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Changes in pH of kimchi/medium-mixture as a function of fermentation time at different concentrations of added kimchi. 

Changes in pH of kimchi/medium-mixture as a function of fermentation time at different concentrations of added kimchi. 

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Article
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The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of the application of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from kimchi as a starter culture in the production of fermented sausages. To achieve this, a submerged model medium that contained LAB as part of a complex system of kimchi (0.5, 1.0, 1.0, 3.0, and 5.0%) and lyophilized kimchi powder (0.2 a...

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Context 1
... most important task of the LAB in the production of sausages is the formation of lactic acid from added car- bohydrate (Kunz, 1989). The immediate and fast acid for- mation at the beginning of the fermentation is regarded as an essential requirement for lactic acid starter culture. In the present work, the liquid model medium was actively acidified by the kimchi bacteria, which showed a rapid decrease in pH reaching 3.4-3.5 after 48 h (Fig. 3). Since the medium was treated with only kimchi, the pH drop might be due to the capability of kimchi LAB to produce organic acids during their metabolization of sugar, which is needed for their growth and survival. Indeed, the pH drop was accompanied by a fast increase in the LAB count as well as in the production of lactic acid (Fig. 3 and 4). The rate of the pH drop in the kimchi batches was comparable to that of the medium inoculated with a series of lactic acid starter cultures in the study by Liepe et al. (1989). This indicates that the LAB of kimchi had a capa- bility of using glucose and producing lactic acid compa- rable to that of the bacteria usually used as starter cultures in the production of sausages. Furthermore, the investiga- tions by Liepe et al. (1989) were carried out in MRS broth, which is an optimal medium for growth of lactoba- cilli. Therefore, the comparable pH drops in both studies demonstrate the excellent souring properties of the kim- chi LAB applied in the present work. As mentioned, the spice mixture added with kimchi might have attributed to such good souring properties of kimchi LAB in the new ...
Context 2
... most important task of the LAB in the production of sausages is the formation of lactic acid from added car- bohydrate (Kunz, 1989). The immediate and fast acid for- mation at the beginning of the fermentation is regarded as an essential requirement for lactic acid starter culture. In the present work, the liquid model medium was actively acidified by the kimchi bacteria, which showed a rapid decrease in pH reaching 3.4-3.5 after 48 h (Fig. 3). Since the medium was treated with only kimchi, the pH drop might be due to the capability of kimchi LAB to produce organic acids during their metabolization of sugar, which is needed for their growth and survival. Indeed, the pH drop was accompanied by a fast increase in the LAB count as well as in the production of lactic acid (Fig. 3 and 4). The rate of the pH drop in the kimchi batches was comparable to that of the medium inoculated with a series of lactic acid starter cultures in the study by Liepe et al. (1989). This indicates that the LAB of kimchi had a capa- bility of using glucose and producing lactic acid compa- rable to that of the bacteria usually used as starter cultures in the production of sausages. Furthermore, the investiga- tions by Liepe et al. (1989) were carried out in MRS broth, which is an optimal medium for growth of lactoba- cilli. Therefore, the comparable pH drops in both studies demonstrate the excellent souring properties of the kim- chi LAB applied in the present work. As mentioned, the spice mixture added with kimchi might have attributed to such good souring properties of kimchi LAB in the new ...
Context 3
... the lag phase the kimchi-powder LAB exhibited a good growth rate up to 9.0 Log CFU/mL (0.5%) after 8 h, which were maintained until the end of the fermentation period (Fig. 5). The difference in the numbers of LAB between the two batches became smaller as closed to the stationary phase. These results indicate that LAB of kim- chi-powder were able to fulfill the basic criteria for fer- mented sausage starter cultures by showing salt tolerance, good fermentation of sugar (glucose) and metabolic activ- ities at a temperature of 25 o C ( Hammes et al., 1985;Luecke and Hechelmann, 1985;Buckenhueskes, 1993). Fig. 6 shows the evolution of pH and titratable acidity in the kimchi-powder/medium-mixture. The start pH of the model-medium was decreased for 0.2-0.4 units from the original pH (5.8) of the medium by the addition of the kimchi-powder. The start pH of the batch 0.2% KP (5.8) was same as that of the batch 1.5% K (Fig. 3). This agrees with the result that the start lactic acid content of 0.2% KP was the same as that of 1.5% K (Fig. 4). There were little changes in pH during the initial 4 h. The pH of the batch 0.5% KP even increased slightly. In this period, the lactic acid contents were also almost the same as the start values. After an initially unchanged phase of pH level, it decreased remarkably in both batches until 24 h after the start of the experiment reaching values of 3.61 (0.2% KP) and 3.43 (0.5% KP). The initial changes in pH of the kimchi-powder batches were found to be slower than those in the kimchi batches, but the continuous decrease in pH of the kimchi-powder batches during the later half led to the lower final pH values than in the kimchi batches. The final values were ranged between 2.9 (0.2% KP) and 2.8 (0.5% KP). These final values were much lower than those of the kimchi batches, which ranged from 3.3 to ...

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Citations

... Although the environmental conditions in kimchi and fermenting sausages are different, the LAB emerged in kimchi during ARTICLE fermentation at 20-30 o C are expected to have the potential utility as a substitute of starter culture in the production of fermented sausages (Hwang et al., 1960;Lee et al., 2006). The utility potential of kimchi LAB as starter culture in the production of fermented sausages was investigated at the previous study using submerged model-medium, in which the conditions were composed to simulate those of meat mixture (Lee and Kunz, 2009). A real sausage mixture, however, has different features from the submerged medium. ...
... Therefore, experiments were carried out using solid-state model media in which substantial conditions of a meat mixture prepared for sausage production were devised. The results are compared with those of previous trials carried out in submerged model medium (Lee and Kunz, 2009) to investigate the effect of fixed phase on the microbiological and chemical characteristics of kimchi LAB. ...
... The tendency of microbial changes in both TVC and LAB counts in the solid-state model medium was shown in Figs. 1 and 2. The initial TVC (Fig. 1) ranged from 6.95 Log CFU/g to 7.49 Log CFU/g depending on the concentration of added kimchi. The highest TVCs reached around 8.90 Log CFU/g in 12-24 h comparable with that in the submerged medium (around 9 Log CFU/mL) (Lee and Kunz, 2009). The initial TVC as well as the TVC during the fermentation period in each sample were closed to the counts of lactobacilli. ...
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