Cast and helix in a gas metal arc welding (GMAW) wire electrode. 

Cast and helix in a gas metal arc welding (GMAW) wire electrode. 

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This work offers an analysis of the wire feedability-related properties of Al-5Mg solid wire electrodes bearing Zr. Effects of Zr content on microstructures and mechanical properties of the Al-5Mg alloys were studied. Experimental results have demonstrated that α-Al dendrites of the as-cast Al-5Mg alloy are refined, and the tensile strength, microh...

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... The lowdensity metal has some advantages such as lightweight, ductile and corrosion resistance. However, it has also some weaknesses especially in toughness, wear-resistance, and hardness [3], [4]. It has been some while that automobile utilizes piston which is made of aluminum alloys. ...
Conference Paper
Automotive part such a block machine, piston crowns, piston rings, and piston-cylinder are made by Aluminum Alloy 6061 that has a standard of hardness. Several parts of the piston require a joint under a welding process which unfortunately decreases mechanical properties of the joint welding area, especially the hardness. The high temperature causes the reduction of hardness during TIG Welding process. RF-DC plasma nitriding with a gas ratio of 70% Nitrogen and 30 % Argon at low temperatures below 200°C can elevate the hardness of the welding joint. The highest increase of the hardness was achieved by 4 hours nitriding. EDS result showed an increase of nitrogen in their lattice. Solid solution hardening mechanism in this plasma nitriding process was occurred because of the strained lattice of aluminum.
... For welding or brazing, the properties and microstructures of ER4047 alloy wires have an important effect on the quality of the welded or brazed joints. On the one hand, the as-cast properties of an ER4047 alloy determine the difficulty of the wire drawing process (characterized by the drawing broken-line rate) and shaving process (characterized by surface quality) and then affect the welding process, such as the wire feedability [6]. On the other hand, the weld zone (WZ) is a zone where an as-cast microstructure is formed by remelting, mixing and solidification of the ER4047 alloy wire and the base metal (BM) near the groove. ...
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The synergistic effects of Nd and Ga on the microstructure and mechanical properties of ER4047 alloy wires and the resulting MIG(Melt inert-gas welding) joints were investigated. Experimental results show that the hydrogen content in the liquid and solid alloy decreases rapidly and then increases slowly with the addition of Nd in the range of 0–0.8 wt.%. Under the same conditions, the hydrogen content ratio in the solid and liquid is between 1.9 and 2.1. After adding 0.08–0.2 wt.% Nd, the α-Al dendrites and eutectic Si phases in the ER4047 alloys are refined and modified, respectively; the quality index of the cast rod increases and the weld percent porosity of the MIG joint significantly decreases. However, when 0.8 wt.% Nd is added, although the size of the eutectic Si phase reaches a minimum value, a large number of coarse needle-like Nd-rich phases precipitate in the structure. Moreover, Ga inhibits the precipitation of the Nd-rich phases, thus improving the mechanical properties, especially the elongation of the cast rod. When 0.2 wt.% Nd and 0.05 wt.% Ga are added into the alloy wire, the porosity of the MIG joint reaches the lowest value herein, and the tensile strength and face/back bending angles reach their maximum values.
... When active gas served as a shielding gas, alloying elements like silicon and manganese, which were present in the base metal and the wire, had a high affinity to react with oxygen and form silicon oxide and manganese oxide. These oxides accumulate on the surface of the weld pool and form slag [18]. the slags have a lower density than the molten metal and follow the flow pattern of the weld pool. ...
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In order to study internal relation among the behavior of the weld pool, the microstructure of weld bead and the waveform of short-circuiting gas metal arc welding (S-GMAW), a high speed photograph-images analysis system was formed to extract characteristics of weld pool behavior. Three representative waveform control methods were used to provide partly and fully penetrated weld pools and beads. It was found that the behavior of the weld pool was related to the instantaneous power density of the liquid bridge at the break-up time. Weld pool oscillation was triggered by the explosion of the liquid bridge, the natural oscillation frequencies were derived by the continuous wavelet transform. The change of weld pool state caused the transition of oscillation mode, and it led to different nature oscillation frequencies between partial and full penetration. Slags flow pattern could be an indication of the weld pool flow. Compared with the scattered slags on fully penetrated weld pool, slag particles accumulated on partially penetrated weld pools. The oscillating promoted the convection of the welding pool and resulted in larger melting width and depth, the grain size, and the content of pro-eutectoid ferrite in the weld microstructure of S235JR increased, the content of acicular ferrite decreased.
... Aluminum alloys have a wide application prospect in the field of automobile manufacturing and high-speed railway due to the advantages of light density, excellent corrosion resistance, easy processing, etc. [1][2][3]. Aluminum alloys have attracted widespread attention and became a new generation of structural materials in place of ferrous metal [4]. In recent years, as a widely used high-strength welding material as well as the better performance in mechanical properties than ER5356, ER5183 wires play a crucial part in the reliability of aluminum alloys structural materials and are frequently used in automatic and semiautomatic GMAW (gas metal arc welding) which requires good property of wire-feeding and appearance of welding [5]. ...
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This work focused on the influence of hydrogen content on the microstructure and mechanical properties of ER5183 Al-Mg-Mn alloy wires for aluminum alloy welding. The hydrogen content of the ER5183 wires was measured, the macroscopic and microscopic morphologies of fractures were observed as well as the microstructure of the wires, and the tensile strength of the wires was also tested and investigated. The experimental results demonstrated three typical irregular macroscopic fractures of the wires appeared during the drawing process when the hydrogen content exceeded 0.23 μ g/g. In the meantime, the aggregated pores were observed in the microstructure of the ϕ 5.2 mm wire with the hydrogen content of 0.38 μ g/g. Such defects may become the origin of cracks in subsequent processing and tensile tests. Moreover, higher hydrogen content in the ϕ 5.2 mm welding wire will bring obvious changes in the fracture surface, which are internal cracks and micropores replacing the original uniform and compact dimples. With the higher hydrogen content, the tensile strength and plastic strain rate of ϕ 1.2 mm wires would decrease. At the same time, unstable crack propagation would occur during the process of plastic deformation, leading to fracture. Considering the mechanical properties and microstructure, the hydrogen content of the ER5183 wires should be controlled below 0.23 μ g/g.
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Wire arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) has long been considered an efficient method for producing medium- and large-sized components, due to its minimal material consumption, high deposition, superior structural quality and environmental friendliness. The ER 316L wire was employed as the filler metal in the fabrication process with varying heat input by altering welding current (C), wire feed speed (WFS) and travel speed (TS). The first portion of the studies involved producing single-bead welds by adjusting the heat input condition, while the second part involved fabricating three single-bead walls using optimum parameters determined in the first part of the research. The mechanical properties of SS316L samples remained impressively constant when WFS and TS were varied. The macroscopic morphology and microstructure of a thick-walled component were studied using a metallurgical microscope and optical electron microscopy. The mechanical properties of tensile study and micro-hardness analysis were reported. From a microstructural study, it can be observed that the deposited weld beads consist of a columnar structure with primary dendrites. The cooling rate and heat dissipation during the weld deposition process affect the variance of microstructure in different areas. The average micro-hardness value of various linear heat input manufactured components demonstrated stability, with values of 313, 249 and 398 HV, respectively. The hardness results of as-deposited walls provide a higher value in bottom regions due to heat accumulation. Tensile properties were determined parallel and perpendicular to the deposition directions; decreased heat input resulted in superior mechanical properties in terms of tensile characteristics. From the tensile properties, the mean values of various heat input SS 316L ultimate tensile strength, yield strength and elongation were found to be 426 MPa, 304 MPa and 20%, respectively. Fractography showed typical dimple fracture characteristics in all the specimens. It is clear from the current research that parts made by WAAM exceed their 316L casting parts and wrought alloy.
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