae family for the first time, while compounds 2 and 4 were first reported from the Cyathula genus. The chemotaxonomic significance of these compounds is discussed.
Article
Full-text available
Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) are known as RNA N-glycosylases. They depurinate the major rRNA, damaging ribosomes and inhibiting protein synthesis. Here, new single-chain (type-1) RIPs named sodins were isolated from the seeds (five proteins), edible leaves (one protein) and roots (one protein) of Salsola soda L. Sodins are able to release Endo’s fragment when incubated with rabbit and yeast ribosomes and inhibit protein synthesis in cell-free systems (IC50 = 4.83–79.31 pM). In addition, sodin 5, the major form isolated from seeds, as well as sodin eL and sodin R, isolated from edible leaves and roots, respectively, display polynucleotide:adenosine glycosylase activity and are cytotoxic towards the Hela and COLO 320 cell lines (IC50 = 0.41–1200 nM), inducing apoptosis. The further characterization of sodin 5 reveals that this enzyme shows a secondary structure similar to other type-1 RIPs and a higher melting temperature (Tm = 76.03 ± 0.30 °C) and is non-glycosylated, as other sodins are. Finally, we proved that sodin 5 possesses antifungal activity against Penicillium digitatum.