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Chemical analyses of three types of feedstocks

Chemical analyses of three types of feedstocks

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This study was conducted to investigate the effect of biochar on bioavailability reduction of cadmium (Cd ⁺² ), nickel (Ni ⁺² ), and lead (Pb ⁺² ) and its subsequent effects on soil properties and maize plant growth in a soil which was irrigated by contaminated water with above heavy metals. Twelve different biochar were prepared under two temperat...

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The agricultural environment continues to be used for inappropriate technology, reduced agricultural land, insufficient inputs (chemical fertilizers and inorganic pesticides), and air. Rice is the most important food crop in Indonesia because almost all residents use rice as a staple food. Rice straw is a source of organic material that is availabl...

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... The highest EC value was observed in treatments of P amended (591.4 us/cm), while lowest EC value was in 3P1M (329.0 us/ cm) at 60 days. The improvement of EC in soil was probably attributed to effect of high inorganic salt ion (Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , Na + , K + etc.) and ash in biochars [18,36,37]. ...
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Background Biochar is an important material for remediation of Cd in contaminated paddy soils. However, different biochars have variable effects on bioavailability of Cd while single biochar cannot properly amend immobilized Cd. Co-production of biochar from peanut shells and maize straw at different mass mixing ratios (1:0, 1:1, 1:2, 1:3). The characteristics, properties and effects of co-pyrolysis biochars on amendments of Cd polluted paddy soil was evaluated. Results Our research revealed that yield, ash, elemental contents and specific surface area of co-pyrolysis biochars have variable amendment effects compared with single biochar. The co-pyrolysis biochars have produced rich oxygen-containing functional groups and crystal structure, especially 1P3M (co-pyrolysis biochar produced from peanut shell and maize straw in mass ratios of 1:3). The addition of biochar has significantly enhanced pH and EC value, however, content of available Cd during incubation was significantly reduced compared with control treatment. The efficiency of biochars have reduced available Cd in order of 1P3M > M > 1P1M > 1P2M > 2P1M > 3P1M > P after incubation. The 1P3M was most effective in reducing CaCl 2 -extractable Cd concentration up to 43.97%. The BCR sequential extraction method has produced lowest exchangeable fraction Cd content and highest residual fraction Cd content in 1P3M among all biochar amended treatments. Conclusions It is concluded that 1P3M has a much greater potential to decreased the bioavailability of Cd in contaminated paddy soil. And 1P3M was highly effective for transporting Cd from soluble form to less toxic stable forms in polluted paddy soils. Graphical Abstract
... The biochar effects on decreasing heavy metal bioavailability resulted in reducing plant uptake and phytotoxicity of heavy metals, subsequently reflecting on enhancing plant growth (Xu et al. 2016;Soudek et al., 2017). The reduction in dry biomass as a result of increasing the application level of biochar may be due to the increase in pH and EC values of the soil (Fig. 4) which may reduce nutrient availability and consequently reduce plant growth indices like shoot and root biomass (Sayyadian et al., 2019). Moreover, extra high rates of biochar can turn into negative effects, because the large biochar surfaces can adsorb the available soil nutrients and reduce plant-life potential (Kocsis et al., 2020). ...
... These results are consistent with that of Qasim et al. (2021) who reported that the highest reductions of heavy metal concentrations in maize tissues were found with the higher biochar rate (5%) while the lowest reductions were found with the lower rate (1%) compared to untreated soil. Moreover, Sayyadian et al. (2019) and Al-Wabel et al. (2015) found that the concentrations of heavy metals in maize roots and shoots were significantly decreased as a result of increasing application rates of biochar compared to the no biochar treatment. The concentrations of heavy metals in the roots and shoots of plants were positively correlated with the heavy metal bioavailability in soil (Awasthi et al., 2019;Kamran et al., 2019). ...
... The pH differences among various types of biochar were attributable to the carbonates, organic anions, and other alkaline components contained in the biochar (Fidel et al., 2017). Several studies proved the biochar role in raising the pH of the soil (da Silva et al., 2017;Sayyadian et al., 2019;Almaroai and Eissa, 2020;Xu et al., 2020). ...
Article
Pollution of agricultural soil with heavy metals is a serious hazard to the environment and human health. The application of biochar can be a cost-effective and environmentally friendly way to reduce heavy metal bioavailability in contaminated soils and thus their uptake by plants. A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of three types of biochar (mango, Casuarina and Salix as feedstocks) at two application rates (2% and 4% w/w) on soil characteristics, heavy metal availability in soil and bioaccumulation in plants, as well as the growth of summer squash grown in highly polluted soil. The results indicated that the highest dry weight of root and shoot was recorded at the lowest application rate of Casuarina biochar followed by mango and Salix biochars. Compared to untreated soil, the adding of Casuarina biochar at 4% decreased the concentrations of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn by 25.7%, 52.1%, 12.1%, 32.3%, 31.0%, 85.0% and 25.2% in the root, and by 37.2%, 66.9%, 24.3%, 40.2%, 42.0%, 89.2% and 35.5% in the shoot, respectively. Casuarina biochar at 4% treatment was found to be the most effective in reducing the uptake of heavy metals by roots and shoots. Also, this treatment had the highest significant reductions in the availability of heavy metals over the untreated soil. The reductions in bioconcentration factor and translocation factor achieved with biochar application varied significantly for different types and rates of biochars. All biochar applications increased significantly soil pH, organic matter and electrical conductivity compared to untreated soil. It can be concluded that Casuarina biochar has great potential as a soil amendment for increasing the heavy metal immobilization, reducing the availability and plant uptake of heavy metals, and enhancing the growth of summer squash plants.
... Similarly, Sayyadıan et al. [101] reported that biochar application from different origins decreased the extractable Ni, Pb, and Cd contents of the soil and consequently decreased the Ni, Pb, and Cd contents of both root and root parts of maize [102]. They also reported that biochar application to the environment contaminated with Pb, Cd, and Cr caused a decrease in the Cd, Pb, and Cr contents of both the soil and the corn plant. ...
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Limited availability of nutrients to crops is a major agricultural concern. Deteriorated soil health and poor fertility status decrease the bioavailability of essential nutrients to the plants. Consequently, organic soil amendment biochar is gaining attention due to its potential benefits. Rhizobacterial inoculation, are also documented as an effective technology for mobilization of immobile nutrients in soil. However, limited literature is available on combined use of rhizobacteria and biochar. Therefore, this study was carried out to examine the changes in the nutrient content of einkorn wheat and the change in some soil properties during the application of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) with biochar. Four doses of biochar (0, 2.5, 5, and 10%) were applied with and without PGPR in the study. Biochar increased the growth criteria such as plant fresh weight (PFW), plant dry weight (PDW), root fresh weight (RFW), root dry weight (RDW), number of tillers, germination rate (GR) and potassium (K), calcium (Ca), sodium (Na), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), and nickel (Ni) elements. While PGPR application increased soil pH, dry and fresh weight of root, R/S, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, and Ni contents, and it caused a decrease in PH, PFW, tillers, GR, P, Cu, and Zn values. Combined biochar applications and PGPR had a significant effect on the pH, RFW, R/S, P, Na, and Cu. In conclusion, the combination of biochar and PGPR applications has shown a positive effect in terms of soil properties, plant growth, and element contents of einkorn wheat.
... Cd contained in soil and grain is mediated by a combination of organic matter management in farming, soil properties, cultivation, and livestock production (Schweizer et al. 2018). Many chemical or biological agents, including biochar (Nzediegwu et al. 2019;Sayyadian et al. 2019), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) (Sabir et al. 2014), low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) (Najafi and Jalali 2015;Sabir et al. 2014), agricultural limestone, mineral rock phosphate, and diammonium phosphate (Basta and McGowen 2004;Khan and Jones 2009), can be used to modify the forms of heavy metals in soil and their distribution in plants. ...
Article
PurposeThis research aims to improve the efficiency of phytoremediation of Cd in soil using sunflowers and optimizing the model of Cd uptake by plants.Methods Five low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs), oxalic acid (OA), acetic acid (AA), tartaric acid (TA), malic acid (MA), and citric acid (CA) at 2, 4, and 6 mmol/kg, were applied to sunflowers at 20, 30, and 40 days after seed emergence. The pH, electric conductivity (EC), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), catalase activity, amylase activity, invertase activity, and Cd content in rhizosphere soil and Cd in plant tissues were analyzed.ResultsPlant biomass was greater at the application rates of 2 and 4 mmol/kg. For each acid treatment, the Cd content in roots and leaves increased, while that of the stem and bud decreased. The total Cd accumulation increased due to the increase in plant biomass, especially root tissues; LMWOAs applied at 20 or 30 days after seedling emergence achieved higher Cd accumulations by expanding the Cd absorption capacity of rhizosphere soil. Application time had a more significant influence on plant biomass, Cd content, and accumulation in plant tissues than the variation of LMWOAs. Soil invertase activity and pH are the main factors causing the change in Cd form. An improved Freundlich model, using soil EC and pH, had higher accuracy than a model using pH alone.ConclusionsLMWOAs can increase Cd accumulation in plants, and a lower application rate (2 mmol/kg) and earlier application date (20 days after seedling emergence) are beneficial for improving the phytoremediation efficiency of sunflower. The increase of root biomass expanded the contact area between plants and soil, which was one of the reasons for the increase of Cd accumulation. EC could be used as a supplementary index to improve the Freundlich model when using pH.
... Biochar has been proposed to have some ability to remediate metal (loid) s contaminated soils (Sayyadian et al., 2019). Biochars are carbon-rich, porous products of combustion of biomass under low oxygen conditions and are ineffective in improving biochemical properties of Ni contaminated soil (Mailakeba and Rajashekhar Rao, 2020). ...
Article
Soil contamination with nickel (Ni) from anthropogenic activities can have serious environmental impacts. The consequences of Ni contamination on the Ni fractional distribution in the soil, their potential phytotoxicity, and the possible use of biochar are least deliberated. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to determine the effect of selected Ni contamination levels and kunai grass biochar on soil Ni fractions and crop growth response. A bulk soil in polythene bags was spiked with NiCl2 solution at 0, 56, 100, and 180 mg Ni kg⁻¹ soil. Another set of bags received kunai grass (Imperata cylindrica) biochar at 0.75% on a dry weight basis. The treatments were replicated 3 times and planted with pakchoi seeds. Results indicated dose-dependent variations in the distribution of Ni fractions namely, exchangeable and acid-soluble, oxidizable, and residual Ni upon fractionation of soil samples drawn on days 30 and 60. As the level of Ni contamination increased, a significant enhancement of soil exchangeable and acid-soluble portion of Ni and oxidizable Ni with concomitant failure of pakchoi seedling growth. The biochar application significantly (p < 0.05) decreased exchangeable and acid-soluble Ni (58%) and enhanced residual Ni pools in low Ni contaminated soils (56 mg) thereby relieving pakchoi plants from toxic effects of Ni. Biochar incorporation to the soil decreased the Ni uptake by pakchoi plants and decreased bioaccumulation factor from 1.81 to 1.20 in low Ni contaminated soil only. Chemical transformation of Ni fractions due to biochar application can effectively reduce toxicity to crop plants, and Ni uptake thus a safe option to manage soil contaminant Ni.
... Moreover, enhanced soil nutrient concentrations (especially N and P), altered enzyme activity, and soil bacteria population changes are also assumed to have played a significant role in maize growth. Indeed, a linear relationship between biochar application dose and plant growth was observed, a finding which also agrees with other works Azeem et al., 2021;Palansooriya et al., 2020;Park et al., 2011;Sayyadian et al., 2019). Nevertheless, the reduced bioavailability of Zn and Cd may also have contributed to the enhanced shoot and root growth. ...
Article
Biochar prepared from various feedstock materials has been utilized in recent years as a potential 3 stabilizing agent for heavy metals in smelter-contaminated soils. However, the effectiveness of animal 4 bone-derived biochar and its potential for the stabilization of contaminants remains unclear. In the present 5 study, sheep bone-derived biochar (SB) was prepared at low (500 °C; SBL) and high temperatures (800 6 °C; SBH) and amended a smelter-contaminated soil at 2, 5, and 10% (w/w). The effects of SB on soil 7 properties, bioavailable Zn and Cd and their geochemical fractions, bacterial community composition and 8 activity, and the response of plant attributes (pigments and antioxidant activity) were assessed. Results 9 showed that the SBH added at 10% (SBH10) increased soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, and phosphorus, 10 and also increased the oxidizable and residual Zn and Cd fractions at the expense of the bioavailable 11 fractions. The SBH10 lowered the Zn and Cd contents in maize roots (by 57 and 60%) and shoot (by 42 12 and 61%), respectively, compared to unamended control. Additionally, SBH10 enhanced urease (98%) and 13 phosphates (107%) activities, but reduced dehydrogenase (58%) and β-glucosidase (30%) activities. 14 Regarding the effect of the pyrolysis temperature, SBH enhanced the activity of Acidobacteria, 15 Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Nitrospirae, Verrucomicrobia, Chlorobi, and Microgenomates were enhanced, 16 but reduced Actinobacteria and Parcubacteria in comparison to SBL. However, only the SBL10 reduced 17 the Proteobacteria community (by 9%). In a conclusion, SB immobilized for Zn and Cd in smelter18 affected soils, enhanced the bacterial abundance and microbial function (urease, phosphates), and 19 improved plant growth. However, validation of the results, obtained from the pot experiment, under field 20 conditions is suggested.
... However, the plant growth was affected by the dose of biochar application; in this study up to a rate of 5% CB enhanced plant growth (Fig. 4). As reported by some studies (e.g., Park et al., 2011;Sayyadian et al., 2019;Gale et al., 2016), biochar may contain quinone, butyric acids, benzoic acid, and/or ethylene, which may have toxic effects on the plant growth if applied at higher rates. ...
Article
Reusing by-products such as cow bones in agriculture can be achieved thorough pyrolysis. The potential of bone-derived biochar as a promising material for metals immobilization in contaminated mining soils has not yet been sufficiently explored. Therefore, cow bones were used as biochar feedstock were py-rolyzed at 500 C (CBL) and 800 C (CBH) and. The two biochars were applied to a mine contaminated soil at 0 (control), 2.5, 5 and 10%, w/w, dosages; then, the soils were incubated and cultivated by maize in the greenhouse. Cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) bioavailability and their sequentially extracted fractions (acid soluble, reducible, oxidizable, and residual fraction), soil microbial function, and plant health attributes were analyzed after maize harvesting. Bone-derived biochar enhanced the content of dissolved organic carbon (up to 74%), total nitrogen (up to 26%), and total phosphorus (up to 27%) in the soil and improved the plant growth up to 55%, as compared to the control. The addition of CBL altered the acid soluble fraction of both metals to the residual fraction and, thus, reduced the content of Zn (55 and 40%) and Cd (57 and 67%) in the maize roots and shoots, respectively as compared to the control. The CBL enhanced the b-glucosidase (51%) and alkaline phosphatase activities (71%) at the lower doses (2.5e5%) as compared to control, while the activities of these enzymes decreased with the higher application doses. Also, CBL improved the antioxidants activity and maize growth at the 2.5e5% application rate. However, the activity of the dehydrogenase significantly decreased (77%), particularly with CBH. We conclude that CBL, applied at 2.5e5% dose, can be utilized as a potential low cost and environmental friendly amendment for stabilization of toxic metals in contaminated mining soils and producing food/feed/ biofuel crops with lower metal content.
... BC has been reported to increase plant growth and biomass in metal contaminated soils, for example as in Helianthus annuus (Turan et al., 2018), Spinacia oleracea (Boostani et al., 2019;Sayyadian et al., 2019), Triticum aestivum (Abbas et al., 2018b), Trigonella foenum-graecum (Younis et al., 2020) and Zea mays (Sayyadian et al., 2019) which is in consistent with our investigation where BC increased the growth and biomass of B. napus under Ni stressed soil. Likewise, LS was used in previous investigations to improve plants growth and biomass, such as LS increased the biomass of Triticum aestivum (ur Rehman et al., 2017) and ZE improved biomass of Solanum lycopersicum (De Smedt et al., 2017). ...
... BC has been reported to increase plant growth and biomass in metal contaminated soils, for example as in Helianthus annuus (Turan et al., 2018), Spinacia oleracea (Boostani et al., 2019;Sayyadian et al., 2019), Triticum aestivum (Abbas et al., 2018b), Trigonella foenum-graecum (Younis et al., 2020) and Zea mays (Sayyadian et al., 2019) which is in consistent with our investigation where BC increased the growth and biomass of B. napus under Ni stressed soil. Likewise, LS was used in previous investigations to improve plants growth and biomass, such as LS increased the biomass of Triticum aestivum (ur Rehman et al., 2017) and ZE improved biomass of Solanum lycopersicum (De Smedt et al., 2017). ...
Article
In-situ stabilization has been considered an effective way to remediate metal contaminated soil. Thus, pot experiments were undertaken to investigate the effectiveness of multiple stabilization agents such as biochar, mussel shell, zeolite and limestone on the immobilization of Ni, physicochemical features and enzyme activities in polluted soil. Results showed that the sole application of Ni adversely affected the rapeseed growth, photosynthetic pigments, and antioxidative defense. However, the addition of amendments to the contaminated soil significantly reduced Ni bioavailability. The XRD analysis confirmed the formation of Ni related ligands and FTIR showed the presence of hydroxyl, carboxyl and sulfur functional groups, as well as complexation and adsorption of Ni on amendments. Among multiple amendments, biochar significantly enhanced plant biomass attributes and total chlorophyll content. Moreover, addition of amendments also strengthened the antioxidant defense by decreasing Ni induced oxidative stress (H2O2 and O2.-), increased macronutrient availability, reduced Ni uptake and improved soil health. The qPCR analysis showed that the Ni transporters were significantly suppressed by amendments, which is correlated with the lower accumulation of Ni in rapeseed. The present study showed that immobilizing agents, especially biochar, is an effective amendment to immobilize Ni in soil, which restricts its entry into the food chain.
Article
The erosion of sediment and nutrients under rainfall conditions aggravated the degradation of soil quality in sloping farmland. It is very important to comprehensively control the sediment and nutrient loss of sloping farmland and improve the soil fertility of barren sloping farmland caused by soil erosion to improve the plant growth environment in the Loess Plateau of China. However, there is no research to combine the control of soil, water, and nutrient loss with the improvement of soil fertility. To address this issue, earthworm casts (ECs), an excellent organic soil amendment, was applied to the soil (silty loam). Ten rainfall simulation experiments were conducted in a 1.0 m × 1.0 m plot with two application methods (mixed and layered applications) and five application amounts (i.e., 0, 200, 400, 600, and 800 g/m2), and simulated rainfall for 1 h at a rate of 60 mm/h. The main results indicated that the ECs application significantly delayed the time of runoff initiation, reduced unit discharge and sediment yield rate in the early stage. The nitrate nitrogen concentration in runoff could be significantly reduced with the layered application method. The equivalent model of convection was more suitable for simulating nutrient transfer with runoff, and the effective mixing depth decreased with increased the ECs amounts. The ECs application increased the water content and nitrate nitrogen concentration of the soil profile from a depth of 0–20 cm and provided a suitable environment for vegetation growth. Runoff decreased by 18.16–33.47%, sediment decreased by 28.17–87.24%, and nitrate nitrogen loss in runoff decreased by 36.99–51.76% with the layered application. The layered application of ECs with 800 g/m2 had the significant regulation on runoff, sediment yield, and nitrate nitrogen loss. In conclusion, ECs can effectively improve the water erosion resistance of the soil, and enhance the water holding capacity and fertilizer retention capacity of the soil. The layered application of ECs can effectively control nitrogen loss with runoff. In the long run, ECs can provide sufficient nutrient sources for plant growth, improve regional vegetation carrying capacity, and fundamentally solve the problem of soil and water loss and soil degradation of bare slope farmland in the Loess Plateau of China.
Article
The presence of Ni above the permissible limit in agriculture soils poses negative effects on soil health, crop quality, and crop productivity. Surprisingly, the usage of various organic and inorganic amendments can reduce Ni mobility in the soil and its distribution in the crops. A pot experiment was conducted to elucidate the effects of olive pulp biochar (BR), calcite (CAL), and wheat straw (WS), as sole amendments and their mixtures of 50:50 ratio, added to Ni polluted soil on Ni mobility in the soil, Ni immobilization index (Ni − IMi), soil enzymatic activities, Ni distribution in parts of chili plant, Ni translocation factor and bioaccumulation factor in fruit, plant growth parameters and oxidative stress encountered by the plants. Outcomes of this pot experiment revealed that amendments raised soil pH, improved soil enzymatic activities, values of Ni − IMi, while significantly reduced bioavailable Ni fraction in the post-harvest soil. However, the highest activities of acid phosphatase, urease, catalase, and dehydrogenase by 50, 70, 239, and 111%, respectively, improvement in Ni − IMi up to 60% while 60% reduction in the bioavailable Ni fraction was observed in BR + CAL treatment, compared to control was noted. Among all amendments, the top most reduction in Ni concentrations in shoots, roots, fruit, Translocation Factor (TF), and Bioaccumulation Factor (BAF) values of fruit by 72%, 36%, 86%, 72%, and 86%, in BR + CAL treatment, compared to control. Moreover, the plants growing on BR + CAL amended Ni contaminated soil showed the topmost improvement in plant phonological parameters while encountered the least oxidative stress. Such findings refer to the prospective usage of BR + CAL at 50:50 ratio than BR, CAL, WS alone, and BR + WS as well as WS + CAL for reducing Ni mobility in the soil, improving Ni − IMi, soil enzymatic activities, plant phonological and oxidative stress while reducing Ni distribution in plant parts. Novelty statement In this experiment, it was hypothesized that amending Ni polluted soil with olive pulp biochar (BR), CAL, and WS as alone soil amendments and their combinations at 50:50 ratios can reduce Ni bioavailability in soil, Ni distribution in chili plant and oxidative stress encountered by the plants. Moreover, these amendments may improve, soil enzymatic activities, Ni immobilization index, plant phenological traits. Therefore, it was aimed to undertake useful scientific planning and research, to restore and rehabilitate the dwellings, biological resources and to minimize the sufferings of the peoples in nutrient-poor Ni contaminated soils, by improving soil health and chili productivity.