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Chemical Composition of Coffee 

Chemical Composition of Coffee 

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The popularity of coffee as a beverage is ever increasing despite the fact that there are reports antagonized to its consumption. Of the several factors cited, the alkaloid caffeine present in coffee can cause addiction and stimulate the central nervous system. It has an effect on the cardiovascular system with a slight increase in blood pressure a...

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... The coffee beans can be processed to significantly reduce their caffeine content, allowing the simultaneous commercialization of the same coffee mixture type in caffeinated and decaffeinated versions. In general, the decaffeination processes are usually applied to arabica rather than robusta because arabica has lower initial caffeine content and requires less processing [49]. ...
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Article
This paper assesses a custom single-type electronic nose (eNose) applied to differentiate the complex aromas generated by the caffeinated and decaffeinated versions of one encapsulated espresso coffee mixture type. The eNose used is composed of 16 single-type (identical) metal–oxide semiconductor (MOX) gas sensors based on microelectromechanical system (MEMS). This eNose proposal takes advantage of the small but inherent sensing variability of MOX gas sensors in order to provide a multisensorial description of volatiles or aromas. Results have shown that the information provided with this eNose processed using LDA is able to successfully discriminate the complex aromas of one caffeinated and decaffeinated encapsulated espresso coffee type.
... The decaffeination process, on the other hand, is a set of treatments aimed at extracting only caffeine by solubilization in solvents. Ramalakshmi and Raghavan (1999) reviewed all economically viable methods, most of them used to date except for chlorinated solvents. Carbon dioxide, a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas when used as a solvent (supercritical fluid) still is the most suitable technique. ...
Chapter
Caffeine (1,3,7 trimethylxanthine) is the most psychoactive substance consumed worldwide. Caffeine is so hegemonic in modern society that it can be used as an anthropogenic marker of drinking water quality (contamination by the sewage system), due to its excretion by urine and massive consumption in urban centers. Caffeine affects the central nervous system, the cardiac muscle, the respiratory system, and the secretion of gastric acid. It has no nutritional value, but its antioxidant activity is proven to be relevant to some free radicals. Common sense or conflicting data such as the association of caffeine intake with neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s, teratogenic effects, and even autoimmune diseases will be discussed in terms of natural drinks, where synergistic effects with other substances must be considered. In this chapter, we also discuss the levels of caffeine in different types of beverages: coffee, mate, tea, chocolate, and energy drinks with their effects on the cardiovascular system, besides caffeine levels in coffee on different roasting degrees. The concept of slow�release caffeine, the efforts to remove it from coffee with specific extraction methods, coffee surrogate foods, stomach-friendly coffees, and its cosmetic uses will be explored as well.
... Supercritical CO 2 is costly because of the required equipment and maintenance associated with the unique high-pressure technology. However, supercritical CO 2 is an ideal solvent for decaffeination because it is nontoxic, non-flammable, non-polluting, and exhibits superior performance for selective caffeine extraction 22,23,25 . ...
Article
Coffee is a beverage that is consumed worldwide, and the demand for decaffeinated coffee has increased in recent years. This study aimed to investigate the effect of roasting conditions on the concentration of physiologically active compounds in coffee beans with and without supercritical CO2 decaffeination treatment. Decaffeination treatment markedly reduced caffeine concentration and slightly reduced trigonelline concentration in the coffee beans, whereas the concentrations of chlorogenic acids (chlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid, and neochlorogenic acid) were largely unchanged. Roasting was performed using a hot-air coffee roaster machine and the coffee beans were treated at different peak temperatures (125–250℃), different hold times at the peak temperature (120–240 s), and different temperature increase times to reach the peak temperature (60–180 s). Roasting conditions such as long hold and long temperature rise times at high temperatures (≥ 225℃) significantly degraded coffee compounds except for caffeine, with similar degradation rates between non-decaffeinated and decaffeinated coffee beans. In contrast, the L* value of decaffeinated coffee decreased with less thermal history compared to that of non-decaffeinated coffee. This allowed for the complete roasting of decaffeinated coffee with a lower thermal history compared to those of non-decaffeinated counterparts, suppressing the degradation of several coffee compounds. For example, comparing the similar L* values between coffee beans with and without decaffeination treatment, it was found that the former tended to contain more chlorogenic acid. Generally, decaffeination results in the loss of physiologically active compounds along with caffeine, which is a major concern. However, this study showed that appropriate control of decaffeination and roasting conditions can limit the degradation of several valuable coffee compounds, such as trigonelline and chlorogenic acid.
... The decaffeination process, on the other hand, is a set of treatments aimed at extracting only caffeine by solubilization in solvents. Ramalakshmi and Raghavan (1999) reviewed all economically viable methods, most of them used to date except for chlorinated solvents. Carbon dioxide, a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas when used as a solvent (supercritical fluid) still is the most suitable technique. ...
... The dry method consists of drying the coffee cherry just after harvest and is followed by mechanically de-husking. Cherries are later cured and the product obtained is termed in trading society as cherry coffee [4]. It is preferably the simplest way of processing coffee cherries, but also represents a laborious method for obtaining high quality coffee beans [5]. ...
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Thesis
Countries processing raw coffee beans are burdened with low economical incomes to fight the serious environmental problems caused by the by-products and wastewater that is generated during the wet-coffee processing. The aim of this work was to develop alternative methods of improving the waste by-product quality and thus making the process economically more attractive with valorization options that can be brought to the coffee producers. The type of processing influences not only the constitution of green coffee but also of by-products and wastewater. Therefore, coffee bean samples as well as by-products and wastewater collected at different production steps of were analyzed. Results show that the composition of wastewater is dependent on how much and how often the wastewater is recycled in the processing. Considering the coffee beans, results indicate that the proteins might be affected during processing and a positive effect of the fermentation on the solubility and accessibility of proteins seems to be probable. The steps of coffee processing influence the different constituents of green coffee beans which, during roasting, give rise to aroma compounds and express the characteristics of roasted coffee beans. Knowing that this group of compounds is involved in the Maillard reaction during roasting, this possibility could be utilized for the coffee producers to improve the quality of green coffee beans and finally the coffee cup quality. The valorization of coffee wastes through modification to activated carbon has been considered as a low-cost option creating an adsorbent with prospective to compete with commercial carbons. Activation protocol using spent coffee and parchment was developed and prepared to assess their adsorption capacity for organic compounds. Spent coffee grounds and parchment proved to have similar adsorption efficiency to commercial activated carbon. The results of this study document a significant information originating from the processing of the de-pulped to green coffee beans. Furthermore, it showed that coffee parchment and spent coffee grounds can be valorized as low-cost option to produce activated carbons. Further work needs to be directed to the optimization of the activation methods to improve the quality of the materials produced and the viability of applying such experiments in-situ to bring the coffee producer further valorization opportunities with environmental perspectives. Coffee producers would profit in establishing appropriate simple technologies to improve green coffee quality, re-use coffee by-products, and wastewater valorization.
... Besides, CS also contains 0.8-1% of caffeine, which can, on the one hand, help to prevent Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases by stimulating the nervous system, but, on the other hand, can cause the increase in blood pressure, insomnia, and tachycardia in sensitive individuals [18]. Therefore, in order to reach this target of individuals, the coffee industry can subject the green coffee beans (normally Arabica and Robusta blend), before the roasting process, to a decaffeination procedure to reduce caffeine to a level below 0.3% [19]. ...
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Coffee silverskin (CS), a by-product obtained by the coffee industry after the roasting process, is scientifically known to be a source of fiber and polyphenols, which could contribute to human health. In this work, the production of CS-enriched biscuits is proposed, where the CS from Arabica and Robusta type and a decaffeinated blend of the two were used at three different levels as a replacement for wheat flour. The biscuits were analyzed for their physicochemical properties, consumer acceptability, and the bioaccessibility of polyphenols after in vitro digestion was estimated in order to identify the formulation most appreciated by consumers and most promising in terms of nutritional and biofunctional potential. From the results, CS-based biscuits represent an interesting possibility to create a more sustainable coffee chain, thanks to the valorization of the silverskin, especially if a decaffeinated CS is considered. In fact, a 4% replacement of the wheat flour with decaffeinated CS is able to give a final product with a high content of accessible polyphenols and a biscuit appreciated by the consumer.
... We also found a positive association between decaffeinated coffee consumption and the risk of RA. The mechanism involved seems to be the method of extracting caffeine from coffee by direct application of industrial solvents including benzene, acetone, ammonium hydroxide, sulfuric acid, ethyl acetate, methylene chloride, chloroform, ether, alcohol, trichloroethylene and carbon tetrachloride (52). Chronic ingestion of solvent residues, even small quantities, could result in connective tissue disorders such as scleroderma, lupus, and RA (53). ...
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Objective Prospective cohort studies on coffee, tea and caffeine in relation to the risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have shown conflicting results. The aim of this study was to conduct a dose–response meta-analysis of cohort studies on the association between dietary caffeine, different types of coffee and tea consumption and the risk of RA. Methods PubMed/Medline, Scopus and EMBASE were searched up to July 2021 to identify relevant studies that had considered different types of coffee (caffeinated or decaffeinated), tea or caffeine exposure with RA as the main, or one of the, outcome(s). Two authors independently screened 742 publications. Finally, five prospective cohort studies were included in our meta-analysis. Pooled relative risks (RRs) were calculated by using a fixed-effects model. We also performed linear and non-linear dose-response analyses to examine the dose-response relations. Results Comparing extreme categories, we found a positive, significant association between coffee (RR: 1.30; 95% CI: 1.04–1.62; I ² = 0%, n = 5) and decaffeinated coffee (RR: 1.89; 95% CI: 1.35–2.65; I ² = 38.1%, n =3) consumption and risk of RA. One additional cup of coffee consumed per day was associated with an increased risk of RA by 6% (95% CI: 1.02–1.10; I ² = 0%). This increase in the risk of RA for one cup/d of decaffeinated coffee was 11% (95% CI: 1.05–1.18; I ² = 38). No significant association was observed between caffeinated coffee, tea or caffeine intake and the risk of RA. Conclusion We found that a higher intake of coffee and decaffeinated coffee was associated with increased risk of RA. No significant association between caffeinated coffee, tea or caffeine intake and the risk of RA was observed. Systematic Review Registration https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?RecordID=227665 , identifier: CRD42021227665.
... After that, the extract proceeds to the decaffeination process using activated carbon for 8 hours at 60°C. [25] Green tea leaves were obtained from Ciwidey, Bandung. Dried leaf rolls were used which were pale green in color and smelled like tea leaves. ...
... The filtrate then was subjected to the decaffeination process, using activated charcoal for 8 hours at 60°C. 27 The tea dried leaves were boiled in mineral water for 5 minutes at 50°C, then filtered using Whatman paper No 1. 25,28 The filtrate was infused in 90°C water for 30 minutes. Stock solutions were freshly prepared by dissolving the coffee and tea extract (64 mg/ml) and filtering the solution through a 0.22 μm-pore size membrane filter. ...
... 61,62 However, some controversy remains regarding the cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular side effects of caffein components in coffee and tea. 14,15,27,63 The decaffeination process is used to minimize conflicting results. Interestingly, our findings were the first to reveal the combination of decaffeinated coffee and green tea extract could reduce foam cell numbers. ...
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Background: Foam cells are markers of atherosclerosis and characterise advanced atherosclerotic plaque, stimulated by inflammation caused by high lipid levels in macrophages. The combination of decaffeinated coffee and green tea extract (DCGTE) has been suggested to have a role in foam cell inhibition. Objective : we investigated the inhibiting role of DCGTE against foam cell formation, through modulation of the inflammation process and cholesterol metabolism in macrophage colony stimulating factor- (M-CSF) and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL)-exposed macrophages. Methods : Coffee and green tea were extracted by filtration and infusion respectively, and underwent decaffeination using active carbon and blanching methods, respectively. Cells were administered 160/160 and 320/320μg/ml of DCGTE. Foam cell formation was observed using a light microscope after staining with Oil Red O (ORO), and the accumulation of lipids in macrophages with ELISA. Observations of lipid influx and efflux were determined through semiquantitative cluster differentiation 36 (CD36) and ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) expression through immunofluorescence. The inflammation process was quantified using inflammatory/anti-inflammatory markers, e.g., tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and interleukin 10 (IL10) with ELISA. Peroxisome proliferator activated response γ (PPARγ) expression and activity were assessed with PCR and ELISA, respectively. The expression of microRNA 155 (miR-155) was examined using qPCR. Results: DCGTE at the above concentrations tended to reduce foam cell numbers, significantly inhibited lipid accumulation (p=0.000), reduced CD36 expression (p=0.000) and TNFα secretion (p=0.000) in Raw264.7 exposed to M-CSF 50ng/ml and oxLDL 50μg/ml. PPARγ expression (p=0.00) and activity (p=0.001), miR-155 relative expression (p=0.000), and IL10 production (p=0.000) also increased. Conclusion: DCGTE lowered foam cell numbers, possibly through attenuation of the inflammatory process and improvement of lipid/efflux mechanisms in M-CSF and oxLDL-stimulated Raw264.7 cells, via upregulation of PPARγ and miR-155. Our results suggest DCGTE may help prevent atherosclerosis-based diseases.
... Hence, there is an increasing demand for low or caffeinefree coffee drinks. The availability of a naturally caffeine-free coffee cultivar is very appealing once it will eliminate the need of chemical processes for caffeine removal from grains (Ramalakshmi and Raghavan, 1999). ...
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Article
Differential gene expression profiles and metabolic networks are valuable tools for the genetic characterization of agronomic traits. In this study, we used large-scale expression analyses to identify modified biological processes in caffeine-free coffee plants. The first step was the large-scale sequencing of RNA from young and developing tissues of caffeine-free plants (AC1) and plants with normal concentrations of the compound (MN). The resulting 65,000 sequences were analyzed in silico for identification of 171 genes with differential expression between treatments, and establishment of metabolic networks associated with levels of caffeine. Few genes were mapped onto metabolic pathways, indicating that low caffeine has no major effects on physiological processes. The differential expression observed in silico was validated for 12 selected genes in field experiments using qPCR. The expression profile of 5 genes differed on the analyses, and the rest confirmed the in silico profile. Among the validated genes two of them, FIG and LSM-l, may control other agronomic traits associated with low caffeine content in coffee tissues. These genes are potential markers for use in association with other current markers for assisted selection of low-caffeine coffee. Therefore, they may improve the efficiency and effectiveness of coffee breeding programs.