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CONSORT 2010 flow diagram. CONSORT flow diagram template courtesy of http://www.consort-statement.org/consort-statement/ flow-diagram 

CONSORT 2010 flow diagram. CONSORT flow diagram template courtesy of http://www.consort-statement.org/consort-statement/ flow-diagram 

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Online advertising: healthier ads promote healthier living People who see specific health-promoting messages after searching online for weight-related terms are more likely to subsequently search for information on weight loss interventions. A team led by Elad Yom-Tov from Microsoft Research Israel in Herzeliya conducted a randomized trial involvin...

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... This exemplified the fact that physicians may encounter barriers due to public opinion, which may be in part shaped by critical media publications such as this production. It reinforced the importance of health advertising in public health, as seen in other campaigns [29]. Interestingly, non-statin lipid-lowering therapy remained steady in the same period, suggesting that compromise and a shift to alternative forms of therapy may be an effective mechanism to address patient concerns, at least temporarily. ...
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Background and Objectives: Statins have been extensively utilised in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) prevention and can inhibit inflammation. However, the association between statin therapy, subclinical inflammation and associated health outcomes is poorly understood in the primary care setting. Materials and Methods: Primary care electronic health record (EHR) data from the electronic Practice-Based Research Network (ePBRN) from 2012–2019 was used to assess statin usage and adherence in South-Western Sydney (SWS), Australia. Independent determinants of elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) were determined. The relationship between baseline CRP levels and hospitalisation rates at 12 months was investigated. Results: The prevalence of lipid-lowering medications was 14.0% in all adults and 44.6% in the elderly (≥65 years). The prevalence increased from 2012 to 2019 despite a drop in statin use between 2013–2015. A total of 55% of individuals had good adherence (>80%). Hydrophilic statin use and higher intensity statin therapy were associated with elevated CRP levels. However, elevated CRP levels were not associated with all-cause or ASCVD hospitalisations after adjusting for confounders. Conclusions: The prevalence and adherence patterns associated with lipid-lowering medications highlighted the elevated ASCVD-related burden in the SWS population, especially when compared with the Australian general population. Patients in SWS may benefit from enhanced screening protocols, targeted health literacy and promotion campaigns, and timely incorporation of evidence into ASCVD clinical guidelines. This study, which used EHR data, did not support the use of CRP as an independent marker of future short-term hospitalisations.
... weight loss) by 50%. 30 Social media also offers opportunities for media campaigns. Social media messages recorded by health professionals before the winter holidays in the United States led to a significant reduction in holiday travel and subsequent COVID-19 infections. ...
Article
Background It is unknown whether online information about the benefits and harms of surgery contains an accurate description of evidence. Objective To describe the proportion of webpages containing information about surgery for spinal pain (decompression and fusion) that accurately described the evidence on the benefits of surgery, described harms, and provided quantitative estimates of these harms. Methods We performed a content analysis of webpages containing information about spine surgery. Two reviewers identified webpages and extracted data. Primary outcomes were the proportion of webpages that accurately described the evidence on the benefits, described harms, and provided quantitative estimates of these harms. Results We included 117 webpages. Only 29 (25%) webpages accurately described the evidence on the benefits of spine surgery, and more webpages on decompression accurately described the evidence compared to webpages on fusion (31% vs 15%, difference in proportions = 16%; 95% CI: 2%, 31%). Harms of surgery were described in most webpages (n = 76, 65%), but a much smaller proportion of webpages (n = 18, 15%) provided a quantitative estimate for the mentioned harms. Conclusions Most webpages failed to accurately describe the benefits and harms of decompression and fusion surgeries for spinal pain. Unbiased consumer resources and educating the public on how to critically evaluate health claims are important steps to improve knowledge on the benefits and harms of spine surgery.
... To naturally apply the memory model in a web environment, we focused on web advertisement such as behavioral targeting. Several studies have indicated the potential of behavioral changes toward healthy behavior through this type of online media (Kramer et al., 2014;Yom-Tov et al., 2018). In our system, the visited product images are always presented in the right region of a web page. ...
... The contribution of the present study is to extend the principle of affective computing by including a computational cognitive modeling of memory. This model differs from the previous behavioral model (Fogg, 2009) used in web advertisement (Yom-Tov et al., 2018) in that it includes internal memory processes. Although there are several options for modeling emotion and memory [e.g., Friston (2010), Schmidhuber (2010), as mathematical models of curiosity], we claim that including the ACT-R cognitive architecture provides another theoretical basis of implicit-prompting systems designed to adapt the emotional states of users based on an academic field with a long history. ...
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Even though the web environment facilitates our daily life, emotional problems caused by its incompatibility with human cognition are becoming increasingly serious. To alleviate negative emotions during web use, we developed a browser extension that presents memorized product images to users in the form of web advertisements. This system utilizes the cognitive architecture Adaptive Control of Thought-Rational (ACT-R) as a model of human memory and emotion. A heart rate sensor attached to the user modulates the ACT-R model parameters, and the emotional states represented by the model are synchronized (following the chameleon effect) or counterbalanced (following the homeostasis regulation) with the physiological state of the user. An experiment demonstrates that the counterbalanced model suppresses negative ruminative web browsing. The authors claim that this approach, utilizing a cognitive model, is advantageous in terms of explainability.
... [7][8][9][10] Further, determining what messaging appeals to which groups of people remains critical. 11 For example, a review of vaccine communication found participant characteristics could be moderators of the effect of goal-framed versus loss-framed messaging (eg, perceived risk or loss), but again findings are inconsistent. 12 The existing literature does reinforce, however, that adaptation is needed to fit local contexts. ...
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The public’s need for timely and trusted COVID-19 information remains high. Governments and global health agencies such as the WHO have sought to disseminate accurate and timely information to counteract misinformation and disinformation that has arisen as part of an ‘infodemic’—the overabundance of information on COVID-19—some accurate and some not. In early 2020, WHO began a collaboration with Google to run online public service announcements on COVID-19, in the form of search ads displayed above results of Google Search queries. Web-based text ads can drive online searchers of COVID-19 information to authoritative COVID-19 content but determining what message is most effective is a challenge. WHO wanted to understand which message framing, that is, the way in which ad information is worded for the public, leads searchers to click through to WHO content. WHO tested 71 text ads in English across four COVID-19 topics using a mix of message frames: descriptive, collective, gain, loss, appeals to values and emphasising reasons. Between 11 September 2020 and 23 November 2020, there were 13 million views of the experimental WHO text ads leading to 1.4 million click-throughs to the WHO website. Within the set of 71 ads, there was a large spread between the most effective and least effective messages; for messages on COVID-19, the best performing framings were more than twice as effective as the worst performing framings (18.7% vs 8.5% engagement rate). Health practitioners can apply the messaging tactics WHO found to be successful to rapidly optimise messages for their own public health campaigns and better reach the public with authoritative information. Similar collaboration between big technology companies and governments and global health agencies has the potential to advance public health.
... The latter measure was the percentage of users who queried for the vaccine on Bing, either by name or by general terms, e.g., "flu vaccine", following the display of a relevant ad. The latter is a common proxy for medically related behavior change [6][7][8] . ...
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Encouraging people to vaccinate is a challenging endeavor, but one which has tremendous public health benefits. Doing so requires overcoming barriers of awareness, availability, and (sometimes) vaccine hesitancy. Here we focus on nudging people to vaccinate through online advertising. We conducted a pre-registered online ads campaign encouraging people to vaccinate against three diseases: influenza, human papillomavirus, and herpes zoster. Ads were shown to ~69,000 people and were compared to similar ads shown to 8.6 million people. Outcome measures were clicks on ads and future searches for relevant terms. We find that ads have two main effects: First, a congruence effect whereby ads increase the likelihood of clicks and future searches by up to 116% in people who express an interest in the disease or the vaccine. Most commercial vaccine advertising is aimed entirely at this population. Second, we observed a priming effect, where ads shown to people who were searching for terms unrelated to the vaccine could be encouraged to click on them (odds ratios of 7.5–33.0) and, more often, search for the vaccine later (hazard ratios of 6.9–157.3). We provide analysis for optimizing vaccine advertising campaign budgets to balance the two populations. These findings demonstrate that digital advertising campaigns should consider not just advertising to direct keywords or to individuals that look exactly like existing customers, but consider tangential keywords that draw a wider target population who are likely earlier in their conversion funnel, thus increasing the number of people who vaccinate and maximizing vaccines uptake.
... Beyond online search engine data, which are already being used to influence digital health interventions [14,15], the relevance of footprints captured by likes, comments, and shares on social media platforms, including Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram, remains largely unanalyzed and unexplored. Compared with traditional mass media channels, the targeted advertising tools (TATs) available through such sites are already being used by some researchers to recruit study participants [16], create representative samples [17], identify people with particular characteristics [18,19], and obtain public health insights in the United States [20]. ...
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Although established marketing techniques have been applied to design more effective health campaigns, more often than not, the same message is broadcasted to large populations, irrespective of unique characteristics. As individual digital device use has increased, so have individual digital footprints, creating potential opportunities for targeted digital health interventions. We propose a novel precision public health campaign framework to structure and standardize the process of designing and delivering tailored health messages to target particular population segments using social media-targeted advertising tools. Our framework consists of five stages: defining a campaign goal, priority audience, and evaluation metrics; splitting the target audience into smaller segments; tailoring the message for each segment and conducting a pilot test; running the health campaign formally; and evaluating the performance of the campaigns. We have demonstrated how the framework works through 2 case studies. The precision public health campaign framework has the potential to support higher population uptake and engagement rates by encouraging a more standardized, concise, efficient, and targeted approach to public health campaign development.
... To naturally apply the memory model in a web environment, we focused on web advertisement such as behavioral targeting. Several studies have indicated the potential of behavioral changes toward healthy behavior through this type of online media (Kramer et al., 2014;Yom-Tov et al., 2018). In our system, the visited product images are always presented in the right region of a web page. ...
... The contribution of the present study is to extend affective computing by including a computational cognitive modeling of memory. This model differs from the previous behavioral model (Fogg, 2009) used in web advertisement (Yom-Tov et al., 2018) in that it includes internal memory processes. Although there are several options for modeling emotion and memory (Friston, 2010;Schmidhuber, 2010), we claim that including the ACT-R cognitive architecture provides another theoretical basis of implicit-prompting systems designed to adapt the emotional states of users based on an academic field with a long history. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Even though the web environment facilitates daily life, emotional problems caused by its incompatibility with human cognition are becoming increasingly serious. To alleviate negative emotions during web use, we developed a browser extension that presents memorized product images to users, in the form of web advertisements. This system utilizes the cognitive architecture Adaptive Control of Thought-Rational (ACT-R) as a model of memory and emotion. A heart rate sensor modulates the ACT-R model parameters: The emotional states of the model are synchronized or counterbalanced with the physiological state of the user. An experiment demonstrates that the counterbalance model suppresses negative ruminative web browsing. The authors claim that this approach is advantageous in terms of explainability.
... A randomised controlled trial demonstrated that passively collected data from social media could be used to personalise health promotion messages for improved efficacy. 24 It has also been demonstrated that during pandemics, when the public acquires abundant disease-related information via social media, consuming social media can influence disease prevention behaviours. 25 Overall, these types of non-traditional data are applicable to disease surveillance and prevention. ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Cardiometabolic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, obesity and diabetes, are leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Modern advances in population-level disease surveillance are necessary and may inform novel opportunities for precision public health approaches to disease prevention. Electronic data sources, such as social media and consumer rewards points systems, have expanded dramatically in recent decades. These non-traditional datasets may enhance traditional clinical and public health datasets and inform cardiometabolic disease surveillance and population health interventions. However, the scope of non-traditional electronic datasets and their use for cardiometabolic disease surveillance and population health interventions has not been previously reviewed. The primary objective of this review is to describe the scope of non-traditional electronic datasets, and how they are being used for cardiometabolic disease surveillance and to inform interventions. The secondary objective is to describe the methods, such as machine learning and natural language processing, that have been applied to leverage these datasets. Methods and analysis We will conduct a scoping review following recommended methodology. Search terms will be based on the three central concepts of non-traditional electronic datasets, cardiometabolic diseases and population health. We will search EMBASE, MEDLINE, CINAHL, Scopus, Web of Science and Cochrane Library peer-reviewed databases and will also conduct a grey literature search. Articles published from 2000 to present will be independently screened by two reviewers for inclusion at abstract and full-text stages, and conflicts will be resolved by a separate reviewer. We will report this data as per the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews. Ethics and dissemination No ethics approval is required for this protocol and scoping review, as data will be used only from published studies with appropriate ethics approval. Results will be disseminated in a peer-reviewed publication.
... Moreover, as youngsters comparatively more prefer digital media, they frequently experience watching healthcare advertisements, which is highly bene cial for them. To empirically validate this proposition, (Yom-Tov et al. 2018) scrutinized the integration and impacts of online healthcare advertisements on weight loss, exercise and healthy food adoption among internet users. The researchers used a longitudinal study design and gathered the response before and after exposure to the advertisements. ...
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Several studies affirmed the role of media advertisements for healthcare awareness. However, during the current COVID-19 pandemic, it is highly crucial to scrutinize the position of disease awareness advertisement campaigns. This study also aims to investigate the role and impacts of mass media advertisements to spread COVID-19 awareness in Sahiwal, Pakistan. The researchers selected a sample of n= 179 respondents and used a three-point Likert scale questionnaires for data gathering purposes. The researchers also proposed a self-structured model supported by Social Learning theory, as the primary conceptual framework. The results revealed that media advertisements are significantly ( p ≤ .000) spreading disease awareness and positively ( p ≤ .000), infusing the attitudinal changes among the audience. The results indicated the power of the media campaigns and their potential impacts on audience behavior. Therefore, the researchers recommended more investigations using the study model to maximize usage of media advertisements for COVID-19 awareness.
... 16,17 Robust literature on the marketing of products or behaviors that can affect health (eg, public health messages, selling alcohol or tobacco, and direct-to-consumer advertising of pharmaceuticals) consistently shows at least modest associations between communications from brands and consumer or patient behavior. [18][19][20][21] Therefore, the findings of this study underscore the need to evaluate whether and how cannabis dispensaries' medical messaging influences patient behavior and decision-making regarding OUD. ...
Article
Full-text available
Importance Misinformation about cannabis and opioid use disorder (OUD) may increase morbidity and mortality if it leads individuals with OUD to forego evidence-based treatment. It has not been systematically evaluated whether officially designating OUD as a qualifying condition for medical cannabis is associated with cannabis dispensaries suggesting cannabis as a treatment for OUD. Objective To examine whether state-level policies designating OUD a qualifying condition for medical cannabis are associated with more dispensaries claiming cannabis can treat OUD. Design, Setting, and Participants This cross-sectional, mixed-methods study of 208 medical dispensary brands was conducted in 2019 using the brands’ online content. The study included dispensaries operating in New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania, where OUD is a qualifying condition for medical cannabis, and in Connecticut, Delaware, Maryland, Ohio, and West Virginia, where this policy does not exist. Exposures Presence of OUD on the list of qualifying conditions for a state’s medical cannabis program. Main Outcomes and Measures Binary indicators of whether online content from the brand said cannabis can treat OUD, can replace US Food and Drug Administration–approved medications for OUD, can be an adjunctive therapy to Food and Drug Administration–approved medications for OUD, or can be used as a substitute for opioids to treat other conditions (eg, chronic pain). Results After excluding duplicates, listings for nonexistent dispensaries, and those without online content, 167 brands across 7 states were included in the analysis (44 [26.3%] in states where OUD was a qualifying condition and 123 [73.7%] in adjacent states). A dispensary listed in a directory for West Virginia was not operational; therefore, comparison states were Connecticut, Delaware, Maryland, and Ohio. In policy-exposed states, 39% (95% CI, 23%-55%) more dispensaries claimed cannabis could treat OUD compared with unexposed states (P < .001). For replacing medications for OUD and being an adjunctive therapy, the differences were 14% (95% CI, 2%-26%; P = .002) and 28% (95% CI, 14%-42%; P < .001), respectively. The suggestion that cannabis could substitute for opioids (eg, to treat chronic pain) was made by 25% (95% CI, 9%-41%) more brands in policy-exposed states than adjacent states (P = .002). Conclusions and Relevance In this study, state-level policies designating OUD as a qualifying condition for medical cannabis were associated with more dispensaries claiming cannabis can treat OUD. In the current policy environment, in which medical claims by cannabis dispensaries are largely unregulated, these advertisements could harm patients. Future research linking these policies to patient outcomes is warranted.