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... where is the current of sub-cells, is the number of sub-cells, (top: =1), (medium: =2), (bottom: =3). is the sub-cell photocurrent, is the sub-cell inverse saturation current of the diode, a is symbolize Boltzmann constant, T is the temperature of the sub-cell, K is the electron charge, and q is the diode ideality factor, V is the total voltage across the cell, and ℎ are series and shunt resistances [115]. ...
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The Small Satellite (SmallSat) industry has recorded incredible growth recently. Within this class, among Mini-, Micro-, and Nanosatellites, the Cube Satellite (CubeSat) is primed for an explosion of growth. These satellites are fascinating for remote sensing, earth observation, and scientific applications. Remarkable attention from the space operators makes it valuable because of its low cost, cubic shape, less manufacturing time, lightweight, and modular structure. Among the various subsystems comprising the SmallSat, the Electrical Power System (EPS) is the most crucial one because unreliable power supply to the rest is most of the time detrimental to the mission. The EPS is formed by electrical sources, storage units, and loads, all interconnected via different power converters, the operation of which must be closely orchestrated to accomplish efficient use of photovoltaic power, optimal battery management, and resilient power delivery. At the same time, the EPS design must address a series of challenges such as size restrictions, high power density, harsh space environments (e.g., atomic oxygen, radiation, and extreme temperatures) which significantly impact the EPS electrical and electronic equipment. In terms of power systems, a SmallSat EPS can be considered a space microgrid owing coordination and control of distributed generation (DG), storage and loads in a small-scale electrical network. From this point of view, this paper reviews and explores SmallSat microgrid’s research developments, energy transfer and architectures, converter topologies, latest technologies, main challenges, and some potential solutions which will enable building a more robust, resilient, and efficient EPS. The research gaps and future developments are underlined before the paper is concluded.
... Solar energy has the advantage of being environmentally friendly, pollution free, cost-efficient, and generally is unlimited in availability [1][2][3][4]. All these factors and dimensions of solar energy have attracted the attention of many researchers toward the photovoltaic (PV) systems and devices. ...
This chapter presents the background and contemporary research accomplishments dealing with smart architectural devices, photovoltaics. The evolution of photovoltaic devices, developments with open challenges, and future opportunities are analyzed and elaborated along with their response characteristic models and variations in graphical analysis. The chapter details the contribution of organic-inorganic solar cell devices and ferroelectric photovoltaics as well as their structural architecture for applications in switchable photovoltaics. Conclusions on device-construction variations, behavioral features with respect to a narrowed bandgap, control over polarization, leakage of current, and intrinsic conductivity are drawn. In continuation, the future scope and challenges are recognized.
This chapter evaluates the synthesis of polysilicon and the development of photovoltaic panels for the production of electricity from solar energy. The process from quartz to solar grade silicon is analyzed unit by units presenting the mechanism and its kinetics as well as the units themselves. Next, the solar cells are analyzed and their efficiency in capturing solar energy as electrical circuits evaluating the production of electricity from them in a third section of the chapter.