Changes in normalized EMG amplitude (root mean square, RMS) of the biceps femoris, gastrocnemius, and vastus lateralis muscles during the six 5-s segments of the Wingate test with placebo (PLA) and ischemic preconditioning (IPC) before (pre), after 2 weeks of training (mid), and after 4 weeks of training (post). * Clear difference between groups (see text for details).

Changes in normalized EMG amplitude (root mean square, RMS) of the biceps femoris, gastrocnemius, and vastus lateralis muscles during the six 5-s segments of the Wingate test with placebo (PLA) and ischemic preconditioning (IPC) before (pre), after 2 weeks of training (mid), and after 4 weeks of training (post). * Clear difference between groups (see text for details).

Source publication
Article
Full-text available
This preliminary study examined the effect of chronic ischemic preconditioning (IPC) on neuromuscular responses to high-intensity exercise. In a parallel-group design, twelve endurance-trained males (VO2max 60.0 ± 9.1 mL·kg−1·min−1) performed a 30-s Wingate test before, during, and after 4 weeks of sprint-interval training. Training consisted of bi...

Citations

... Nevertheless, humoral, neural, and systemic responses are putative triggers to the ergogenic effects of IPC ( Figure 1). Autacoids released from the ischemic tissue appear to stimulate cardiovascular and neural responses that may affect the physiological response to exercise (Amann et al., 2011;Bouffard et al., 2021). Moreover, IPC has been shown to have systemic effects that modulate the inflammatory response to exercise and attenuate muscle damage, which may indicate the utility of IPC for facilitating training adaptations by reducing cellular damage and augmenting recovery potential from an exercise bout (Arriel et al., 2018;Mieszkowski et al., 2020;Patterson et al., 2021). ...
... Metabolic mediators including adenosine, bradykinin, opioids, and endocannabinoids-all of which are involved in pain signalling during exercise (Sgherza et al., 2002;Murase et al., 2010;Aguiar et al., 2020;Hughes and Patterson, 2020;Hughes et al., 2021)have been purported to contribute to the protective response to RIPC (Lee et al., 1996;Tomai et al., 1999;Cohen et al., 2000;Schoemaker and van Heijningen, 2000;Dickson et al., 2002;Patel et al., 2002;Hajrasouliha et al., 2008). Furthermore, the endogenous release of some of these autacoids is thought to modulate the stimulation and signalling of group III/IV afferents (Amann et al., 2009, Amann et al., 2011Bouffard et al., 2021). ...
Article
Full-text available
Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) has been reported to augment exercise performance, but there is considerable heterogeneity in the magnitude and frequency of performance improvements. Despite a burgeoning interest in IPC as an ergogenic aid, much is still unknown about the physiological mechanisms that mediate the observed performance enhancing effects. This narrative review collates those physiological responses to IPC reported in the IPC literature and discusses how these responses may contribute to the ergogenic effects of IPC. Specifically, this review discusses documented central and peripheral cardiovascular responses, as well as selected metabolic, neurological, and perceptual effects of IPC that have been reported in the literature.
... The last two papers published in this Special Issue investigated the effect of the acute and chronic application of blood-flow restriction on exercise capacity [4,5]. Restricting blood, and hence oxygen delivery, may sound counterintuitive, but several recent robust studies have demonstrated that, to the contrary, transient restriction that confers an optimal conditioning stimulus could be beneficial to physiological responses and physical endeavours. ...
... In fact, IPC has been demonstrated to increase performance during varied types of exercises. The novelty brought forward by the research team from Laval University [5] was to apply IPC before training sessions to enhance the stimulus of every session. Bouffard and colleagues reported that cyclists who preceded their sprint training sessions with IPC for four weeks exhibited a lower decline in power output during a Wingate test than those training without the extra occlusion stimulus. ...
Article
Full-text available
High-intensity interval training, the so-called HIT, was popularized among athletes in the 1980′s and has been shown to be one of the most effective training modalities for improving athletic performance in various sports [...]