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Background: Dental erosion is the chemical dissolution of tooth structure in the absence of bacteria when the environment is acidic (pH < 4.0). Research indicates that low pH is the primary determinant of a beverage's erosive potential. In addition, citrate chelation of calcium ions may contribute to erosion at higher pH. The authors of this study...

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Introduction Energy drinks (ED) possess low pH and citric acid in their composition, making them potentially erosive beverages that can contribute to the high dental erosion rates found currently in the general population and also in young people. Objective To evaluate the mean pH and titratable acidity of commercial ED and the influence of a bran...
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Introduction: The etiology of dental caries as well as dental erosion share a common back ground that is nature of the saliva. “Good health means good and fresh food” this concept has given way to an alarming increase in the consumption of fruit juices, energy drink and sports drink. Fall in the salivary pH after any dietary intake is a crucial par...

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... 4,5 ETW can be caused by frequent exposure of the teeth to gastric acid through vomiting or reflux, commonly seen in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease, bulimia, and anorexia. [6][7][8] Also, an individual's dietary habits, medications, environmental conditions, and lifestyle can predispose the person to ETW. [9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18] Foods with relatively high acidity, such as acidic fruits and fruit juices, soft drinks, sports drinks, energy drinks, other carbonated beverages, and sour candies, contribute to the erosion of the dentition. [10][11][12] Acidic medications like vitamin C and Aspirin have also been linked to ETW, 13 while users of drugs, such as ecstasy and methamphetamine, have shown increases in ETW, possibly due to the associated dehydration leading to increased soft-drink consumption. ...
... [6][7][8] Also, an individual's dietary habits, medications, environmental conditions, and lifestyle can predispose the person to ETW. [9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18] Foods with relatively high acidity, such as acidic fruits and fruit juices, soft drinks, sports drinks, energy drinks, other carbonated beverages, and sour candies, contribute to the erosion of the dentition. [10][11][12] Acidic medications like vitamin C and Aspirin have also been linked to ETW, 13 while users of drugs, such as ecstasy and methamphetamine, have shown increases in ETW, possibly due to the associated dehydration leading to increased soft-drink consumption. 14,15 The above discussion on ETW causative factors implies that the affected individuals are predisposed to this condition by their medical conditions or addiction to the causative agent. ...
... The acidic solution was produced as follows. 10.0 g of powdered citric acid anhydrous (C1857, Sigma) was weighed and added to a beaker with ~800 mL of De-ionized distilled water (DIW). The pH of the solution was determined using a calibrated pH meter under agitation. ...
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Purpose: Erosive tooth wear (ETW) is characterized by subsurface demineralization and tooth substance loss with crater formation. Remineralization of subsurface demineralization has previously been demonstrated; however, repair of the eroded surface is still under investigation. This study investigated the effectiveness of mouthwashes containing hydrolyzed wheat protein (HWP) in repairing ETW through promotion of organized crystal growth. Methods: Enamel Erosion was created on 210 enamel blocks by 10-minute demineralization in 1% Citric Acid (pH 3.5). Then, blocks were randomly assigned to seven groups (30/group); (A) 0.2% HWP, B) 1% HWP, (C) 2% HWP, (D) 1% HWP + 0.05% NaF, (E) Listerine™ mouthwash, (F) 0.02% NaF Crest™ Pro-health mouthwash and (G) artificial saliva (AS) only. Groups were subjected to daily pH-cycling consisting of one 5-minute erosive challenge with citric acid, three 1-minute mouthwash treatment periods, and then storage in AS for the rest of the time for 28 days. Treatment effects were assessed using SEM-EDX. Statistical analysis was by ANOVA and Tukey's multiple comparison. Results: In groups exposed to HWP-containing mouthwashes, there was growth of fiber-like crystals that increased in packing density in a dose-dependent manner (0.2%, 1%, 2%) on the eroded enamel surfaces, with increased calcium and phosphate contents on the treated surfaces. The non-HWP-containing groups had the eroded surfaces covered by structureless deposit layer firmly attached to the surface. Conclusion: Treating eroded enamel surface with HWP-containing mouthwash resulted in repair of the damaged tissue by formation of a protective layer of crystal deposits within and on the eroded enamel tissue.
... Although the consumption of acidic beverages has been determined by the literature as a significant agent in the onset of erosive tooth wear [30,31], few studies have assessed the implication of consuming mineral waters with acidic pH. Despite the statistical difference found in the present study for the microhardness and surface roughness analyses, the values observed in the baseline and after exposure samples lead us to assume that the consumption of mineral waters with low pH can be more harmful when the teeth are already compromised. ...
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Background High intake of acidic foods and beverages has been often associated with the onset of dental erosive wear. Objetive This study in vitro assessed the pH of different mineral waters marketed in Brazil and their effects on the properties and surface of dental enamel. Methods Forty-eight bovine incisor specimens were divided into four groups (n=12): CG-control group, PeG-Perrier, PrG-Prata, and SLG-São Lourenço. The immersion cycles were performed after analysis of the pH of the waters, for 5 days (5 minutes in mineral water and 60 minutes in artificial saliva). Knoop micro-hardness was assessed by means of three indentations with a load of 50kgf for 15 seconds, and surface roughness with a cut off of 0.25mm. The data were analysed using Student's t -test, ANOVA, and Tukey test, with a significance level of 5%. Results The groups of waters with lower pH (Perrier ® and São Lourenço ® ) exhibited a reduction in Knoop micro-hardness ( p <0.0001) and an increase in surface roughness ( p =0.04 and p =0.004, respectively). The Prata water group did not exhibit significant changes in Knoop micro-hardness ( p =0.07) and surface roughness ( p =0.26). Conclusion Mineral waters with a pH below the critical value can lead to a reduction in surface hardness and roughness in the bovine enamel.
... However, the fruit of Saba senegalensis is characterized by its high acidity with a pH between 2.42 and 2.85 [7,8,9]. At such pH value (pH < 3), fruit would be considered a highly erosive food that can cause dental erosion [10,11,12]. This dental erosion weakens the teeth and exposes it to abrasion and dental caries [12]. ...
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The acidity of Saba senegalensis pulp constitutes a major problem in its valorization. The aim of this study was to develop a mixture of fruit pulp to reduce its acidity. Therefore, dessert banana, papaya and pineapple fruits have been used as deacidifying agents in mixtures with Saba senegalensis pulp. These fruits were mixed in proportions ranging from 5% to 50%. The mixtures performing at pH 3 were used to study their organic acid, sugar content and sensory quality. The results showed that the efficient proportions to bring the Saba senegalensis pulp out of the highly erosive zone (pH < 3) were obtained at 25% of dessert banana. At this mixing ratio, the titratable aciity of Saba senegalensis pulp decreased from 30.9 ± 0.46 to 17.8 ± 0.34 with a reduction of 53%, 25% and 24% of the respective concentrations of citric acid, tartaric acid and malic acid and an increase of 50% of sugars. With regard to sensory quality, the addition of dessert banana to the blend contributed, as with pineapple and papaya, to increasing the acceptability of Saba senegalensis pulp. The reduction of the acidity of the pulp of Saba senegalensis with the addition of other fruit pulps is an advantage for the valorization of this fruit.
... In consistent with a later study, Robert P Heaney and Karen Rafferty reported in an experimental study an increase in calcinuria with excessive consumption of carbonated beverages is restricted to caffeinated beverages, not to sugar or phosphoric acid, an acidulant added to cola drinks to provide tartness, reduce the growth of bacteria and fungi, and prolong shelf-life. Citric acid, a substance inherently present in citrus drinks and added to many carbonated beverages, give a tangy flavour and also act as a preservative (9,10). Citric acid has been reported to reduce cariogenic ability in low concentration by bacterial phosphofructokinase inhibition which is responsible for glycolytic enzymes (11), thus, hinder the acid formation in dental plaque by bacterial fermentation of sweets. ...
... some of carbonated beverage composition and characteristics(8,10,21). ...
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Background: Carbonated beverages are very popular worldwide. Carbonated beverage consumption vast increase raises great health concerns regarding their effect on calcium homeostasis besides obesity and renal function. Carbonated beverages sugar content, caffeine, and acidulant all can affect in a way or another calcium absorption, metabolism and excretion. The latter has direct effect on teeth, bone and general wellbeing. This study aims to reveal the effect of sub-chronic intake of carbonated beverage on urinary pH, crystalluria, calcium excretion. Methods: 21 healthy volunteers have been recruited in this study (9 males and 12 females) abstain for any carbonated beverages for at least the previous 4 weeks before participating in this study. Urine has been collected over 24 hours, the next day each volunteer has to drink 250 ml of carbonated beverage (Pepsi®) daily for 3 weeks. On the last day, urine was collected again over 24hr. pH, crystalluria, and calcium in urine have been measured. Results: Urine pH and crystalluria after 3 weeks' intake of 250 ml of carbonated beverage did not statistically differ from urine pH before the intake. Although, there was a trend toward reduction in pH and an increase in crystalluria. Total calcium excretion in urine increase was statistically significant when compared with calcium excretion at the study beginning. Conclusion: The regular intake of carbonated beverage (Pepsi®) increase calcium excretion. Thus, it may be advisable to increase the intake of milk or other dairy product to overcome the adverse impact of carbonated beverages. © 2022, University of Defence, Faculty of Military Health Sciences. All rights reserved.
... This experiment evaluated the thermal stability and degradation products for 10-catechyl-PACNs derived from three ACN monoglycosides, malvidin-3-glucoside (Mv3G), pelargonidin-3-glucoside (Pg3G), and cyanidin-3-glucoside (Cy3G), during 90 • C heating. Degradation was monitored at a pH of 3.0 as many beverages in the United States are formulated to a pH near 3 (Reddy, Norris, Momeni, Waldo, & Ruby, 2016). We hypothesized that 10-catechyl-PACNs would have superior thermal stability, with pelargonidin as the most stable B-ring substitution pattern among pigment classes, and that different degradation compounds would form between ACNs and PACNs. ...
... After 4.5 h of heating, there were significant changes in some of the color parameters, however the changes were slight as ΔE Lab remained<5 (Table 1; Fig. 2). These results are critical to potential food applications as the color expressed by a pigment is a defining factor for future applications and a pH below 4 is most common for processed, non-dairy beverages (Reddy et al., 2016). By producing different colors than the parent ACNs, 10-catechyl-PACNs may expand the possibilities to replace artificial food dyes. ...
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10-Catechyl-pyranoanthocyanins are pigments derived from nature formed by reacting an anthocyanin with caffeic acid. Here, we compared the thermal stability and formed degradation compounds of different 10-catechyl-pyranoanthocyanins. Pelargonidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-glucoside, malvidin-3-glucoside, anthocyanins differing in the number of substitutions on the B-ring, and their corresponding 10-catechyl-pyranoanthocyanins were heated at 90°C for 4.5 hours at pH 3. Anthocyanin’s color faded (ΔELab > 5) after only 0.5 hours, and absorbance at λvis-max decreased by >64% after 4.5 hours, with cyanidin-3-glucoside being the most stable. In contrast, 10-catechyl-pyranoanthocyanins color was heat stable (ΔELab < 5) with absorbance at λvis-max reduced by <10% after 4.5 hours heating. A phenolic degradation compound formed in all samples, dependent on the parent pigment’s B-ring substitutions. All 10-catechyl-pyranoanthocyanins produced the same colored degradation compound (λmax = 478 nm, m/z = 315), suggesting the B-ring was not attached. 10-Catechyl-pyranoanthocyanins displayed excellent thermal stability irrespective of the anthocyanin used for formation.
... In this study, we utilized an inverse logarithmic relationship reported by Larsen and Nyvad [28] to determine beverages' pH and erosive potential. This method has also been employed by other researchers [35]. Beverage manufacturing companies do not usually print pH information on their product labels. ...
... Although the pH and resultant erosive potential of beverages have widely been reported in previous studies [21,33,35,36], it is difficult to compare these data with beverages available in Pakistan due to gross variations in manufacturing processes, temperature and equipment accuracy. For instance, beverages tested at a higher temperature exhibited lower pH values [37]. ...
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The objectives of this study were to investigate the pH of common beverages and to evaluate the effects of common acidic beverages on the surface hardness and weight loss of human tooth specimens. A total of 106 beverages were conveniently purchased from supermarkets in Karachi, Pakistan. Prior to evaluation, beverages were refrigerated or stored at room temperature in accordance with the manufacturers’ recommendations. Beverages were categorized into six groups: ‘Sports and Energy drinks’, ‘Water’, ‘Fruit Juices and Drinks’, ‘Sodas’, ‘Milk and Flavored Milk’ and ‘Teas and Coffee’. Using a pH meter, the pH of each beverage was measured in triplicate at room temperature. In addition, the influence of five highly acidic beverages on the weight loss and surface hardness of human tooth specimens was evaluated using gravimetric analysis and the Vickers hardness tester, respectively. ‘Sports and Energy drinks’, ‘Fruits Juices and Drinks’ and ‘Sodas’ were the most acidic beverage categories, with a pH range of 3.00–5.00. A total of 33% of beverages tested in this study were highly acidic (pH less than 4.00), 29% of beverages were moderately acidic (pH 4.00–4.99) and 31% were mildly acidic (pH 5.00–6.99). Significant weight loss was observed in all immersed specimens compared to control counterparts (p < 0.05). Similarly, for surface hardness, five highly acidic beverages (Red Bull, Pepsi, Apple Cidra, Tang Mosambi and Tang Orange) significantly decreased the surface hardness of specimens (p < 0.05). The pH levels of commonly available beverages in Pakistan are highly acidic, which may encourage loss of minerals from teeth; hence, affecting their surface hardness.
... The turbidity of the solution was measured as the optical density (OD) at 600 nm before and after heat treatment using a spectrophotometer (Optizen 2120 UV; Mecasys, Daejeon, Korea). Turbidity was measured at pH 3 and 5 since the pH of commercial beverages is commonly near these values [23]. ...
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This study aimed to develop wheat gluten hydrolysates (WGH) prepared by sequential enzymatic hydrolysis for its application in commercial beverage. The hydrolysis of WGH was performed with different combinations of commercial endo-proteases (Alcalase, A; Neutrase, N; and Protamex, P) and Flavourzyme (F) under limited hydrolysis conditions. The WGH sequentially hydrolyzed with A and other endo-proteases possessed a higher proportion of < 1 kDa fraction than those hydrolyzed with the other combinations. Hydrolysis with the A–P–F sequence produced the WGH with lower turbidity, better thermal stability, and higher L* value than the other sequences. The WGH sequentially hydrolyzed by the combination of A, P, and F showed better antioxidant activities than the others regardless of in vitro simulated gastro-intestinal digestion. In sensory evaluation, the more WGH in the beverage, the more bitter flavor and the less consumer preference; however, the formulation of peptide beverage containing 3% WGH, 0.0315% sucralose, and 1.2% maltodextrin were evaluated to be suitable for masking bitterness and increasing the preference. These results suggest that WGH sequentially hydrolyzed with A–P–F could potentially be a bioactive peptide ingredient in the beverage industry.
... Furthermore, the resin infiltrant was applied over a sturdy surface, simulating its application on dentin exposed to the oral environment. The citric acid mimics juice or soft drinks often ingested by the population, such as orange juice, with a pH close to 3.75 [12,24]. ...
Article
Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the anti-erosive/abrasive effect of resin infiltration of previous deproteinized dentin. Materials and methods: Dentin slabs were randomly assigned to 3 groups (n = 15): Control (no deproteinization; no resin infiltrant applied), RI (no deproteinization; resin infiltrant applied), and DRI (deproteinization; resin infiltrant applied). After undergoing the assigned treatment, all slabs were subjected to an in vitro cycling model for 5 days. The specimens were immersed in citric acid (0.05 M, pH = 3.75; 60 seconds; 3 times/day) and brushed (150 strokes). Between the challenges, the specimens were exposed to a remineralizing solution (60 minutes). The morphological alterations were analyzed by mechanical profilometry (µm) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Data were submitted to one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey tests (p < 0.05). Results: Control and RI groups presented mineral wear and did not significantly differ from each other (p = 0.063). DRI maintained a protective layer preserving the dentin (p < 0.001). After erosive/abrasive cycles, it was observed that in group RI, only 25% of the slabs partially evidenced the presence of the infiltrating, while, in the DRI group, 80% of the slabs presented the treated surface entirely covered by a resin-component layer protecting the dentin surface as observed in SEM images. Conclusions: The removal of the organic content allows the resin infiltrant to efficiently protect the dentin surface against erosive/abrasive lesions.
... The simplest home-made acidic drinks are lemonade and tea with lemon juice. Commercially available acidic drinks include most flavored waters, fruit juices, fruit drinks, sport drinks like Gatorade and PowerAde, bottled teas and iced teas 35 . Our study also verifies that acidified drinking water, which is widely used in laboratory animal facilities, can modify disease phenotypes in mouse models, contributing to the inter-laboratory variations in neurological and pathological findings. ...
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We recently demonstrated that HCl-acidified drinking water, which is widely used in laboratory animal facilities, had some beneficial effects in the Cln3 −/− mouse model of juvenile Batten disease, a neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorder ¹ . Here we tested if acidified drinking water has therapeutic effects in Cln1 R151X nonsense mutant mice, a model of the infantile form of Batten disease. In Cln1 R151X mice, acidified drinking water received from weaning prevented the impairment in pole climbing ability measured at 3 and 6 months of age. Histopathological analysis of the brain at 6 months showed that acidified drinking water decreased the amount of lysosomal storage material, reduced astrocytosis in the striatum and somatosensory barrelfield cortex, and attenuated microglial activation in the thalamus. Compared to wild-type mice, the gut microbiota of Cln1 R151X mice was markedly different. Acidified drinking water significantly altered the gut microbiota composition of Cln1 R151X mice, indicating a contribution of gut bacteria to the therapeutic effects of acidified water. Our results in Cln1 R151X mice suggest that acidified drinking water may have beneficial effects for patients with infantile Batten disease. This study also verifies that acidified drinking water can modify disease phenotypes in mouse models, contributing to the inter-laboratory variations in neurological and pathological findings.
... Significantly lowest optical density values (0.037, 0.042, 0.054 nm) were recorded with T 6 -Sprite 100 ml followed by T (Table 3). The lowest optical density values recorded by Sprite 100 ml ( T 6 ) might be due to its efficiency in controlling the microbial population in vase solution when compared to other treatments because, pH of sprite is 3.24 [7], at which the growth of most of microbes is restricted. ...
Article
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of commonly available food sources in extending the vase life of cut gladiolus. It was carried out at Floricultural Research Station, Sri Konda Laxman Telangana State Horticultural University, Rajendranagar during 2020-2021. The preservatives used were Sugar (10, 20g), Coconut water (25, 50%), Sprite (50, 100 ml), Honey (5, 10%) and control (Distilled water) in Completely randomized design with nine treatments. Highest water uptake (22.62, 14.62, 11.29 g), transpirational loss of water (20.82, 13.00, 10.28 g), Water balance (6.80, 6.41, 6.01 g), Fresh weight change (106.69, 98.73, 89.36 % ), lowest optical density (0.037, 0.042, 0.054 nm) on 2nd, 4th and 6th day of vase life respectively, minimum number of days to first floret opening (1.69 days), maximum diameter of basal floret (10.33 cm) and longevity of basal floret (2.63 days), highest number of florets opened on spike when basal floret is fresh (2.33), number of florets opened per spike at the end of the vase life (10.89) and highest vase life (9.33 days) was recorded in treatment sprite 100 ml. Based on these findings it can be inferred that Sprite 100 ml can be used as an effective food source alternative to chemical preservatives to enhance the vase life of cut gladiolus.