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Characters in the skin structure that differentiate Pseudophilautus samarakoon sp. nov. among congeners of the genus Pseudophilautus

Characters in the skin structure that differentiate Pseudophilautus samarakoon sp. nov. among congeners of the genus Pseudophilautus

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Eight new species of Pseudophilautus (Pseudophilautus bambaradeniyai, P. dayawansai, P. jagathgunawardanai, P. karunarathnai, P. newtonjayawardanei, P. puranappu, P. samarakoon, and P. sirilwijesundarai) were discovered as a result of a survey carried out to study the herpetofaunal diversity with the changes in elevation in the Sripada World Herita...

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Eight new species of Pseudophilautus (Pseudophilautus bambaradeniyai, P. dayawansai, P. jagathgunawardanai, P. karunarathnai, P. newtonjayawardanei, P. puranappu, P. samarakoon, and P. sirilwijesundarai) were discovered as a result of a survey carried out to study the herpetofaunal diversity with the changes in elevation in the Sripada World Herita...

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... Sri Lanka has 120 amphibian species (Appendix 1; Table 3), of which 107 (~90.0%) are endemics and more than 80% are restricted to rain forests (Manamendra-Arachchi and Pethiyagoda, 2006;Fernando et al., 2007;Meegaskumbura et al., 2009;Meegaskumbura and Manamendra-Arachchi, 2011;Wickramasinghe et al., 2012a, b;Wickramasinghe et al., 2013a;Batuwita et al., 2019b). Eighteen endemic species of amphibians are currently confirmed as extinct (Manamendra-Arachchi and Meegaskumbura et al., 2007;Wickramasinghe et al., 2012b;2013b, c), which includes a single species from a relic genus, Nannophrys Günther, 1869 and 17 species from Pseudophilautus. ...
... Yu et al. (2010) (Meegaskumbura et al., 2007), sc., P. maia (Meegaskumbura, Manamendra-Arachchi, Schneider, and Pethiyagoda, 2007) and P. pardus (Meegaskumbura, Manamendra-Arachchi, Schneider, and Pethiyagoda, 2007). Wickramasinghe et al. (2012a;2013a; also added many rhacophorid species to the assemblage of amphibians of Sri Lanka, which includes a new species of Polypedates as well. Interestingly, Wickramasinghe et al. (2012b) Taylor (1965;1969) described five species of Ichthyophis Fitzinger (Caecilians: Ichthyophiidae Taylor) from Sri Lanka, including: Ichthyophis forcati Taylor, 1965, I. glutinosus, I. orthoplicatus Taylor, 1965, I. pseudangularis Taylor, 1965, and I. taprobanicensis Taylor, 1969. ...
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The amphibian fauna of Sri Lanka comprises 120 species, including 107 (~90.0%) endemic species. They belong to five families: Bufonidae, Dicroglossidae, Ichthyophiidae, Microhylidae, and Rhacophoridae. Based on distribution, we recognized five zoogeographic zones for them, Central Hills, Dry Zone, Knuckles Range, Lowland Wet Zone, and Rakwana Hills. Fifty three species were reported from the Central Hills (48 endemics [90.6%] and 42 [79.2%] threatened species). 47 species were recorded from the Lowland Wet Zone, including 36 (76.6%) endemics and 28 (59.6%) threatened species. The Knuckles Range had 25 species, of which, 19 (76.0%) were endemics and 15 (60.0%) are threatened species. 19 species were reported from Dry Zone including seven endemics (36.8%) and four threatened species (21.1%). Out of 29 species, which inhabited in the Rakwana Hills, 26 were endemics (~89.7%) including 24 (82.8%) threatened species. Species diversity along the elevational gradient was also observed with the highest species richness in the mid-elevational localities. Family Ichthyophiidae can be considered as the least studied family. Recent rediscoveries and studies have helped to reduce the number of extinct species from 21 to 18. It is speculated that some of the other extinct species have to be rediscovered or probably were misidentified as other species. About 90% of Sri Lankan amphibians occur in the regions with the highest human populations where there are established agricultural lands. Loss of habitats, competition due to anthropogenic species and invasive species, pollution (cause for malformations, parasites, and other diseases), and climate change appear to be major threats.
... South Asian Shrub Frog genus Pseudophilautus is restricted to India and Sri Lanka (Biju & Bossuyt 2009;Manamendra-Arachchi & Pethiyagoda 2006;Dinesh et al. 2017). Seventy-nine valid species are known from this genus of which 76 occur in Sri Lanka Meegaskumbura & Manamendra-Arachchi 2005, 2011Meegaskumbura et al. 2007Meegaskumbura et al. , 2009Meegaskumbura et al. , 2012Wickramasinghe et al. 2013aWickramasinghe et al. ,b,c, 2015Biju & Bossuyt 2009;Dinesh et al. 2017), all of which are endemic to the island and all but one is restricted to the wet zone (annual rainfall > 2,000mm) (Meegaskumbura et al. 2012). Interestingly, about 60% of the Sri Lankan members of the genus were described in the recent past Meegaskumbura & Manamendra-Arachchi 2005, 2011Meegaskumbura et al. 2007Meegaskumbura et al. , 2009Wickramasinghe et al. 2013aWickramasinghe et al. , 2015. ...
... Seventy-nine valid species are known from this genus of which 76 occur in Sri Lanka Meegaskumbura & Manamendra-Arachchi 2005, 2011Meegaskumbura et al. 2007Meegaskumbura et al. , 2009Meegaskumbura et al. , 2012Wickramasinghe et al. 2013aWickramasinghe et al. ,b,c, 2015Biju & Bossuyt 2009;Dinesh et al. 2017), all of which are endemic to the island and all but one is restricted to the wet zone (annual rainfall > 2,000mm) (Meegaskumbura et al. 2012). Interestingly, about 60% of the Sri Lankan members of the genus were described in the recent past Meegaskumbura & Manamendra-Arachchi 2005, 2011Meegaskumbura et al. 2007Meegaskumbura et al. , 2009Wickramasinghe et al. 2013aWickramasinghe et al. , 2015. Major forest reserves includes in the southwestern wet zone are Haycock, Sinharaja, and Kanneliya-Dediyagala-Nakiyadeniya forest reserves (KDN complex). ...
... The new species can also compared with three Indian species of Pseudophilautus (Dinesh et al. 2017) (only opposing characters are mentioned): P. amboli (Biju & Bossuyt, 2009): presence of nuptial pads in males and absence of median lingual process; P. kani (Biju & Bossuyt, 2009): absence of nuptial pads in males and median lingual process; P. wynadensis (Jerdon, 1853): absence of both vomerine teeth and median lingual process. Meegaskumbura et al. 2007Meegaskumbura et al. , 2009Meegaskumbura et al. , 2012Wickramasinghe et al. 2013aWickramasinghe et al. ,b,c, 2015Dinesh et al. 2017). The discovery of P. conniffae sp. ...
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We describe a new Pseudophilautus species, P. conniffae sp. nov. from southern Sri Lanka. It was previously confused with Pseudophilautus rus (Manamendra-Arachchi & Pethiyagoda). The new species differs from the latter by the combination of the following characters: fourth toe webbing to penultimate subarticular tubercle on inner and outer sides (vs. fourth toe webbing in between penultimate and anetpenultimate subarticular tubercles on inner and outer sides), presence of conical median lingual process (vs. absent), and black patches on the posterior flank, anterior and posterior edges of the thigh (vs. black patches on the anterior surface of the thigh). Pseudophilautus conniffae sp. nov. may be sympatric with P. limbus (Manamendra-Arachchi & Pethiyagoda), which shares certain characters with the new species. The new species is, however, distinguished from P. limbus by the following characters: having supernumerary tubercles on manus (vs. lacking), absence of frontoparietal ridges (vs. presence), fourth toe webbing to penultimate subarticular tubercle on both sides (vs. fourth toe webbing between penultimate and anetpenultimate subarticular tubercle on both sides), third toe webbing to distal subarticular tubercle on both sides (vs. distal subarticular tubercle on outer side and below penultimate subarticular tubercle on inner side), and having the dorsum light brown with dark brown patches (vs. black and yellow variegated pattern on dorsum). The new species may be restricted to the southwestern wet zone of Sri Lanka. It is compared with all known Pseudophilautus species and also provided with a field key to identify it from those species that are sympatric with it or inhabit the southwestern wet zone.
... South Asian Shrub Frog genus Pseudophilautus is restricted to India and Sri Lanka (Biju & Bossuyt 2009;Manamendra-Arachchi & Pethiyagoda 2006;Dinesh et al. 2017). Seventy-nine valid species are known from this genus of which 76 occur in Sri Lanka Meegaskumbura & Manamendra-Arachchi 2005, 2011Meegaskumbura et al. 2007Meegaskumbura et al. , 2009Meegaskumbura et al. , 2012Wickramasinghe et al. 2013aWickramasinghe et al. ,b,c, 2015Biju & Bossuyt 2009;Dinesh et al. 2017), all of which are endemic to the island and all but one is restricted to the wet zone (annual rainfall > 2,000mm) (Meegaskumbura et al. 2012). Interestingly, about 60% of the Sri Lankan members of the genus were described in the recent past Meegaskumbura & Manamendra-Arachchi 2005, 2011Meegaskumbura et al. 2007Meegaskumbura et al. , 2009Wickramasinghe et al. 2013aWickramasinghe et al. , 2015. ...
... Seventy-nine valid species are known from this genus of which 76 occur in Sri Lanka Meegaskumbura & Manamendra-Arachchi 2005, 2011Meegaskumbura et al. 2007Meegaskumbura et al. , 2009Meegaskumbura et al. , 2012Wickramasinghe et al. 2013aWickramasinghe et al. ,b,c, 2015Biju & Bossuyt 2009;Dinesh et al. 2017), all of which are endemic to the island and all but one is restricted to the wet zone (annual rainfall > 2,000mm) (Meegaskumbura et al. 2012). Interestingly, about 60% of the Sri Lankan members of the genus were described in the recent past Meegaskumbura & Manamendra-Arachchi 2005, 2011Meegaskumbura et al. 2007Meegaskumbura et al. , 2009Wickramasinghe et al. 2013aWickramasinghe et al. , 2015. Major forest reserves includes in the southwestern wet zone are Haycock, Sinharaja, and Kanneliya-Dediyagala-Nakiyadeniya forest reserves (KDN complex). ...
... The new species can also compared with three Indian species of Pseudophilautus (Dinesh et al. 2017) (only opposing characters are mentioned): P. amboli (Biju & Bossuyt, 2009): presence of nuptial pads in males and absence of median lingual process; P. kani (Biju & Bossuyt, 2009): absence of nuptial pads in males and median lingual process; P. wynadensis (Jerdon, 1853): absence of both vomerine teeth and median lingual process. Meegaskumbura et al. 2007Meegaskumbura et al. , 2009Meegaskumbura et al. , 2012Wickramasinghe et al. 2013aWickramasinghe et al. ,b,c, 2015Dinesh et al. 2017). The discovery of P. conniffae sp. ...
Article
We describe a new Pseudophilautus species, P. conniffae sp. nov. from southern Sri Lanka. It was previously confused with Pseudophilautus rus (Manamendra-Arachchi & Pethiyagoda). The new species differs from the latter by the combination of the following characters: fourth toe webbing to penultimate subarticular tubercle on inner and outer sides (vs. fourth toe webbing in between penultimate and anetpenultimate subarticular tubercles on inner and outer sides), presence of conical median lingual process (vs. absent), and black patches on the posterior flank, anterior and posterior edges of the thigh (vs. black patches on the anterior surface of the thigh). Pseudophilautus conniffae sp. nov. may be sympatric with P. limbus (Manamendra-Arachchi & Pethiyagoda), which shares certain characters with the new species. The new species is, however, distinguished from P. limbus by the following characters: having supernumerary tubercles on manus (vs. lacking), absence of frontoparietal ridges (vs. presence), fourth toe webbing to penultimate subarticular tubercle on both sides (vs. fourth toe webbing between penultimate and anetpenultimate subarticular tubercle on both sides), third toe webbing to distal subarticular tubercle on both sides (vs. distal subarticular tubercle on outer side and below penultimate subarticular tubercle on inner side), and having the dorsum light brown with dark brown patches (vs. black and yellow variegated pattern on dorsum). The new species may be restricted to the southwestern wet zone of Sri Lanka. It is compared with all known Pseudophilautus species and also provided with a field key to identify it from those species that are sympatric with it or inhabit the southwestern wet zone.
... Sri Lanka, along with the Western Ghats of India, is one of the 34 biodiversity hotspots of the world and is credited with a rich amphibian fauna (Meegaskumbura et al. 2002;Mittermeier et al. 2004). Of recent times a large number of species has been added to the list with the total number of amphibian species adding up to 119 (see Fernando & Siriwardhane 1996;Manamendra-Arachchi & Pethiyagoda 1998, 2001, 2005Meegaskumbura & Manamendra-Arachchi 2005;Fernando et al. 2007;Meegaskumbura et al. 2007Meegaskumbura et al. , 2011de Silva 2009;Wickramasinghe et al. 2012aWickramasinghe et al. , 2013a, while that of Pseudophilautus Laurent, 1943 now stands at 75 species (see Manamendra-Arachchi & Pethiyagoda 2005;Meegaskumbura & Manamendra-Arachchi 2005;Meegaskumbura et al. 2007Meegaskumbura et al. , 2011Meegaskumbura et al. , 2012Wickramasinghe et al. 2013a). Of the 35 globally extinct amphibians prior to 2012, 21 alone were declared from Sri Lanka (Stuart et al. 2008). ...
... Sri Lanka, along with the Western Ghats of India, is one of the 34 biodiversity hotspots of the world and is credited with a rich amphibian fauna (Meegaskumbura et al. 2002;Mittermeier et al. 2004). Of recent times a large number of species has been added to the list with the total number of amphibian species adding up to 119 (see Fernando & Siriwardhane 1996;Manamendra-Arachchi & Pethiyagoda 1998, 2001, 2005Meegaskumbura & Manamendra-Arachchi 2005;Fernando et al. 2007;Meegaskumbura et al. 2007Meegaskumbura et al. , 2011de Silva 2009;Wickramasinghe et al. 2012aWickramasinghe et al. , 2013a, while that of Pseudophilautus Laurent, 1943 now stands at 75 species (see Manamendra-Arachchi & Pethiyagoda 2005;Meegaskumbura & Manamendra-Arachchi 2005;Meegaskumbura et al. 2007Meegaskumbura et al. , 2011Meegaskumbura et al. , 2012Wickramasinghe et al. 2013a). Of the 35 globally extinct amphibians prior to 2012, 21 alone were declared from Sri Lanka (Stuart et al. 2008). ...
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A new species of shrub frog Pseudophilautus dilmah is described from the Central Hills of Sri Lanka. This unique species is distinguished from all the other congeners from a combination of characters; snout rounded in lateral aspect, bluntly pointed in dorsal and ventral aspect, canthus rostralis rounded, vomerine teeth, lingual papilla and nuptial pads absent, dermal fringe distinct on inside of fingers III and IV, small blunt tubercles on metacarpal and ulnar folds, toes basally webbed, interorbital area smooth, upper eyelid prominent tubercles present, anterior and posterior dorsum without horny spinules but tubercles present, upper part of flank weakly granular, supratympanic fold distinct, prominent small calcar present at the distal end of the tibia, throat granular, chest and belly coarsely granular. Based on comparison of 16s rRNA gene we also show that the species is genetically distinct from other members of Pseudophilautus for which gene sequences are available. The high rate of deforestation and anthropogenic activities threaten this population in its natural habitat.
... Even though the taxonomy and phylogeny of amphibians (Arachchi & Meegaskumbura, 2012; Wickramasinghe et al., 2013) are well studied in Sri Lanka, relatively little attention has been paid to ecological and behavioral characterization. Other than for vocalization (Samarasinghe, 2011) and some information on breeding (Bahir et al., 2005; Karunarathna & Amarasinghe, 2007, 2010), literature on the biology and ecology of P. popularis is not available. ...
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This study reports activity budget and perch characteristics of the Sri Lankan endemic shrub frog Pseudophilautus popularis in a wetland-home garden setting in an urban area. Thirty-two frogs were studied from 18:30–06:00h and 45% of the time they were found to be stationary without any activity. The highest percentage of time was utilised for calling and courtship (52%). This study reveals that the frogs occupy different heights during their nightly activity period, starting from the ground level and gradually moving up among the vegetation. They were reported to reach the maximum heights around 23:00h, remaining there for nearly two hours and then retreating downwards towards the dawn. The results emphasize the importance of maintaining diversity of vegetation especially in terms of stratification in ensuring habitat quality to conserve this species. Introduction Even though the taxonomy and phylogeny of amphibians (Manamendra-Arachchi & Meegaskumbura, 2012; Wickramasinghe et al., 2013) are well studied in Sri Lanka, relatively little attention has been paid to ecological and behavioral characterization. Other than for vocalization (Samarasinghe, 2011) and some information on breeding (Bahir et al., 2005; Karunarathna & Amarasinghe, 2007, 2010), literature on the biology and ecology of P. popularis is not available. The Common shrub-frog Pseudophilautus popularis (Manamendra-Arachchi & Pethiyagoda, 2005) was described in 2005 and information on taxonomic features and distribution has been published. In the context of global amphibian decline and increasingly evident threats to amphibian fauna (Stuart et al., 2004), it is of vital importance to report how frogs interact with each other and with the environment in which they live (Zug et al., 2001). Furthermore, understanding behavior and habitat
... © F. tillack Despite its relatively small size, it is home to 119 species of amphibians of which no less than 103 are endemic (86.5% endemism) and as a result considered an amphibian hotspot. During the last two decades, the number of known amphibians has steadily increased (Meegaskumbura et al. 2002, Manamendra-Arachchi & Gabadage 1996, Meegaskumbura & Manamendra-Arachchi 2005, Meegaskumbura et al. 2011a, Wickramasinghe et al. 2013b). The 119 known taxa represent two orders: Anura and Gymnophiona. ...
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The southern and southeastern parts of Asia host high amphibian biodiversity and comprise four biodiversity hotspots. 285 amphibian species are endemic to South Asia, 342 are distributed in India and 119 in Sri Lanka. Here we document the distribution, threats, and conservation status of amphibians in the major countries of southern and southeastern Asia (India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, and China) and list smaller countries with species numbers. Conservation is an umbrella concept that is fundamental yet paradoxical. Training programmes, workshops for students, bio-banking, and the publication of field guides in local languages are urgently needed to conserve amphibian biodiversity in this part of the world.
... Sri Lanka is home to 75 known species belonging to the genus Pseudophilautus. Currently, all the 75 species are endemic to the island (Manamendra-Arachchi & Pethiyagoda 2005;, 2011Meegaskumbura et al. 2007Meegaskumbura et al. , 2009Wickramasinghe et al. 2013a). Sri Lanka claims to have the highest number of extinct amphibians-19 species (Manamendra-Arachchi & Pethiyagoda 1998Manamendra-Arachchi & de Silva 2004;Pethiyagoda 2005;IUCN & MENR 2007;Meegaskumbura et al. 2007;Stuart et al. 2008;Manamendra-Arachchi & Meegaskumbura 2012) and interestingly all belonging to the genus Pseudophilautus . ...
... Forty-four external measurements of specimens were taken with a Mitutoyo digital vernier calliper to the nearest 0.1mm. Terminology of external morphology abbreviated in the text and external measurements for the description section follows Wickramasinghe et al. (2013a). ...
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Pseudophilautus hypomelas (Günther, 1876), was previously known from the type collection of 14 specimens deposited in the Natural History Museum, London. There has been no record of this species since the original description by Günther in 1876, and subsequently this species was considered extinct. In recent explorations however, the species has been rediscovered from the Peak Wilderness, Central Hills of Sri Lanka, with a rediscription of the species from fresh collections.
... A pair of 7x35 binocular was used to observe birds. The different species of vertebrates and invertebrates were identified and classified using published field guides and research papers (Bedjanic et al., 2007; Das & De Silva 2005; Gamage 2013; Harrison 1999; Henry 1971; Kotagama 2004; Wickramasinghe et al., 2013) and The Red List 2013 status of the threatened category was noted. (Arachchi & Gamage, 2010). ...
Technical Report
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A biodiversity survey was conducted at Mattakelle Tea Estate with the objective of assessing the significance of a given tea plantation ecosystem in maintaining vertebrates and invertebrates diversity. Seven different habitats (home garden, seasonal stream, small scale reservoir, Eucalyptus forest, wetland, tea field and secondary forest) identified in previous study were surveyed. The monitoring was conducted from October, 2012 to April 2013 using line transect method. According to the present study, the diversity of invertebrates and vertebrates in Mattakelle tea estate is increased significantly than the previous biodiversity survey. The present observation compared with previous records, added 18 more species to the new list, making a total of 152 vertebrates and invertebrates species from the estate. The notable addition to the list is the Hymenopterans, odonates, butterflies and birds were observed in various ecosystems in the Mattakelle Estate. During the survey, 3 species of Hymenopterans, 11 species of dragonflies and damselflies, 46 species of butterflies, 2 species of fresh water fishes, 10 species of amphibians, 7 species of reptiles, 66 species of birds and 7 species of mammals were observed. Among them, 27 endemic species, 13 critically endangered/ endangered species, 10 vulnerable species and 13 species in near threatened category were recorded. The study revealed that each of the habitats provided unique niches and supported maintenance of natural diversity. Vegetation structure and the complexity of the ecosystem in tea plantations play a vital role in sustaining animal diversity. Nevertheless very important information was gathered; especially a number of observations were made on the threatened and endangered species that included first records of rare species attesting to the importance of the ecosystem. The present management of Mattakelle estate has been established home garden systems with fruit and economically beneficial plant species such as Mango, Avocado and Citrus while newly planted native tree species were observed in abandoned lands. Besides, number of small ponds has also been established for water purification as well as water conservation. Those habitats are highly important for aquatic life such as dragonflies, freshwater fishes and amphibians. Several conservation measures such as increasing plant diversity, introduction of shade trees, conduct of good agricultural practices and prevention from setting fire are recommended to protect and conserve animal diversity. The outcome can be made use for developing of strategies, to converse the diversity and to make effective and critical decisions to minimize the impact of human activities on the ecosystem.
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Sri Lanka is an amphibian hotspot of global significance. Its anuran fauna is dominated by the shrub frogs of the genus Pseudophilautus . Except for one small clade of four species in Peninsular India, these cool-wet adapted frogs, numbering some 59 extant species, are distributed mainly across the montane and lowland rain forests of the island. With species described primarily by morphological means, the diversification has never yet been subjected to a molecular species delimitation analysis, a procedure now routinely applied in taxonomy. Here we test the species boundaries of Pseudophilautus in the context of the phylogenetic species concept (PSC). We use all the putative species for which credible molecular data are available (nDNA–Rag-1; mt-DNA– 12S rRNA, 16S rRNA) to build a well resolved phylogeny, which is subjected to species delimitation analyses. The ABGD, bPTP, mPTP and bGMYC species delimitation methods applied to the 16S rRNA frog barcoding gene (for all species), 12S rRNA and Rag-1 nDNA grouped P . procax and P . abundus ; P . hallidayi and P . fergusonianu s; P . reticulatus and P . pappilosus ; P . pleurotaenia and P . hoipolloi ; P . hoffmani and P . asankai ; P . silvaticus and P . limbus ; P . dilmah and P . hankeni ; P . fulvus and P . silus .. Surprisingly, all analyses recovered 14 unidentified potential new species as well. The geophylogeny affirms a distribution across the island’s aseasonal ‘wet zone’ and its three principal hill ranges, suggestive of allopatric speciation playing a dominant role, especially between mountain masses. Among the species that are merged by the delimitation analyses, a pattern leading towards a model of parapatric speciation emerges–ongoing speciation in the presence of gene flow. This delimitation analysis reinforces the species hypotheses, paving the way to a reasonable understanding of Sri Lankan Pseudophilautus , enabling both deeper analyses and conservation efforts of this remarkable diversification. http://zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:DA869B6B-870A-4ED3-BF5D-5AA3F69DDD27 .
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Despite the impressive growth of knowledge on the phylogenetic systematics of dart-poison frogs and their relatives (Dendrobatoidea) over the past decade, many problems remain to be addressed. We analyzed up to 189 phenomic characters (morphology, behavior, defensive chemicals) and 15 mitochondrial and nuclear loci scored for 564 dendrobatoid and outgroup terminals, including 76 newly sequenced terminals and > 20 previously unanalyzed species, using tree-alignment and the parsimony optimality criterion in the program POY v.5.1.1 and additional analyses of the implied alignment using TNT v.1.5. Even though data coverage was highly heterogeneous, the strict consensus of 639 optimal trees is highly resolved and we detected only one instance of wildcard behavior involving a small clade of outgroup species. The monophyly of the median lingual process (MLP) possessing genus Anomaloglossus is decisively refuted, with the cis-Andean species being sister to Rheobates within Aromobatidae and the trans-Andean species nested within Hyloxalinae, implying two independent origins of the structure in Dendrobatoidea. Although this result was unexpected, it is not surprising given that the MLP evolved at least five times in Asian and African ranoids, including Arthroleptidae, Dicroglossidae, Mantellidae, and Rhacophoridae and either once in the most recent common ancestor of the massive clade Victoranura followed by independent losses or multiple times within component lineages. We restrict Anomaloglossus to the cis-Andean MLP-possessing species, describe a new genus for the trans-Andean MLP-possessing species, and resurrect Paruwrobates for its sister group, which includes Dendrobates andinus (formerly Ameerega), D. erythromos (formerly Hyloxalus and, until recently, Ameerega), and Prostherapis whymperi (formerly Hyloxalus). We also transfer Dendrobates maculatus from Ameerega to Epipedobates, making Ameerega an exclusively cis-Andean group. We describe two new species of the trans-Andean MLP-possessing genus-one from Cerro Tacarcuna, near the Colombo-Panamanian border, and the other from 800-900 m elevation on the western versant of the Colombian Cordillera Occidental (Cauca Department)-bringing the total number of species in the genus to seven. The discrete, round, white to yellowish-brown dots found on the venter of the new species from Cerro Tacarcuna and at least one other trans-Andean MLP-possessing species are formed by large, ellipsoid, densely distributed (up to 80 glands/mm²) granular glands. Although specimens of the new species from Cerro Tacarcuna exuded a noxious milky substance when handled, lipophilic alkaloids were not detected. In addition to the unexpected placement of the trans-Andean MLP-possessing species, major findings include the unexpected placement of Colostethus ruthveni and its undescribed sister species (the "C." ruthveni group) within Dendrobatinae as sister of the newly recognized tribe Dendrobatini (all dendrobatines except Phyllobates and the "C." ruthveni group). We describe a new genus for C. argyrogaster and C. fugax to remedy the paraphyly of Colostethus caused by the placement of those species as sister to Ameerega. Our evidence rejects the sister group relationship of Dendrobates + Oophaga in favor of Dendrobates + Adelphobates, which is consistent with their uniquely low diploid chromosome number of 2n = 18 (2n = 20 in Oophaga). With the exception of Anomaloglossus and Colostethus, all other genera are monophyletic. We recognize several monophyletic species groups-including the Atlantic Forest, trans-Andean, and 22-chromosome groups within Allobates, the An. stepheni, An. megacephalus, and An. beebei groups in Anomaloglossus, the C. latinasus (formed by the C. inguinalis and C. latinasus clades) and C. fraterdanieli groups within Colostethus, and the Am. braccata and Am. rubriventris groups within Ameerega-identify unambiguously optimized phenomic synapomorphies, and summarize patterns in the evolution of the diploid chromosome number, swelling of Finger IV in males, relative length of Fingers II and III, length of Finger V, and testicular and intestinal pigmentation. Finally, we address criticisms of the current taxonomy of Neotropical poison frogs and their relatives, concluding that they are either overstated, misguided, or false, and that the current system of names better communicates knowledge of the diversity of these frogs. Our results highlight the importance of increased taxon sampling, and we conclude by identifying key species to include in future phylogenetic analyses.