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Changes in the respondents' financial well-being

Changes in the respondents' financial well-being

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As a result of the global COVID-19 pandemic, we are facing challenges of the social and economic crisis. Its effects are difficult to estimate, but the impact on the tourism industry is undeniable. This is also true of the behavior of consumers of tourism services, whose attitudes towards travel are likely to change radically. The aim of the study...

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... were also asked whether their overall financial situation had deteriorated as a result of the pandemic (Fig. 2). 58.9% answered that the situation remained unchanged, 37.4% admitted that they were indeed worse off financially and 3.7% could not decide how to answer this question. ...

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... The results of our study generally confirm the trends in the nature of tourist travel in other countries caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. However, in the case of residents of Poland, the structural changes in tourist trips during the COVID-19 pandemic were relatively small, as also indicated by, among other things, surveys (e.g., Kowalska & Niezgoda, 2020;Gierczak-Korzeniowska et al., 2021). ...
... This is also confirmed by surveys among tourism companies (Gruszka & Manczak, 2021). Academic analyses conducted on the demand side were usually based on proprietary data obtained during surveys of limited samples (e.g., Gierczak-Korzeniowska et al., 2021Kowalska & Niezgoda, 2020;Widomski, 2020). The data from GUS, which has for many years used a more-orless consistent research methodology regarding participation in and the nature of tourist trips, also provide an opportunity for some comparisons. ...
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The purpose of this study is to identify the impact that the COVID-19 pandemic had on the tourism sector in Poland in terms of the tourist mobility of Poles, i.e., on the volume and nature of tourist trips of Polish residents. It is based on a comparison of the numbers and natures of tourist trips made during the pandemic (2020–21) against the preceding period (2018–19). This study is based on data from Statistics Poland collected from several hundred thousand participants (an average of over 136,000 people surveyed annually). The study discusses changes in: Polish residents’ level of participation in tourist trips; the number and breakdown of tourist trips; and the reasons/purposes for tourist trips. In addition, changes in the breakdown of transport used during tourist trips are shown. Changes observed in tourist travel expenses from 2018 to 2021 are also discussed. Another subject of our analysis is changes in tourist travel destinations and the seasonality of these trips.
... Similarly, the destinations of foreign trips have also changed due to tourists being motivated not by their own preferences but by the possibilities to enter a given country (Kowalska and Niezgoda, 2020). A relatively large part of countries closed their borders to visitors for whom the only travel purpose was to spend their free time in a country other than their country of residence. ...
The article puts forward a proposal for a new concept enabling a more in-depth analysis of the impact of the development of the COVID-19 pandemic on the tourism sector, dating back from the turn of 2019 and 2020. In order to present the concept of 'tourism covidisation', subject literature has been analysed. While analysing the literature, it was found that the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic has affected all tourism sectors: the accommodation and catering sector, the tourist attractions sector, the transport sector as well as the tourism organisers sector. This prompted the author of this publication to create a new definition-tourism covidisation, which may be defined as "any effects on the tourism industry sector directly or indirectly connected to the COVID-19 pandemic."
... Polska literatura przedmiotu, poza pracami dotyczącymi ogólnych zmian i wyzwań rynku turystycznego i zachowań wolnoczasowych (Kowalska, Niezgoda 2020;Panasiuk 2020;Roman, Niedziółka, Krasnodębski 2020;Zajadacz 2021;Zawadka, Jęczmyk, Uglis, Wojcieszak-Zbierska 2021), dość rzadko odnosi się do sytuacji miast turystycznych w okresie pandemii. Wśród nielicznych opracowań (np. ...
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The aim of this paper is to present previous experiences of tourism cities in reducing the negative impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the local tourism economy. The article is based on literature review, which starting point was a World Tourism Cities Federation report on urban tourism during COVID-19 pandemic. The authors argue and discuss the proposed instruments of actions and tools supporting the tourism sector at the urban level, both in the phase of fi rst responses to the outbreak, and in next stage of the pandemic, which is aimed at rebuilding and revitalizing tourism in the city.
... Polska literatura przedmiotu, poza pracami dotyczącymi ogólnych zmian i wyzwań rynku turystycznego i zachowań wolnoczasowych (Kowalska, Niezgoda 2020;Panasiuk 2020;Roman, Niedziółka, Krasnodębski 2020;Zajadacz 2021;Zawadka, Jęczmyk, Uglis, Wojcieszak-Zbierska 2021), dość rzadko odnosi się do sytuacji miast turystycznych w okresie pandemii. Wśród nielicznych opracowań (np. ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this paper is to present previous experiences of tourism cities in reducing the negative impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the local tourism economy. The article is based on literature review, which starting point was a World Tourism Cities Federation report on urban tourism during COVID-19 pandemic. The authors argue and discuss the proposed instruments of actions and tools supporting the tourism sector at the urban level, both in the phase of first responses to the outbreak, and in next stage of the pandemic, which is aimed at rebuilding and revitalizing tourism in the city. © 2021 Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Marii Curie-Sklodowskiej w Lublinie. All rights reserved.
... It should be noted for 45% of respondents surveyed by CBOS in May 2020, the most burdensome restrictions during the first lockdown, apart from the stay-at-home requirement (48%) and the need to wear masks (44%), was the ban on entering forests and parks (including national parks) (CBOS, 2020). In addition, given the impact of the pandemic on social interactions (Kowalska, Niezgoda, 2020), the majority of potential tourists will prefer to visit less populated places where the risk of infection is minimal. After the pandemic is over, domestic tourism can be expected to increase (Korinth, 2020). ...
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Tourist attractiveness of many areas in Poland is based on exceptional natural values, especially those protected by national parks. Recreation opportunities offered by national parks proved to be important during the COVID-19 pandemic, when the conditions for tourism changed. Many tourists gave up previously planned trips abroad in favour of staying in Poland. This raises the question whether tourists visiting national parks during the pandemic rested in compliance with the principles of sustainable tourism. The article is an attempt to diagnose changes caused by the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on sustainable tourism by analysing the case of national parks in Poland. The article presents: a) a diagnosis of changes triggered at different stages of restrictions introduced by the government to prevent the spread of the pandemic; b) a forecast of how the pandemic may affect the development of tourism in terms of supply (tourist companies, hotels, catering, attractions) and demand (tourists). The summary provides recommendations for national parks, which can be helpful in achieving sustainable tourism objectives.
... The pandemic has fostered a heightened level of awareness of how important tourism experiences and consumption are for people and local communities (Saarinen & Wall-Reinius, 2021). In addition, it continues to exert drastic impacts upon the tourism sector and is projected to have significant potential to reform future landscapes and servicescapes (Gössling et al., 2021;Kowalska & Niezgoda, 2020;Sinha & Nair, 2020). ...
Article
The tourism sector in South Africa has experienced the devastating impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic and in response national government is charting initiatives for a recovery plan. In common with other countries the promotion of domestic tourism is a core focus. Arguably, the magnitude of the pandemic will reshape existing patterns of tourism demand and supply which need to be understood and researched for designing appropriate policy interventions. Against the backcloth of the continuation of the COVID-19 pandemic, the need for recovery strategies, and the increasing focus on domestic tourism, the aim in this article is to interrogate COVID-19 impacts on the demand-side of tourism looking at changes in consumer demand and of intentions to travel. A desk top review is conducted of research produced by national governments, international organisations and of academic surveys completed in over 20 countries. The research findings are discussed in four themes, namely, (1) risk perceptions and the new tourism psyche; (2) travel intentions and changing mobilities; (3) travel intentions and changing patterns of demand; and, (4) the contactless economy and ‘untact’ tourism. The paper concludes with eight sets of policy recommendations for South Africa
... Based upon international surveys of research it is evident that the COVID-19 health crisis is engineering changes in consumer as well as entrepreneur behaviour patterns (Marques Santos, Madrid Gonzalez, Haegeman, & Rainoldi, 2020;Rogerson & Rogerson, 2021). Consumer perceptions of risk associated with the spread of the pandemic have precipitated shifting patterns of mobilities and radical changes in established patterns of consumer demand to which businesses have to adapt (Chebli & Said, 2020;Korinth, 2020;Kowalska & Niezgoda, 2020;Neuberger & Egger, 2020;Sánchez-Cañizares et al., 2020;Godovykh, Pizam & Bahja, 2021;Rogerson & Rogerson, 2021a). With specific regard to consumer behavioural changes several analysts pinpoint the significance of travellers' avoidance of crowded areas and a pivot away from traditional mass tourism destinations (Chebli & Said, 2020;Zenker & Kock, 2020). ...
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In emerging tourism scholarship around COVID-19 one of the major clusters of research surrounds issues of adaptation. Tourism businesses are compelled to adapt to shifts in consumer demand as well as government regulatory changes. The objective in this paper is to investigate the responses and adaptations to the impacts of COVID-19 of tourism businesses in South Africa’s most tourism-dependent locality. The research reports on 20 qualitative interviews undertaken with a cross-section of tourism enterprises in Bela-Bela Local Municipality, Limpopo province, which is overwhelmingly oriented towards the market of domestic tourism. Major results are local businesses are financially negatively impacted by the subdued nature of domestic leisure travel together with the near total collapse of business travel as well as the imperative to conform to new COVID-19 safety and health protocols. Adaptive responses have included downsizing of businesses, including worker retrenchments, pricecutting, limited initiatives towards product diversification, energetic social media marketing and repurposing of properties. Key challenges for Bela-Bela tourism enterprises relate to immediate financial issues and most especially in the context that minimal support has been provided by national government to assist their business survival. Future business prospects are not viewed favourably such that business closures and a hollowing out of the tourism enterprise base accompanying job losses in tourism appear inevitable.
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Social importance of the forest – report of pilot studies conducted during the pandemic. On March 11, 2020 the World Health Organization announced the state of the COVID−19 pandemic. In Poland, the first case of SARS−CoV−2 was diagnosed on March 4, 2020. Since then, the Polish government has been using various solutions to limit the spread of the coronavirus. Inter alia restrictions on movement, the use of public media, access to services and a short−term ban on access to the forest were introduced. The aim of this study was to present the results of a pilot study on the attitude of the Poles towards the forest during the pandemic. Three main research questions were set: what encourages the respondents to walk in the forest; what discourages them from this and what is their attitude to the decision to ban on entering the forest. The diagnostic survey method was conducted via the Internet. The study found that over 75% of respondents declared that they had been in the forest during the ‘stay at home’ action. What attracts the respondents most to walk in the forest is peace, quiet, fresh air and the possibility of contact with nature. The respondents considered the fear of ticks a disincentive. Over 70% of respondents considered the ban on entering the forest to be definitely wrong. During a pandemic, the forest can be a particularly popular place for walks, both due to the need to avoid crowded places and the possibility of finding peace and rest from the everyday hustle and bustle.
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Attitudes towards forest ecosystems have been changing together with human needs, which is amplified with society’s increasing need to spend recreation time in the forest. The phenomenon has been particularly visible during the COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of this study was to determine the attitude of Poles to forests during the COVID-19 pandemic. The research was based on (1) a sociodemographic background questionnaire that consisted of questions about the independent variables and (2) the LAS scale—an independently prepared tool for measuring attitudes towards the forest. In the survey, 1025 people participated (673 women). The age of the subjects was between 19 and 68. The attitude towards the forest was analysed in three dimensions: Benefits, Involvement, and Fears. The Mann–Whitney U test and Kruskal–Wallis one-way analysis of variance by ranks were used for statistical analysis. Women and people with primary education expressed the most fears connected with going to the forest. Men and people living in the countryside and in small towns, as well as respondents who were professionally active and performing work connected with forests were the most involved in exploring the forest and working for its benefit. Concerning the forest, concerned women, people from the highest age group, respondents with university education, and white-collar workers notice the most benefits from recreational activities in the forest.