Citations

... However, alkaline pretreatment gave the highest percentage of cellulose (52.5 %) compared to acid pretreatment (39.1 %) and unpretreated substrate (23.7 %) ( Table 2). This observation agreed with findings of Gimba et al. (2010) who reported the value of 50-60 % cellulose from A. hypogaea shells. It can therefore, be said that alkaline treated A. hypogaea may be the preferred substrate for cellulase production from A. niger. ...
Article
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Cellulases are enzymes that hydrolyse cellulose and related cellu-oligosaccharides derivatives. Its applications are enormous but high cost of production is the bottle-neck against the utilization of cellulase in industries. Therefore, this study investigated the isolation, purification and characterization of cellulase produced by Aspergillus niger cultured on Arachis hypogaea shells. The crude cellulase enzyme was produced by A. niger through submerged fermentation process using A. hypogaea shells as a carbon source. The optima fermentation conditions were determined by varying different parameters. The crude cellulase was purified through ammonium sulphate precipitation, dialysis and gel-filtration chromatography. The molecular weight was estimated using sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The effects of pH and temperature on the activity of the purified cellulase were investigated. The study revealed that the: optimal production of crude cellulase was achieved at incubation period of 120 h, pH 4, temperature 40 °C, and inoculum size of 13 × 10⁵ CFU/ml. Cellulase was purified to 68.12-fold with a yield and specific activity of 3.87% and 484.3 U/mg respectively. The Vmax for the cellulase was 9.26 U/ml while the Km was 0.23 mg/ml. The molecular weight of the cellulase was approximately 13.5 kDa and the enzyme has higher specificity for CMC compared to other substrates. The optimum pH and temperature for the cellulase activity were 4 and 40 °C respectively. The present study has shown that A. hypogaea shells can be used as a carbon source by A. niger for the production of cellulase.
... In particular, utilizing groundnut waste as renewable sources to produce AC product is of great interest, as India produces huge amount of groundnuts in the world. They have non-carbon constituents, which will retain most functional groups after carbonization [22,23]. Hence, in the present work, synthesis of activated carbon from groundnut waste and Pt nanoparticles dispersions on AC are discussed. ...
Article
Activated carbon from agro waste groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) shell was prepared by chemical activation and used as support for dispersion of 5% platinum nanoparticles. The Pt nanoparticles were obtained by the reduction in hydrogen gas medium. The synthesized groundnut activated carbon/platinum catalyst was characterized by various techniques such as Xray powder diffraction, electron microscopies and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The catalytic behaviour of the synthesized catalyst was investigated by exploring it as catalyst for the reduction of various classes of dyes; namely, triphenylmethane dyes such as Malachite green, phenol red and bromophenol blue, xanthene dyes: rose bengal, rhodamine 6G, rhodamine B, thiazine dye: methyelene blue, azo dye: congo red and 4-nitrophenol by sodium borohydride in aqueous medium. Under suitable reaction conditions, for all tested dyes, cationic dyes were reduced at a faster rate than anionic dyes. The rate of reduction on the structure of dye and nature of catalyst was employed.
... A literature description on preparation of activated carbon from various biomass residues by carbonization and different activation conditions. Almond tree pruning and Almond shell N 2 , 600 • C/1 h 850 • C/30 min Steam The diluted steam was physically in touch with the biochars accordingly [134] 2 Bagasse N 2 , 500 • C/1 h N/A ZnCl 2 Single step carbonization-activation, impregnation [135] 3 Bamboo N 2 , 400-500 • C/2 h 800 • C/2 h HCl Impregnated with 0.1 M HCl [136] 4 Coconut shell N 2 , 250-750 • C/1 h 500-900 • C/15 min K 2 CO 3 Chemically mediated activation, impregnation ratio 1:1 [137] 5 Coconut shell N 2 , 400-800 • C/1 h 800 • C/60-270 min Steam Chars get in touch with N 2 and H 2 O afterward [138] 6 Coconut shell N 2 , 850 • C/1 h 850 • C/5-80 min CO 2 One step Pyrolysis/activation [139] 7 Coffee waste N 2 , 700 • C 700 • C/2-3 h CO 2 /ZnCl 2 and KOH Heating rate of 10 • C/min; Impregnation ratio 2:1 to 3:1 [140] 8 Date tree frond N 2 , 400 • C/3 h N/A H 3 PO 4 Single step carbonization-activation [141] 9 Ground nut shell N 2 , 800 • C/5 min N/A ZnCl 2 One step and two step activation, respectively [142] 10 Ground nut shell N 2 , 800 • C/5 min N/A H 3 PO 4 One step and two step activation, respectively [142] 11 Ground nut shell N 2 , 800 • C/5 min N/A KOH Both one step and two step activation [142] 12 Hazelnut Baggase N 2 , 500-700 • C/2h N/A ZnCl 2 One step carbonization/activation [143] 13 Hazelnut Baggase N 2 , 500-700 • C/2 h N/A KOH One step carbonization/activation [143] 14 Kenaf Fibre N 2 , 400 • C/2 h 700 • C/1 h CO 2 /KOH Impregnation of the char was done via KOH at 1:4 ratio [144] 15 Mango seed shell N 2 , 500 • C/1 h N/A ZnCl 2 One step carbonization-activation, impregnation [145] 16 Neem Husk N 2 , 200-500 • C/10 min N/A KOH One step carbonization-activation, most favorable at 350 [146] 17 Olive waste cake N 2 , 350-650 • C/2 h N/A H 3 PO 4 single step carbonization-activation [147] 18 Oil palm shell N 2 , 500 • C/3 h; CO 2 /1 h 500 • C/1 h ZnCl 2 /CO 2 Chemical activation coupled by physical activation; N 2 , gas was later replaced by flowing CO 2 gas for one hour. [148] 19 Palm kernel shell N 2 , 400 • C/1 h 800-1000 • C; 15-40 min KOH Carbonization followed by impregnation for 2 h [149] 20 Palm shell N 2 , 400-800 • C/3 h 400-800 • C/90 min CO 2 /ZnCl 2 Physical activation, 65% ZnCl 2 [150] 21 Palm oil trunk N 2 , 500 • C/3 h; CO 2 /1 h 500 • C/1 h H 3 PO 4 /CO 2 The ratio of the acid to the precursor of 0.9 was used, followed by carbonization and activation using CO 2 [97] 22 Rice husk N 2 , 500 • C/1 h N/A ZnCl 2 One step carbonization-activation, impregnation [151] 23 Walnut shell N 2 , 600 • C/1 h 850 • C/30 min Steam Chars were subsequently in contact with diluted steam [152] ...
... A literature description on preparation of activated carbon from various biomass residues by carbonization and different activation conditions. Almond tree pruning and Almond shell N 2 , 600 • C/1 h 850 • C/30 min Steam The diluted steam was physically in touch with the biochars accordingly [134] 2 Bagasse N 2 , 500 • C/1 h N/A ZnCl 2 Single step carbonization-activation, impregnation [135] 3 Bamboo N 2 , 400-500 • C/2 h 800 • C/2 h HCl Impregnated with 0.1 M HCl [136] 4 Coconut shell N 2 , 250-750 • C/1 h 500-900 • C/15 min K 2 CO 3 Chemically mediated activation, impregnation ratio 1:1 [137] 5 Coconut shell N 2 , 400-800 • C/1 h 800 • C/60-270 min Steam Chars get in touch with N 2 and H 2 O afterward [138] 6 Coconut shell N 2 , 850 • C/1 h 850 • C/5-80 min CO 2 One step Pyrolysis/activation [139] 7 Coffee waste N 2 , 700 • C 700 • C/2-3 h CO 2 /ZnCl 2 and KOH Heating rate of 10 • C/min; Impregnation ratio 2:1 to 3:1 [140] 8 Date tree frond N 2 , 400 • C/3 h N/A H 3 PO 4 Single step carbonization-activation [141] 9 Ground nut shell N 2 , 800 • C/5 min N/A ZnCl 2 One step and two step activation, respectively [142] 10 Ground nut shell N 2 , 800 • C/5 min N/A H 3 PO 4 One step and two step activation, respectively [142] 11 Ground nut shell N 2 , 800 • C/5 min N/A KOH Both one step and two step activation [142] 12 Hazelnut Baggase N 2 , 500-700 • C/2h N/A ZnCl 2 One step carbonization/activation [143] 13 Hazelnut Baggase N 2 , 500-700 • C/2 h N/A KOH One step carbonization/activation [143] 14 Kenaf Fibre N 2 , 400 • C/2 h 700 • C/1 h CO 2 /KOH Impregnation of the char was done via KOH at 1:4 ratio [144] 15 Mango seed shell N 2 , 500 • C/1 h N/A ZnCl 2 One step carbonization-activation, impregnation [145] 16 Neem Husk N 2 , 200-500 • C/10 min N/A KOH One step carbonization-activation, most favorable at 350 [146] 17 Olive waste cake N 2 , 350-650 • C/2 h N/A H 3 PO 4 single step carbonization-activation [147] 18 Oil palm shell N 2 , 500 • C/3 h; CO 2 /1 h 500 • C/1 h ZnCl 2 /CO 2 Chemical activation coupled by physical activation; N 2 , gas was later replaced by flowing CO 2 gas for one hour. [148] 19 Palm kernel shell N 2 , 400 • C/1 h 800-1000 • C; 15-40 min KOH Carbonization followed by impregnation for 2 h [149] 20 Palm shell N 2 , 400-800 • C/3 h 400-800 • C/90 min CO 2 /ZnCl 2 Physical activation, 65% ZnCl 2 [150] 21 Palm oil trunk N 2 , 500 • C/3 h; CO 2 /1 h 500 • C/1 h H 3 PO 4 /CO 2 The ratio of the acid to the precursor of 0.9 was used, followed by carbonization and activation using CO 2 [97] 22 Rice husk N 2 , 500 • C/1 h N/A ZnCl 2 One step carbonization-activation, impregnation [151] 23 Walnut shell N 2 , 600 • C/1 h 850 • C/30 min Steam Chars were subsequently in contact with diluted steam [152] ...
... A literature description on preparation of activated carbon from various biomass residues by carbonization and different activation conditions. Almond tree pruning and Almond shell N 2 , 600 • C/1 h 850 • C/30 min Steam The diluted steam was physically in touch with the biochars accordingly [134] 2 Bagasse N 2 , 500 • C/1 h N/A ZnCl 2 Single step carbonization-activation, impregnation [135] 3 Bamboo N 2 , 400-500 • C/2 h 800 • C/2 h HCl Impregnated with 0.1 M HCl [136] 4 Coconut shell N 2 , 250-750 • C/1 h 500-900 • C/15 min K 2 CO 3 Chemically mediated activation, impregnation ratio 1:1 [137] 5 Coconut shell N 2 , 400-800 • C/1 h 800 • C/60-270 min Steam Chars get in touch with N 2 and H 2 O afterward [138] 6 Coconut shell N 2 , 850 • C/1 h 850 • C/5-80 min CO 2 One step Pyrolysis/activation [139] 7 Coffee waste N 2 , 700 • C 700 • C/2-3 h CO 2 /ZnCl 2 and KOH Heating rate of 10 • C/min; Impregnation ratio 2:1 to 3:1 [140] 8 Date tree frond N 2 , 400 • C/3 h N/A H 3 PO 4 Single step carbonization-activation [141] 9 Ground nut shell N 2 , 800 • C/5 min N/A ZnCl 2 One step and two step activation, respectively [142] 10 Ground nut shell N 2 , 800 • C/5 min N/A H 3 PO 4 One step and two step activation, respectively [142] 11 Ground nut shell N 2 , 800 • C/5 min N/A KOH Both one step and two step activation [142] 12 Hazelnut Baggase N 2 , 500-700 • C/2h N/A ZnCl 2 One step carbonization/activation [143] 13 Hazelnut Baggase N 2 , 500-700 • C/2 h N/A KOH One step carbonization/activation [143] 14 Kenaf Fibre N 2 , 400 • C/2 h 700 • C/1 h CO 2 /KOH Impregnation of the char was done via KOH at 1:4 ratio [144] 15 Mango seed shell N 2 , 500 • C/1 h N/A ZnCl 2 One step carbonization-activation, impregnation [145] 16 Neem Husk N 2 , 200-500 • C/10 min N/A KOH One step carbonization-activation, most favorable at 350 [146] 17 Olive waste cake N 2 , 350-650 • C/2 h N/A H 3 PO 4 single step carbonization-activation [147] 18 Oil palm shell N 2 , 500 • C/3 h; CO 2 /1 h 500 • C/1 h ZnCl 2 /CO 2 Chemical activation coupled by physical activation; N 2 , gas was later replaced by flowing CO 2 gas for one hour. [148] 19 Palm kernel shell N 2 , 400 • C/1 h 800-1000 • C; 15-40 min KOH Carbonization followed by impregnation for 2 h [149] 20 Palm shell N 2 , 400-800 • C/3 h 400-800 • C/90 min CO 2 /ZnCl 2 Physical activation, 65% ZnCl 2 [150] 21 Palm oil trunk N 2 , 500 • C/3 h; CO 2 /1 h 500 • C/1 h H 3 PO 4 /CO 2 The ratio of the acid to the precursor of 0.9 was used, followed by carbonization and activation using CO 2 [97] 22 Rice husk N 2 , 500 • C/1 h N/A ZnCl 2 One step carbonization-activation, impregnation [151] 23 Walnut shell N 2 , 600 • C/1 h 850 • C/30 min Steam Chars were subsequently in contact with diluted steam [152] ...
Article
Full-text available
Carbon in its single entity and various forms has been used in technology and human life for many centuries. Since prehistoric times, carbon-based materials such as graphite, charcoal and carbon black have been used as writing and drawing materials. In the past two and a half decades or so, conjugated carbon nanomaterials, especially carbon nanotubes, fullerenes, activated carbon and graphite have been used as energy materials due to their exclusive properties. Due to their outstanding chemical, mechanical, electrical and thermal properties, carbon nanostructures have recently found application in many diverse areas; including drug delivery, electronics, composite materials, sensors, field emission devices, energy storage and conversion, etc. Following the global energy outlook, it is forecasted that the world energy demand will double by 2050. This calls for a new and efficient means to double the energy supply in order to meet the challenges that forge ahead. Carbon nanomaterials are believed to be appropriate and promising (when used as energy materials) to cushion the threat. Consequently, the amazing properties of these materials and greatest potentials towards greener and environment friendly synthesis methods and industrial scale production of carbon nanostructured materials is undoubtedly necessary and can therefore be glimpsed as the focal point of many researchers in science and technology in the 21st century. This is based on the incredible future that lies ahead with these smart carbon-based materials. This review is determined to give a synopsis of new advances towards their synthesis, properties, and some applications as reported in the existing literatures.
... In addition, the use of alkali metal hydroxides combining NaOH and KOH as the chemical activating agent seemed to have a beneficial effect in increasing the porosity and surface area of the AC, possibly due to increased pore formation via an intercalation effect caused by interaction of K and Na atom with the carbon structure of the AC (Alau et al., 2010;Chowdhury et al., 2011;Gimba et al., 2010;Giraldo and Moreno-Piraj an, 2012;Musa et al., 2015;Raymundo-Pinero et al., 2005). Furthermore, the combination of NaOH and KOH has led to production of a pore structure dominated by micropores and mesopores. ...
... In addition, the use of alkali metal hydroxides combining NaOH and KOH as the chemical activating agent seemed to have a beneficial effect in increasing the porosity and surface area of the AC, possibly due to increased pore formation via an intercalation effect caused by interaction of K and Na atom with the carbon structure of the AC (Alau et al., 2010;Chowdhury et al., 2011;Gimba et al., 2010;Giraldo and Moreno-Piraj an, 2012;Musa et al., 2015;Raymundo-Pinero et al., 2005). Furthermore, the combination of NaOH and KOH has led to production of a pore structure dominated by micropores and mesopores. ...
Article
Microwave-assisted pyrolysis with chemical activation was developed and optimized to transform orange peel into activated carbon (AC) desirable for use as a dye adsorbent. The orange peel was first carbonized via microwave-assisted pyrolysis to produce a biochar, which was then activated and converted into AC via chemical impregnation coupled with microwave-assisted pyrolysis. The process parameters involved was optimized to maximize the yield of AC and its adsorption efficiency on malachite green dye using response surface methodology adopting central composite design. The use of microwave-assisted pyrolysis provided a fast heating rate and short process time in converting orange peel into AC, recording a heating rate of up to 112 oC/min in a process taking about 25 min, representing a method that is potentially faster and more energy efficient compared to that shown by the method commonly performed using conventional heating source (> 1 hour). The results showed that AC with the highest yield (87 wt% of biochar) and optimal adsorption efficiency (28.5 mg of dye / g of AC) can be obtained by performing chemical impregnation at an impregnation ratio of 1:1 coupled with microwave-assisted pyrolysis under microwave irradiation (heating) for 5 min using 550 W of microwave power. The addition of chemical activation with alkali metal hydroxides resulted in the production of AC with improved properties. The AC showed a highly porous structure containing high content of fixed carbon (83 wt%) and high BET surface area (1350 m²/g). The adsorption–desorption isotherm showed a combination of Type I and Type II isotherms, which indicates the presence of microporous-mesoporous structure, thus exhibiting a characteristic of improved pores accessibility and high adsorption capacity. Combined with the detection of low ash (3.2 wt%) and moisture content (5 wt%), the AC shows great promise as a high-grade dye adsorbent with high adsorption capacity and potentially increased durability since a low moisture content could increase the rate of adsorption of dye contaminants and a high ash content could promote undesirable catalytic reactions and reduce the adsorption capacity and reactivation efficiency of AC. The recovery of AC with improved properties and the desirable process features (fast heating rate, short process time) suggest the great potential of this method as an alternative for the treatment and recovery of fruit peel.
... mm N 2 , 500-700 1C/ 2 hKOH One step carbonization/activation Demiral et al. [94] Hazelnut bagasse 0.60.8 mm N 2 , 500-700 1C/ 2 hZnCl 2 One step carbonization/activation Demiral et al. [94] Stink bean (petai) 125 mm N 2 , 450-650 1C/ 1 hH 3 PO 4 One step carbonization/activation Foo and Lee [98] Groundnut shell 2 mm N 2 , 800 1C/ 5 minH 3 PO 4 One and two steps activation Gimba et al. [138] Groundnut shell 2 mm N 2 , 800 1C/ 5 minKOH One and two steps activation Gimba et al. [138] Groundnut shell 2 mm N 2 , 800 1C/ 5 minZnCl 2 One and two steps activation Gimba et al. [138] Coffee waste 1-2 mm N 2 , 700 1C 7 0 01C/2-3 h CO 2 /ZnCl 2 Impregnation ratio 2:1 to 3:1, heating rate at 10 1C/min Giraldo and MorenoPirajan [117] Coffee waste 1-2 mm N 2 , 700 1C 7 0 01C/2-3 h CO 2 /KOH Impregnation ratio 2:1 to 3:1, heating rate at 10 1C/min Giraldo and MorenoPirajan [117] Almond shell 1-2 mm N 2 , 600 1C/1 h 850 1C/30 min Steam Chars were subsequently into contact with diluted N 2 þH 2 O, steam partial pressure equal to 0.61 ...
... mm N 2 , 500-700 1C/ 2 hKOH One step carbonization/activation Demiral et al. [94] Hazelnut bagasse 0.60.8 mm N 2 , 500-700 1C/ 2 hZnCl 2 One step carbonization/activation Demiral et al. [94] Stink bean (petai) 125 mm N 2 , 450-650 1C/ 1 hH 3 PO 4 One step carbonization/activation Foo and Lee [98] Groundnut shell 2 mm N 2 , 800 1C/ 5 minH 3 PO 4 One and two steps activation Gimba et al. [138] Groundnut shell 2 mm N 2 , 800 1C/ 5 minKOH One and two steps activation Gimba et al. [138] Groundnut shell 2 mm N 2 , 800 1C/ 5 minZnCl 2 One and two steps activation Gimba et al. [138] Coffee waste 1-2 mm N 2 , 700 1C 7 0 01C/2-3 h CO 2 /ZnCl 2 Impregnation ratio 2:1 to 3:1, heating rate at 10 1C/min Giraldo and MorenoPirajan [117] Coffee waste 1-2 mm N 2 , 700 1C 7 0 01C/2-3 h CO 2 /KOH Impregnation ratio 2:1 to 3:1, heating rate at 10 1C/min Giraldo and MorenoPirajan [117] Almond shell 1-2 mm N 2 , 600 1C/1 h 850 1C/30 min Steam Chars were subsequently into contact with diluted N 2 þH 2 O, steam partial pressure equal to 0.61 ...
... mm N 2 , 500-700 1C/ 2 hKOH One step carbonization/activation Demiral et al. [94] Hazelnut bagasse 0.60.8 mm N 2 , 500-700 1C/ 2 hZnCl 2 One step carbonization/activation Demiral et al. [94] Stink bean (petai) 125 mm N 2 , 450-650 1C/ 1 hH 3 PO 4 One step carbonization/activation Foo and Lee [98] Groundnut shell 2 mm N 2 , 800 1C/ 5 minH 3 PO 4 One and two steps activation Gimba et al. [138] Groundnut shell 2 mm N 2 , 800 1C/ 5 minKOH One and two steps activation Gimba et al. [138] Groundnut shell 2 mm N 2 , 800 1C/ 5 minZnCl 2 One and two steps activation Gimba et al. [138] Coffee waste 1-2 mm N 2 , 700 1C 7 0 01C/2-3 h CO 2 /ZnCl 2 Impregnation ratio 2:1 to 3:1, heating rate at 10 1C/min Giraldo and MorenoPirajan [117] Coffee waste 1-2 mm N 2 , 700 1C 7 0 01C/2-3 h CO 2 /KOH Impregnation ratio 2:1 to 3:1, heating rate at 10 1C/min Giraldo and MorenoPirajan [117] Almond shell 1-2 mm N 2 , 600 1C/1 h 850 1C/30 min Steam Chars were subsequently into contact with diluted N 2 þH 2 O, steam partial pressure equal to 0.61 ...
... A wide range of adsorbents for the removal of various pesticides have been reported in the literature which includes agricultural waste such as rice husk 14 and ground net shell 15 ; carbonaceous materials viz., activated carbon 16,17 ; clay minerals such as zeolite 18,19 , montmorillonite 20 , bentonite 20 , calcite 21 , kaolinite 21 . In addition, biopolymers viz., chitosan 22,23 and alginate 23 were also employed in the adsorption of pesticides. ...
Article
An intensive use of pesticides in agriculture has caused serious health and environmental problems. Various adsorbents and photocatalysts have been used for the remediation of pesticides from aqueous environment. In recent years, nanomaterials viz. nanocomposites and nano-biocomposites are playing a promising role towards the removal of pesticides. The present review focuses the updated information on pesticide removal using nanocomposites and nano-biocomposites through adsorption and photocatalytic degradation.
Article
Rapid industrialization and extensive use of pesticides in agriculture practices have contributed to the leaking of pesticide residues into water. Among them, organochlorines are highly toxic with half-lives of many years followed by organophosphates (OPs). Being banned in many countries, most of the pesticides are still persisting in the environment. Due to high perseverance, toxicity and potential to bioaccumulation, their removal is imperative. In this direction, conventional adsorbents such as commercial activated carbon, agricultural and natural waste were highly employed. In modern era, nanomaterials (including nanocomposites and nanobiocomposite) with high surface area come out as most economic, rapid and effective catalyst. TiO2 (photocatalyst) and Fe⁰ by itself or with oxidizing agents are playing a promising role in elimination of pesticide pollution and open the opportunities for exploring other nanoparticles as well. Further, their modified, doped or composites form showed enhanced characteristics due to introduction of new energy levels or increase in surface area. In contrast to TiO2 and Fe⁰, various nanostructured metal oxides found to degrade OP pesticides by rapid reactive adsorption followed by cleavage of P–O bond via SN² mechanism. The present review focuses on the present status of pesticide removal using nanoparticles through adsorption together with photocatalytic or redox or reactive degradation. Herein, detailed information on several pesticides, problems related to pesticide, their metabolites, environmental concentration and need for degradation has been presented. In addition, importance of green synthesized nanoparticles along with limitation and potential health risk of nanomaterials in degradation of various organic pollutants has been highlighted.
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This study investigates the effect of temperature and impregnation ratio on the physicochemical properties of activated carbon prepared from desiccated coconut residue (DCR) by chemical activation using potassium hydroxide (KOH). DCR sample was first carbonized at three different temperatures for 1 hour at 400oC, 500oC, and 600oC respectively. The resulting chars were impregnated with KOH at three different impregnation ratio; 1:1, 1:2, and 1:3 respectively and activated under nitrogen atmosphere for 1 hour at three different temperatures based on its carbonization temperature. The BET surface area and pore volume was strongly affected by temperature in which increased in temperature caused increased in BET surface are and pore volume. The BET surface area also increased with impregnation ratio but then decreased due to pore widening of the activated carbons.