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Carotenoid content of gac and commonly consumed fruit and vegetables in the study areas

Carotenoid content of gac and commonly consumed fruit and vegetables in the study areas

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In rural Vietnam, vitamin A deficiency is a concern. Among the indigenous fruit and vegetables, Momordica cochinchinensis (gac) fruit has been identified as having the highest beta-carotene concentration. Locally, it is mixed with rice in a preparation called xoi gac. The purpose of this study was to assess this beta-carotene- rich rice preparation...

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... from the expected differences in carotenoid content, the meals consumed by the fruit group were moderately higher in energy, fat, and calcium than were those consumed by the control and powder groups, but these differences were not significant. -Carotene was the dominant provitamin A carotenoid present in the gac fruit (175 g/g edible portion; Table 2). The lycopene concentration was 802 g/g edible portion. ...
Context 2
... selection of xoi gac was based on the high -carotene content of the gac fruit and the established acceptance of this dish within our target population. The -carotene content of gac fruit is at least an order of magnitude higher than that of other fruit and vegetables available in the region (Table 2). More importantly, the gac fruit possesses 2 characteristics that suggest it can be a superior source of provitamin A. First, -carotene derived from fruit appears to be more easily absorbed than that derived from dark-green vegetables, presumably because of a more efficient release of bound molecule from the matrixes of fruit than from those of vegetables (3). ...

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... Hence, it can be used as a source of oleic acid in addition to other sources such as soya, palm and coconut (Vuong and Kind 2003). These fatty acids from aril play a vital role in the uptake of fat-soluble nutrients like carotenoids through lowfat diet (Vuong et al., 2002 ;Kuhnlein, 2004 ;Muller-Maatsch et al., 2017). It has been shown that Vietnamese households use Gac fruit oil as a substitution for pork fat (Vuong and King, 2003). ...
... New developments associated with Gac fruit have led to keen interest in many biological activities including the synthesis of provitamin A in the fruit and antioxidant properties of the fruit (Vuong et al., 2002, Barathi et al., 2014. Moreover, the anticancer and antimicrobial properties of the fruit have also been extensively investigated (Liu et al., 2012, Innum 2013, Tinrat and Asna 2016. ...
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... fruits. According to Majchrzak et al. (2000) and Vuong et al. (2002) provitamin A carotenoids, particularly β-carotene, provide vitamin A after enzymatic cleavage, and play a key role in human nutrition. β-carotene was the dominant provitamin A carotenoid present in the gac fruit (175 μg/g edible portion), papaya (12.1 μg/g), mandarin orange (4.65 μg/g) and banana (2.90 μg/g) (Vuong et al., 2002). ...
... According to Majchrzak et al. (2000) and Vuong et al. (2002) provitamin A carotenoids, particularly β-carotene, provide vitamin A after enzymatic cleavage, and play a key role in human nutrition. β-carotene was the dominant provitamin A carotenoid present in the gac fruit (175 μg/g edible portion), papaya (12.1 μg/g), mandarin orange (4.65 μg/g) and banana (2.90 μg/g) (Vuong et al., 2002). The interaction between acid extracts determines the flavor of the fruit. ...
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... The seed membrane of the Gac fruit also contains a significant amount of oil, which is essential for the absorption and transport of β-carotene (Vuong & King 2003). The concentration of lycopene in the aril was about ten-time higher than that in known lycopene-rich fruits, indicating that Gac fruit could be a new and potentially valuable source of lycopene (Vuong et al., 2002;Ishida et al., 2004;Burke et al., 2005;Vuong et al., 2006;Ishida & Chapman, 2009). Gac fruit can be easily gro wn in m any co untries, such as T hailand , Vietnam , Lao s and C hina (B oo tp ro m et al., 2 0 1 2 ; Bootprom et al., 2015;Kubola et al., 2013). ...
... 11.8 Previous studies on biological activities of Gac fruit showed that carotenoids from this fruit possess a variety of beneficial effects to human health. For example, β-carotene from Gac fruit, a precursor to vitamin A, has been efficiently used to treat the deficiency of vitamin A in children living in the poor communities in the North of Vietnam via the addition of Gac aril into their diet [27]. Lycopene from Gac fruit has been found to highly correlate with the antioxidant capacity of Gac products, which may contribute to the positive effects in the treatment of diabetes, cancers or cardiovascular diseases [5,28]. ...
... Lycopene from Gac fruit has been found to highly correlate with the antioxidant capacity of Gac products, which may contribute to the positive effects in the treatment of diabetes, cancers or cardiovascular diseases [5,28]. Lutein and β-carotene have also been widely used to improve visual ability and treat eye diseases due to their macular-protective activities [27,29]. These results suggest that carotenoids extracted from Gac peel may have a potential to be used as natural bioactive compounds for food, cosmetic and medicinal products. ...
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The peel of Gac fruit (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng.), which is considered as waste of Gac processing, has been found to possess high levels of carotenoids and other antioxidants. This study aimed at determining the optimal conditions of an ultrasound-assisted extraction for recovering carotenoids and antioxidant capacity from Gac peel. A response surface methodology using the Box–Behnken design was employed to investigate the impact of extraction time, temperature and ultrasonic power on the recovery of total carotenoid and antioxidant capacity. The results showed that an extraction time of 76 min, temperature of 50 °C and ultrasonic power of 250 W were the optimal conditions for the extraction. The experimental carotenoid yield and antioxidant capacity obtained under the optimal extraction conditions were validated as 269 mg/100 g DW (dry weight) and 822 µM TE (Trolox equivalent)/100 g DW, respectively. These values were not significantly different from the values predicted by the models. The HPLC analysis for carotenoid composition showed that β-carotene, lycopene and lutein were the principal carotenoids of the extract, which constitute 86% of the total carotenoid content. Based on the obtained results, the ultrasound-assisted extraction using ethyl acetate under the above optimal conditions is suggested for the simultaneous recovery of carotenoids and antioxidant capacity from Gac peel.