Figure - available from: Psychopharmacology
This content is subject to copyright. Terms and conditions apply.
Changes in connectedness following a psychedelic experience in a guided group setting. Connectedness across all subscales was significantly (p < .0001) enhanced 2 weeks, 4 weeks and 6 months following the experience compared to baseline. Error bars indicate 95% confidence intervals. CTO, connectedness to others; CTS, connectedness to self; CTW, connectedness to world; WCS, Watts’ Connectedness Scale (total)

Changes in connectedness following a psychedelic experience in a guided group setting. Connectedness across all subscales was significantly (p < .0001) enhanced 2 weeks, 4 weeks and 6 months following the experience compared to baseline. Error bars indicate 95% confidence intervals. CTO, connectedness to others; CTS, connectedness to self; CTW, connectedness to world; WCS, Watts’ Connectedness Scale (total)

Source publication
Article
Full-text available
Rationale A general feeling of disconnection has been associated with mental and emotional suffering. Improvements to a sense of connectedness to self, others and the wider world have been reported by participants in clinical trials of psychedelic therapy. Such accounts have led us to a definition of the psychological construct of ‘connectedness’ a...

Similar publications

Article
Full-text available
Purpose of the Review We aim to provide an overview of the current state of knowledge about the efficacy of psilocybin in the treatment of depression, as well as its mechanisms of action. Recent Findings Psilocybin has a large, rapid, and persistent clinical effect in the treatment of resistant or end-of-life depression. Tolerance is good, with mi...
Article
Full-text available
Background Psilocybin-induced mystical-type experiences are associated with lasting positive psychological outcomes. Recent studies indicate that trait mindfulness is increased 3 months after psilocybin intake, preceded by decreases in neocortical serotonin 2A receptor (5-HT 2A R) binding. However, the association between psilocybin-induced mystica...
Preprint
Full-text available
Visual alterations under classic psychedelics can include rich phenomenological accounts of eyes-closed imagery. Bottom-up connectivity of the visual pathway underpins sensory perception, with top-down connectivity enhanced during intentional imagery. Preclinical evidence suggests agonism of the 5-HT2A receptor may reduce synaptic gain to produce p...
Article
Full-text available
The psychedelic drug psilocybin has been successfully explored as a novel treatment for a range of psychiatric disorders. Administration of psilocybin requires careful attention to psychological support and the setting in which the drug is administered. The use of music to support the acute psychoactive effects of psilocybin is recommended in curre...
Article
Full-text available
Background Preliminary results from randomized controlled studies as well as identified molecular, cellular, and circuit targets of select psychedelics (e.g., psilocybin) suggest that their effects are transdiagnostic. In this review, we exploit the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) transdiagnostic framework, to synthesize extant literature on psiloc...

Citations

... Use of the term "connectedness" to refer to this phenomenon, as proposed by Watts et al. (2017), seems particularly useful for clinically-oriented psychedelic research as it stands in opposition to disconnectedness, a detrimental state commonly reported by depressed patients before undergoing psychedelic therapy . Secondly, the related Watts Connectedness Scale (Watts et al., 2022) distinguishes between three distinct kinds of connectedness: with self, with others, and with the world. All three types are believed to be beneficial to an individual's mental wellbeing and health. ...
... Only two aspects of "connectedness" as proposed by Watts, i.e., with others and the world/universe, are synonymous with "oceanic boundlessness" and "oneness". The third category, connectedness with (own) self, does not overlap with these terms sufficiently as for instance oceanic boundlessness can be described as "positively experienced depersonalization" (Studerus et al., 2010) rather than reconnection with the "deeper aspects" of the individual self (Watts et al., 2022). Therefore "connectedness with self" is not investigated in this study. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background and aims Despite promising findings indicating the therapeutic potential of psychedelic experience across a variety of domains, the mechanisms and factors affecting its efficacy remain unclear. The present paper explores this by focusing on two psychedelic states which have been suggested as therapeutically significant in past literature: ego-dissolution and connectedness. The aim of the study is to investigate the impact of ego-dissolution and connectedness on the therapeutic effects of the psychedelic experience. Methods The investigation was carried out as a mixed methods systematic review, with the data from four databases analysed thematically and results presented through narrative synthesis. Results The analysis and synthesis of findings from 15 unique studies ( n = 2,182) indicated that both ego-dissolution and connectedness are associated with a higher chance of improvement following a psychedelic experience. However, there seem to be differences in the way the two experiences affect individuals psychologically. Ego-dissolution appears to trigger psychological change but does not typically exceed the psychedelic experience in its duration, while connectedness can be more sustained and is associated with several positive, potentially therapeutic feelings. Conclusions Moreover, the findings of this review have implications for further theory-building about the mechanisms which enable therapeutic effects in psychedelic experience. This in turn might lead to improved models for psychedelic therapy practice. Emphasis on ego-dissolution during the preparation phase and on connectedness during integration is one suggestion presented here, alongside overarching implications for the mental health debate and general practice.