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Categories of and Relationships among Racial Microaggressions (Sue, 2010, p. 29) 

Categories of and Relationships among Racial Microaggressions (Sue, 2010, p. 29) 

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Article
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Despite growing research on racial microaggressions as a subtle but prevalent form of racial discrimination, research on microaggressions in sport and their effects on the psychosocial wellbeing of athletes is scarce. Moreover, some researchers question the legitimacy of microaggressions due to their subtle nature and inconsistency in how they are...

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... introduced in 1970 by Chester Pierce, researchers called racial microaggressions a modern day form of racism ( Sue et al., 2007b). Also referred to as "microinequities" (Sue, 2010, p. xvi), microaggressions are characterized by their subtlety, which causes the victim as well as the perpetrator to be unaware of its occurrence at times. Although this subtlety makes racial microaggressions particularly complex for researchers to understand, Sue et al. (2007b) outlined three types of microaggressions that can affect interpersonal relationships: (a) microassaults, (b) microinsults, and (c) microinvalidations. All three types of racial microaggressions communicate the message that racial minorities are somehow less worthy and inferior to their White counterparts. The types and themes of racial microaggressions proposed by Sue (2010) are shown below on Figure 1. Despite their subtle manifestation, researchers found that the stress resulting from chronic racial microaggression experiences can lead to negative biological, cognitive, emotional, and behavioral consequences (Sue, 2010). Microaggressions, as a chronic stressor, can lead to lower functioning of the immune system (Sue, 2010), negatively impact physical health outcomes ( Wong et al., 2014), and increase mood disorders such as depression and anxiety (Donovan, Galban, Grace, Bennett, & Felicie, 2013;Gomez, Khurshid, Freitag, & Lachuk, 2011). Additionally, Salvatore and Shelton (2007) found that racial minorities showed a greater decrease in cognitive functioning when exposed to subtle microaggressions compared to overt forms of racial discrimination. Researchers have explained that this is because subtle forms of racism potentially require more "guesswork" (Sue, 2010, p. 101) on the part of the victim compared to overt discrimination, and that "guesswork" makes it more cognitively burdensome. Furthermore, microaggressions lead racial minorities to perceive their surrounding climate as hostile and unsafe (Grier-Reed, 2010;Melendez, 2008), which can lead to "hypervigilance and skepticism" (Sue, 2010, p. 103) or internalized racism as a way for racial minorities to cope with the status quo of White supremacy (Sue, ...
Context 2
... introduced in 1970 by Chester Pierce, researchers called racial microaggressions a modern day form of racism ( Sue et al., 2007b). Also referred to as "microinequities" (Sue, 2010, p. xvi), microaggressions are characterized by their subtlety, which causes the victim as well as the perpetrator to be unaware of its occurrence at times. Although this subtlety makes racial microaggressions particularly complex for researchers to understand, Sue et al. (2007b) outlined three types of microaggressions that can affect interpersonal relationships: (a) microassaults, (b) microinsults, and (c) microinvalidations. All three types of racial microaggressions communicate the message that racial minorities are somehow less worthy and inferior to their White counterparts. The types and themes of racial microaggressions proposed by Sue (2010) are shown below on Figure 1. Despite their subtle manifestation, researchers found that the stress resulting from chronic racial microaggression experiences can lead to negative biological, cognitive, emotional, and behavioral consequences (Sue, 2010). Microaggressions, as a chronic stressor, can lead to lower functioning of the immune system (Sue, 2010), negatively impact physical health outcomes ( Wong et al., 2014), and increase mood disorders such as depression and anxiety (Donovan, Galban, Grace, Bennett, & Felicie, 2013;Gomez, Khurshid, Freitag, & Lachuk, 2011). Additionally, Salvatore and Shelton (2007) found that racial minorities showed a greater decrease in cognitive functioning when exposed to subtle microaggressions compared to overt forms of racial discrimination. Researchers have explained that this is because subtle forms of racism potentially require more "guesswork" (Sue, 2010, p. 101) on the part of the victim compared to overt discrimination, and that "guesswork" makes it more cognitively burdensome. Furthermore, microaggressions lead racial minorities to perceive their surrounding climate as hostile and unsafe (Grier-Reed, 2010;Melendez, 2008), which can lead to "hypervigilance and skepticism" (Sue, 2010, p. 103) or internalized racism as a way for racial minorities to cope with the status quo of White supremacy (Sue, ...

Citations

... Assumptions pertaining to masculinity have created unsafe experiences for gay and Black athletes, alike. Gay men athletes' scepticism of Safe Sport may stem from experiences of verbal microaggressions (e.g., stereotyping), the reinforcement of hypermasculine values and widespread use of homophobic terms, which collectively reinforce a sport environment characterised by prejudice, intolerance and exclusion (Anderson, 2002(Anderson, , 2005Dashper, 2012;Anderson et al., 2016;Lee et al., 2018;Baiocco et al., 2020), all of which contribute to perceptions of the sport environment as unsafe. ...
Article
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There is a growing concern that the voices of athletes, and in particular, athletes from equity-deserving groups, are unaccounted for in the development and advancement of Safe Sport initiatives. The lack of consideration of the needs and experiences of diverse groups is concerning, given the existing literature outside the context of sport indicating that equity-deserving individuals experience more violence. As such, the following study sought to understand how equity-deserving athletes interpret and experience Safe Sport. Grounded within an interpretive phenomenological analysis, semi-structured interviews were used to understand how athletes with marginalised identities conceptualise and experience Safe Sport. Seven participants, including two Black male athletes, two White, gay male athletes, one Middle Eastern female athlete, one White, female athlete with a physical disability and one White, non-binary, queer, athlete with a physical disability, were asked to conceptualise and describe their experiences of Safe Sport. The findings revealed these athletes perceived Safe Sport as an unrealistic and unattainable ideal that cannot fully be experienced by those from equity-deserving groups. This interpretation was reinforced by reported experiences of discriminatory comments, discriminatory behaviours and systemic barriers, perpetrated by coaches, teammates, and resulting from structural aspects of sport. The findings draw on the human rights literature to suggest integrating principles of equity, diversity and inclusion are fundamental to safeguarding equity-deserving athletes.
... The original goal of this project was to examine the discourses drawn upon by studentathletes of color to make sense of their race-related experiences and racial subjectivities (Lee et al., 2018). We conceptualized microaggressions (Sue, 2010) as examples of Foucault's (1995) panoptic gaze, reminders of student-athletes of color's deviance from the white norm. ...
... Sport is not exempt from the pervasive reach of whiteness. For example, Van Sterkenburg and Knoppers (2012) and Lee et al. (2018) observed how public sport policy enacted by the Dutch Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport aimed to increase sport for all by increasing minority youth participation and teaching them life skills through sport. In practice, sport was used to assimilate minority youth to mainstream (white) Dutch norms and values, which was assumed necessary and desirable for their social integration and mobility (Van Sterkenburg & Knoppers, 2012). ...
... The diction used by sports commentators also serves as evidence of white normativity as the success of Black athletes is attributed to biology, whereas the success of white athletes is attributed to merits such as their superior intelligence and effort (McDonald, 2012). In fact, in our previous study (Lee et al., 2018), we found it was often white people who brought up race to explain away student-athletes of color's accomplishments (e.g., "of course you are fast, you are Black"). Nevertheless, when student-athletes of color brought up race or were perceived as behaving in racialized ways (e.g., "why do all the Black athletes sit together?"), ...
Article
Student-athletes of color navigate white normativity daily, yet it is a form of racism rarely examined in sport psychology. Examining people of color’s daily experience can be instructive to understanding how whiteness gets normalized and challenged in various contexts. Moreover, as white normativity is ubiquitous, research methodologies themselves must explicitly acknowledge and challenge white normativity. This study examined (a) manifestations of white normativity in the daily lives of student-athletes of color, (b) student-athletes of color’s processes of negotiating and navigating whiteness, and (c) methodological designs for creating safe spaces for student-athletes of color to make meaning of race. Seven women student-athletes of color engaged in group and individual interviews during which the interviewer foregrounded race and racism and facilitated participants’ meaning-making. Specifically, building from humanizing research and heeding the call for empirical spaces to be culturally-responsive, participant storytelling was encouraged and stories were reexamined through critical lenses. Through our findings, we illustrate how women student-athletes of color are not merely passive recipients of dominant (white) culture but, in different ways, active agents negotiating their status as athletes, women, and people of color within white normative contexts. Conscious of their deviance from the white norm, participants engaged in continuous negotiation processes of normalizing, nuancing, and resisting whiteness. Lay Summary: Racism is often thought of as racist people harming people of color with malintent. In this paper, we show how racism is upheld and maintained even without individual racists through the normalization of whiteness. We also examined the everyday experiences of women student-athletes of color navigating, negotiating, and resisting white normativity. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS 1. Racism is not limited to overt actions perpetrated by individuals with intent to harm but, rather, through the normalization of whiteness. Thus, we must all critically examine the racial implications of our everyday assumptions 2. Studying race must be done thoughtfully and explicitly as racial consciousness is subverted due to white normativity in academia, research, and society 3. There are diverse positions women student-athletes of color can take as they navigate daily racism and white normativity. Sport and exercise psychology (SEP) professionals should hold space for student-athletes of color to consider their perspectives as there is no single right way to dismantle racism. SEP professionals must also actively seek for strategies to agitate and disrupt white normativity
... I define a microaggression as any subtle negative aggressive remark or action directed to a person based on their identity or group membership. In sport, microaggressions have been persist based on race (Lee, Bernstein, Etzel, Gearity, and Kuklick 2018) and gender (Kaskan and Ho 2016) as subtle biases against members of groups that have been historically excluded. This Generally, physical strength is often attributed to male bodies and masculinity. ...
Thesis
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The increasing popularity of rock climbing on the Niagara Escarpment poses both environmental and social challenges. To explore these issues, 18 semi-structured interviews were conducted with Ontario rock climbers exploring their experiences in relation to two main themes. First, following the post-human turn in anthropology, this research explores the environmental challenges on the Escarpment by attending to how climbers cultivate intimate relationships with the cliffs through affective encounters that in turn motivate environmental care. Second, drawing from gender studies, this project documents how social injustice manifests within this community as microaggressions, exclusion, and lack of mentorship opportunities. Overall, these findings reveal that the community is concerned with issues related to a growing and diversifying population, suggesting a need for changes in management and policy, as well as in community attitudes and acceptance. This research contributes to discussions of social and environmental justice in anthropology by drawing connections between gender, colonialism, and rock climbing.
... The athletic department then becomes a mechanism to surveille interactions and relationships players develop with one another, thus isolating them from the larger campus community (Comeaux, 2018;Hatteberg, 2018). Further, Black players regularly experience racial microaggressions and resentment from faculty (Comeaux, 2010(Comeaux, , 2012(Comeaux, , 2013(Comeaux, , 2019, fellow students (Beamon, 2014;Lee et al., 2018), and the public (Wallsten et al., 2017), isolating them even further from the general campus community. When contextualized within neoliberalism and commercialism (Comeaux, 2018), or total institution authoritarianism (Hatteberg, 2018), these policies function to surveil, control, and extract from players (Comeaux, 2018;Gayles et al., 2018). ...
... Even though almost all participants shared that racism was still an issue, sport was immune from that analysis. This is echoed in a more recent study in which players of color framed sport as transcending race, even after describing racial microaggressions from teammates, coaches, and trainers (Lee et al., 2018). ...
... But being an African-American college student-athlete poses increased issues related to racism and racial microaggressions. African-American student-athletes have to combat racism within their sports and in the classroom (Beamon, 2014;Bruening et al., 2005;Comeaux, 2008;Cooper & Hawkins, 2014;Lee, Bernstein, Etzel, Gearity, & Kuklick, 2018;Njororai, 2012). Racial microaggressions are subtle and can be verbal or nonverbal. ...
... Racial microaggressions are subtle and can be verbal or nonverbal. Racial microaggressions can be experienced daily by African-American student-athletes (Lee et al., 2018). It is as simple as relating an African-American student-athlete's athletic ability to their race or stereotyping the student-athlete to be lacking academically because they are more athletically talented. ...
... This can be conflicting for these student-athletes, as they want to succeed in the classroom and on their respective field or court. African-American student-athletes may be exposed to individual or institutional racism (Czopp, 2010;Cooper & Hawkins, 2014;Lee et al., 2018;Njororai, 2012). It can be difficult to deal with these microaggressions, so these student-athletes may choose to transfer institutions in search of a better experience. ...
... In recent years, more researchers have incorporated a Foucauldian poststructuralist perspective into their SEPP work (e.g., Kavoura, Kokkonen, Chroni, & Ryba, 2017;Kavoura, Ryba, & Chroni, 2015;Lee, Bernstein, Etzel, Gearity, & Kuklick, 2018). These studies outlined the multiple and, at times, contradictory discourses athletes draw upon to make sense of their gendered and racialized experiences and identities. ...
... These studies outlined the multiple and, at times, contradictory discourses athletes draw upon to make sense of their gendered and racialized experiences and identities. For example, Kavoura et al. (2015) and Lee et al. (2018) both found the dominant discourse in sport contexts was often that individual identities do not matter in sport. However, the sub-discourses participants drew from indicated that this idea of sport as a meritocratic space does not exist. ...
... For example, as described earlier, there are multiple realities about the existence and experiences of racism and genderism in sport. However, the idea that sport brings people together is generally taken for granted in society and considered as truth (Kavoura et al., 2017;Lee et al., 2018). The problem is that, within the dominant society, the most represented reality can appear to be the one-and-only reality. ...
... The fear, which derived from former negative experiences of name calling or physical violence, acted as a barrier for participants to continue engaging in sport or physical activity. In a study of eight U.S. athletes of color, researchers found that some athletes of color put pressure on themselves to excel at academics and sport because their parents told them they had to be twice as good as their white counterparts to be taken seriously (Lee, Bernstein, Etzel, Gearity, & Kuklick, 2018). While one athlete reported that she was aware that some judges could judge her more harshly than her white counterparts because she is Black, other athletes reported that they tried not to get off the team bus when traveling through rural areas of the U.S. because they might encounter violence. ...
... With thoughtful pitches for organizational buy-in, SPPs could then develop workshops that encourage members of the organization to recognize their positions of power and privilege (Larsen, Fisher, & Moret, in press). Researchers suggest that SPPs could already be positioned to lead training on the importance of using inclusive language and help athletic department staff develop strategies for correcting instances when non-inclusive language and actions occur (Larsen et al., in press;Lee et al., 2018). Lastly, open discussions about the importance of being visible and supportive allies to a variety of marginalized groups could be led by SPPs. ...
Article
Although everyone experiences stress, researchers have repeatedly found that traditionally marginalized community members experience stressors that members from privileged groups do not experience. Researchers also found that minority stress can lead to negative biopsychosocial health outcomes. Nevertheless, discussions of minority stress in sport psychology are scarce. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to introduce the minority stress model and offer practical suggestions for sport psychology practitioners to help their clients with marginalized identities to cope with minority stress. We propose both personal and community level strategies for coping with minority stress.
... 649 Racial disparities-including those involving exploitation, player-coach tension, prejudicial treatment and microaggressions-in addition to socioeconomic inequities, form barriers that may prevent equal opportunities. [650][651][652][653][654] For example, access to wealth has predicted participation and success at the Olympic Games. 655 Importantly, discrimination based on any aspect of cultural identity may come from several sources, including coaches, team mates, agents, universities, leagues, managers, healthcare providers or others. ...
... 649 Racial disparities-including those involving exploitation, player-coach tension, prejudicial treatment and microaggressions-in addition to socioeconomic inequities, form barriers that may prevent equal opportunities. [650][651][652][653][654] For example, access to wealth has predicted participation and success at the Olympic Games. 655 Importantly, discrimination based on any aspect of cultural identity may come from several sources, including coaches, team mates, agents, universities, leagues, managers, healthcare providers or others. ...
Article
Full-text available
Mental health symptoms and disorders are common among elite athletes, may have sport related manifestations within this population and impair performance. Mental health cannot be separated from physical health, as evidenced by mental health symptoms and disorders increasing the risk of physical injury and delaying subsequent recovery. There are no evidence or consensus based guidelines for diagnosis and management of mental health symptoms and disorders in elite athletes. Diagnosis must differentiate character traits particular to elite athletes from psychosocial maladaptations. Management strategies should address all contributors to mental health symptoms and consider biopsychosocial factors relevant to athletes to maximise benefit and minimise harm. Management must involve both treatment of affected individual athletes and optimising environments in which all elite athletes train and compete. To advance a more standardised, evidence based approach to mental health symptoms and disorders in elite athletes, an International Olympic Committee Consensus Work Group critically evaluated the current state of science and provided recommendations.
... Consistent with Foucauldian poststructuralist theory, examining everyday language such as 518 microaggressions (Sue, 2010) becomes essential because language is neither innocent nor 519 neutral. Normalized language such as microaggressions not only reflect dominant discourses 520 but also (re)produce them, which constitutes who and what we consider normal in society 521 (Lee et al., 2018). For example, if working with a men's sporting team holding an open social 522 activity, ensure athletes are invited to bring their partners, rather than using the 523 heteronormative language of inviting them to bring their wives or girlfriends. ...
Preprint
As one can see from current events, the (re)emergence of athlete activism, and the ongoing disagreements about social injustices, sport and sport, exercise, and performance psychology (SEPP) are not exempt from discussions of social justice and identity politics. Given their jobs as helping professionals, many SEPP professionals’ relative mute-ness on the cases listed above are troubling. It seems timely for SEPP professionals to facilitate “social consciousness, political awareness, and democratic engagement” (Fisher et al., 2003, p. 399). The authors’ goal for this contribution is to help SEPP professionals make explicit connections between how understanding power can help SEPP professionals understand the academic concept of privilege (McIntosh, 1988) and social injustices. Ideally, SEPP professionals can understand and address historical and ongoing systemic and interpersonal injustices such as racism, sexism, homophobia, transphobia that, inevitably, continue to affect their work. Below, the authors introduce theoretical perspectives on power and provide suggestions for how SEPP professionals can integrate understandings of power and privilege to promote social change and help all communities.