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Changes in forest sizes and their respective causes in the lower Tana River between 1979 and 2000

Changes in forest sizes and their respective causes in the lower Tana River between 1979 and 2000

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Article
Full-text available
Seventy-three forest patches were assessed to determine the effects of human and natural impact on native forests along the Lower Tana River flood plains in Kenya between January and March 2001. Seventeen of these forests were within the Tana River Primate National Reserve (TRPNR) while 56 were outside the protected area. Cultivation and dyke const...

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Context 1
... and Hewani South 1a (no. 63a) resulting to area loss of 28.9% and 22.4%, respectively (Table 3). Of the forest patches impacted by flooding alone, Maroni West 2 (no. ...
Context 2
... of irrigation dykes greatly impacted on Kulesa East 1 (no. 48a) resulting in loss of 71.7% of forested area (Table 3). ...
Context 3
... and Maziwa South (no. 45) forests had area loss of 99, 75.8, 71.1, and 46.8%, respectively (Table 3). Maroni East 1 (no. ...
Context 4
... and Maroni East 2 (no. 5b) were affected by both cultivation and flooding resulting to a total forest area loss of 50% each (Table 3). Overall forest area reduced significantly from 5,439 ha to 3,564 ha (t = 3.807, n = 76, P < 0.001) accounting for a 34% decrease between 1979 and 2000 ( Table 4). ...

Citations

... P. rufomitratus saw a 5% decline between 1994 and 2001 at Tana River due to habitat loss (Karere et al. 2004). Anthropogenic and some natural causes resulted in a 34.5% reduction in forest cover in lower Tana River with areas inside the National Park being affected a little less than those outside the park (38% versus 29% reduction) (Moinde-Fockler et al. 2007;Wahungu et al. 2005). High genetic diversity was found within and between small populations in those fragmented forests, suggesting that the meta-population was large and fragmentation still recent relative to red colobus generation times; a Pliocene-Pleistocene interval bottleneck signature was also detected (Mbora & McPeek 2010). ...
Chapter
This chapter reviews current knowledge of the red colobus, Piliocolobus, a polytypic widespread colobine living in sub-Saharan African forests, woodlands, mangroves, and riparian forests. The taxonomy of Piliocolobus has undergone many changes and is still unresolved, resulting in confusion and possibly hindering conservation efforts. Red colobus is known for being the favourite prey of chimpanzees in many locations, and in several populations red colobus associate with guenons to reduce predation risk. Less well-known are their sexual swellings, which vary greatly in size across the genus, and their graded vocal repertoire that lacks a long call, but in some cases includes female mating calls. Noisy, large multi-female multi-male groups, female dispersal, philopatric males that form coalitions, and lack of female allomothering are considered the norm for the genus but these are not universal. Red colobus is facing extirpation in many locations due to human hunting and forest destruction. Various serious diseases and parasites are also reported for many populations and are often associated with human encroachment into their habitat. Much about the social behaviour is yet to be studied, especially in the less-studied central African species assemblage.
... As a consequence, endangered or protected species management and restoration of degraded secondary forests is becoming a challenge (Ceballos et al., 2015). The distribution and development of a species is related not only to its genetic and physiological characteristics, but also to its biotic and abiotic environmental conditions (Merow et al., 2014;Takahashi and Murayama, 2014;Lachowicz et al., 2018). Therefore, it is of great theoretical and practical value to research the habitat community composition along with environmental characterization of protected species for improving forest management and developing EBF restoration strategies. ...
... To date, research on Sassafras focused on wood board manufacturing process (Harding et al., 1997), genetic diversity (Moinde-Fockler et al., 2006), identification of nitrogen-fixing enterobacteria from living Sassafras trees (Line, 1990), medicinal characteristics and chemical composition of Sassafras root bark (Segelman et al., 1976;El-Feraly et al., 1983;Kamdem and Gage, 1995), and the origin of Sassafras species (Poole et al., 2000). However, there is little information on the community composition of S. tzumu and the major environmental variables that influence its distribution. ...
Article
Full-text available
Studying the community composition and environmental characterization is an urgent need for species conservation and forest restoration. Sassafras tzumu (Hemsl.) Hemsl is a protected plant species in southern China. We aimed to assess the relationship between S. tzumu and environmental variables using data from the Noncommercial Forest Ecological Monitoring Plots (NCFEMPs) system in Zhejiang Province. Among the investigated NCFEMPs, we found 96 plots (20×20 m) containing S. tzumu species. The species composition and associated environmental data from 96 plots were analyzed using two-way indicator species analysis (TWINSPAN) and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). The TWINSPAN results showed there were eight types of S. tzumu associations. Each association had its own composition and environmental characteristics. The CCA results showed that the elevation and slope aspect were the major variables that determined the spatial patterns of S. tzumu communities. Our results will be of great theoretical and practical significance for protected species management and conservation.
... Continuing deforestation, habitat degradation, fragmentation, and spread of invasive plant species, further threaten the Tana River red colobus, as do agricultural encroachment and unsustainable forest exploitation (e.g., building materials, palm wine, medicinal plants, wood for canoe-making, firewood collection) (Butynski and Mwangi 1995;Mbora and Meikle 2004;Moinde-Fockler et al. 2007;De Jong & Butynski 2009;Duvail et al. 2012;Hamerlynck et al. 2012;. The invasive mesquite Propopis juliflora, facilitated by forest clearing by people and elephants Loxodonta africana, is steadily spreading into indigenous forests and inhibiting regeneration of native tree species. ...
... Proposed and failed irrigation schemes continue to threaten Tana River red colobus habitat. The Tana Delta Irrigation Project (TDIP), a failed rice growing development [financed by the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) and managed by the Tana and Athi Rivers Development Authority (TARDA)] led to the loss of some of the most important forests for the Tana River red colobus and Tana River mangabey (Butynski and Mwangi 1994;Moinde-Fockler et al. 2007). Similarly, the Bura Maize and Cotton Irrigation Scheme cleared 350 km² and diverted river water through furrows, but failed (Horta 1994;Christensen et al. 2012). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Howlers are highly susceptible to yellow fever, and two recent outbreaks have severely affected their numbers.
... It will be accompanied by largescale irrigation schemes, and water transfer to the Lamu Port and to the Southern Sudan-Ethiopia Transport Corridor (LAPSSET). Additionally, the High Grand Falls Dam will have negative impacts on the floods and groundwater recharge required for the maintenance of the lower Tana River and Tana (Butynski and Mwangi 1994;Moinde-Fockler et al. 2007). Similarly, the Bura Maize and Cotton Irrigation Scheme cleared 350 km² and diverted river water through furrows, but failed (Horta 1994;Christensen et al. 2012). ...
... For example, 100,000ha of the Mau Complex (part of the recharge zone for the Kisumu and Nakuru regional groundwater aquifers was lost between 2000 and 2009 (UNEP 2009). River and groundwater systems are being degraded by human activities, through for example, catchment degradation, pollution, siltation, bank encroachment, and over-abstraction (Moinde-fockler et al. 2007, Stockholm Environment Institute 2009, UNEP 2009). Such stresses and geographical location in arid settings exacerbate vulnerability to current and future climate risks (Stockholm Environment Institute 2009, Field et al. 2014. ...
... For example, 100,000ha of the Mau Complex (part of the recharge zone for the Kisumu and Nakuru regional groundwater aquifers was lost between 2000 and 2009 (UNEP 2009). River and groundwater systems are being degraded by human activities, through for example, catchment degradation, pollution, siltation, bank encroachment, and over-abstraction (Moinde-fockler et al. 2007, Stockholm Environment Institute 2009, UNEP 2009). Such stresses and geographical location in arid settings exacerbate vulnerability to current and future climate risks (Stockholm Environment Institute 2009, Field et al. 2014. ...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report presents the results of the study ‘‘Development Corridors in Kenya: A Scoping Study”. The objective was to review the current baseline situation in relation to mega-scale development corridor projects in Kenya with regard to the people and society, environment, conservation and development.
... For example, 100,000ha of the Mau Complex (part of the recharge zone for the Kisumu and Nakuru regional groundwater aquifers was lost between 2000 and 2009 (UNEP 2009). River and groundwater systems are being degraded by human activities, through for example, catchment degradation, pollution, siltation, bank encroachment, and over-abstraction (Moinde-fockler et al. 2007, Stockholm Environment Institute 2009, UNEP 2009). Such stresses and geographical location in arid settings exacerbate vulnerability to current and future climate risks (Stockholm Environment Institute 2009, Field et al. 2014. ...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report presents the results of the study ‘‘Development Corridors in Kenya: Scoping Study”. The objective was to review the current baseline situation in relation to mega-scale development corridor projects in Kenya vis à vis the people and society, environment, conservation and development. The work forms the basis for the planning and implementation of the Development Corridors Partnership (DCP) research programme that will offer innovative solutions towards achieving these mentioned goals both in Kenya and globally. The scope of the report includes a conceptual framework for understanding development corridors in Kenya and related initiatives as outlined in the National Spatial Plan 2015-2045, with the Lamu Port and Lamu-Southern Sudan-Ethiopia Transport (LAPSSET) and Standard Gauge Railway (SGR) corridors being the two main corridors under implementation. It then reviews a broad array of stakeholders and their influence on Kenya’s Development Corridors. It also analyses the development corridor implementation in Kenya by looking into Corridor Project Negotiation and Agreement Process, challenges to corridor implementation, litigation and resultant impacts. It goes further to highlight potential social and ecological impacts of development corridors, and climate change-related risks facing the development corridors. The study applied several data collection and analysis tools. Literature review, stakeholder analysis and a critical review of relevant policies and legislation were completed to identify actors and policy as well as legislative frameworks relevant to the development corridors in Kenya. Efforts were also made to collect data from selected government agencies and actors through telephone and email communications
... For example, 100,000ha of the Mau Complex (part of the recharge zone for the Kisumu and Nakuru regional groundwater aquifers was lost between 2000 and 2009 (UNEP 2009). River and groundwater systems are being degraded by human activities, through for example, catchment degradation, pollution, siltation, bank encroachment, and over-abstraction (Moinde-fockler et al. 2007, Stockholm Environment Institute 2009, UNEP 2009). Such stresses and geographical location in arid settings exacerbate vulnerability to current and future climate risks (Stockholm Environment Institute 2009, Field et al. 2014. ...
... Continuing deforestation, habitat degradation, fragmentation, and spread of invasive plant species, further threaten the Tana River red colobus, as do agricultural encroachment and unsustainable forest exploitation (e.g., building materials, palm wine, medicinal plants, wood for canoe-making, firewood collection) (Butynski and Mwangi 1995;Mbora and Meikle 2004;Moinde-Fockler et al. 2007;De Jong & Butynski 2009;Duvail et al. 2012;Hamerlynck et al. 2012;. The invasive mesquite Propopis juliflora, facilitated by forest clearing by people and elephants Loxodonta africana, is steadily spreading into indigenous forests and inhibiting regeneration of native tree species. ...
... Proposed and failed irrigation schemes continue to threaten Tana River red colobus habitat. The Tana Delta Irrigation Project (TDIP), a failed rice growing development [financed by the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) and managed by the Tana and Athi Rivers Development Authority (TARDA)] led to the loss of some of the most important forests for the Tana River red colobus and Tana River mangabey (Butynski and Mwangi 1994;Moinde-Fockler et al. 2007). Similarly, the Bura Maize and Cotton Irrigation Scheme cleared 350 km² and diverted river water through furrows, but failed (Horta 1994;Christensen et al. 2012). ...
... It will be accompanied by largescale irrigation schemes, and water transfer to the Lamu Port and to the Southern Sudan-Ethiopia Transport Corridor (LAPSSET). Additionally, the High Grand Falls Dam will have negative impacts on the floods and groundwater recharge required for the maintenance of the lower Tana River and Tana (Butynski and Mwangi 1994;Moinde-Fockler et al. 2007). Similarly, the Bura Maize and Cotton Irrigation Scheme cleared 350 km² and diverted river water through furrows, but failed (Horta 1994;Christensen et al. 2012). ...