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Carotenoid contents of the isolated cyanobacteria. at exponential phase. Values annotated with different letters represent a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) in terms of carotenoid contents among the isolated cyanobacteria
Some cyanobacteria species have a high capacity for accumulating phycobiliprotein contents in their cells. However, there is a lack of information on screening tropical freshwater cyanobacteria, particularly phycobiliproteins. In addition, it is unclear which characteristics of cyanobacteria (morphological and/or growth) could affect phycobiliprote...
Pigments are intensely coloured compounds used in many industries to colour other materials. The demand for naturally synthesised pigments is increasing and their production can be incorporated into circular bioeconomy approaches. Natural pigments are produced by bacteria, cyanobacteria, microalgae, macroalgae, plants and animals. There is a huge u...
... (92.57 mg g −1 ) have been reported to have higher C-PE content than red algae ( Figure 3) . These species have been extensively studied for C-PE synthesis and optimized for improved productivity in the literature. ...
Phycoerythrin (PE) is a pink/red-colored pigment found in rhodophytes, cryptophytes, and blue-green algae (cyanobacteria). The interest in PE is emerging from its role in delivering health benefits. Unfortunately, the current cyanobacterial-PE (C-PE) knowledge is still in the infant stage. It is essential to acquire a more comprehensive understanding of C-PE. This study aimed to review the C-PE structure, up and downstream processes of C-PE, application of C-PE, and strategies to enhance its stability and market value. In addition, this study also presented a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis on C-PE. Cyanobacteria appeared to be the more promising PE producers compared to rhodophytes, cryptophytes, and macroalgae. Green/blue light is preferred to accumulate higher PE content in cyanobacteria. Currently, the prominent C-PE extraction method is repeated freezing–thawing. A combination of precipitation and chromatography approaches is proposed to obtain greater purity of C-PE. C-PE has been widely exploited in various fields, such as nutraceuticals, pharmaceuticals, therapeutics, cosmetics, biotechnology, food, and feed, owing to its bioactivities and fluorescent properties. This review provides insight into the state-of-art nature of C-PE and advances a step further in commercializing this prospective pigment.