CO2 emission sources from clinker production in Myanmar

CO2 emission sources from clinker production in Myanmar

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Purpose Cement manufacturing is associated with global and local environmental issues. Many studies have employed life cycle assessment (LCA) to evaluate the environmental impacts from cement production and investigate measures to improve environmental performance. However, there have not been any scientific studies assessing the impacts of the Mya...

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... Despite higher characterization factors, other GHGs, for example, CH 4 and N 2 O, have less impact [40,81]. Tun, et al. [82] used the LCA method to evaluate the environmental impact of Myanmar's cement industry, using the Recipe 2016 method to identify the major contributors' environmental impacts. They discovered that the major environmental impacts are climate change, ecosystem damage, photochemical oxidant formation, fine particulate matter formation, terrestrial acidification, and fossil resource scarcity. ...
... Electricity usage is the main contributor due to the mix, dominated by fossil fuel, followed by clinker production and other resource depletion impacts. TA is a regional environmental impact, primarily related to the SO2 and NOx emissions during fuel burning for calcination and transport, as identified in other cement LCAs [11,82]. The result of the Terrestrial acidification 2.44 × 10 −3 kg SO2 eq in this study is in line with Li et al. [105], in the range of 1.144-1.467 ...
... Electricity usage is the main contributor due to the mix, dominated by fossil fuel, followed by clinker production and other resource depletion impacts. TA is a regional environmental impact, primarily related to the SO 2 and NO x emissions during fuel burning for calcination and transport, as identified in other cement LCAs [11,82]. The result of the Terrestrial acidification 2.44 × 10 −3 kg SO 2 eq in this study is in line with Li et al. [105], in the range of 1.144-1.467 ...
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The cement industry confronts significant challenges in raw materials, energy demands, and CO2 emissions reduction, which are global and local environmental concerns. Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used in many studies to assess the environmental impact of cement production and investigate ways to improve environmental performance. This study aims to analyse the environmental impact of Portland cement (CEM I) on the South African cement industry using the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA), based on the Recipe 2016 v 1.04 midpoint method. The study was conducted using data modeled after the South African cement plant, considered a cradle-to-gate system boundary, starting from the extraction of the raw material to the cement production process that produces cement as the main product. The data were obtained from the Ecoinvent database v3.7.1, integrated with SimaPro 9.1.1. software, used to assess the impact categories. For simplicity, the study merged the entire production process into five processes, i.e., raw materials usage, fuel consumption, clinker production, transportation and electricity. The impact categories of the five production stages were assessed using the LCA methodology. The impact categories investigated were classified into three categories: atmospheric, resource depletion and toxicity categories. According to the results, clinker production and electricity usage stages contribute the most to atmospheric impact (global warming, which causes climatic change due to high CO2 emissions), followed by raw materials and fuel consumption, contributing to the toxicity and resource depletion impact category. These stages contribute more than 76% of CO2 eq. and 93% of CFC-11 eq. In the midpoint method, CO2 is the most significant pollutant released. Therefore, replacing fossil fuels with alternative fuels can reduce fossil fuel use and the atmospheric impact of cement kilns.
... The GWP range for ordinary Portland cement ranges from 632 to 950 kg CO 2 -Eq/ton of cement, according to the literature [36][37][38][39][40]45,73,74], while the GWP of cement with additions, such as pozzolan, slag, limestone, and fly ash, vary from 452 to 850 kg CO 2 -Eq/ton of cement [36,40,45,53]. The results of this study rank in the lower limits due to the levels of additions in the cement and because of the efficiency of the plant of 3.01 GJ/ton of cement in thermal energy consumption compared to that in the literature, that being from 2.81 to 5.4 GJ/ton of cement [43,74,75]. The clinker production process contributes 98% of the total GWP of the composite hydraulic cement in Ecuador (Figure 3) due to the GHG emitted in the clinkerization process, followed by the electricity generation process, with a range between 0.9 and 1.4%. ...
... Regarding TAP100, the cement from Ecuador ranges between 0.88 to 1.27 kg SO 2 -Eq/ton of cement. These values are close to those found in the literature, which are between 1.467 and 4.1 kg SO 2 -Eq/ton of cement [37,38,43,46,53,74]. Çankaya & Pekey [40] report values between 0.87 to 1.16 kg SO2-Eq/ton for pozzolanic cements with similar additions and compositions to the ones in Ecuador. ...
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Concrete is the most-used material in the construction industry, and the second most-used after water. Cement is the main component of concrete. A total of 8% of global CO2 emissions correspond to the cement industry; CO2 is the main greenhouse gas contributing to global warming. To mitigate climate change, it is necessary to design buildings with a lower environmental impact, and therefore, it is crucial to assess the environmental profile of the local production of construction materials. This study uses the life cycle assessment methodological framework to evaluate the environmental sustainability of the cement and concrete industry in Ecuador. The inventory accounts for 62.8% of national cement production, with data corresponding to 2019. The OpenLCA software was used to perform the life cycle inventory and impact assessment calculations. Eight impact categories were assessed, including Global Warming Potential (GWP). Clinker has a GWP result of 897.04 kg CO2-Eq/ton. Hydraulic cement types MH, GU, and HE have GWPs ranging from 465.89 to 696.81 kg CO2-Eq/ton. Results of ready-mixed concrete range from 126.02 to 442.14 kg CO2-Eq/m3. Reducing the content of clinker in cement and concrete should be the aim so as to improve their environmental profiles. This study contributes to the development of regional life cycle inventory data for Latin America. This research is the first to be developed regarding construction materials in Ecuador and contributes to the sustainable design of structures with pozzolan-lime cement and concrete.
... Tun et al. (2020) [52] The authors aim to produce the first LCA of Portland cement production within Myanmar using a cradle-to-gate analysis. ...
Preprint
We propose the addition of calcium carbonate produced from flue-gas carbon dioxide to reduce carbon emissions of Portland cement manufacturing from 0.96 kgCO 2 /kg of Portland cement to 0.33 kgCO 2 /kg of Portland cement with comparable strengths. We briefly review the impact of calcite addition on properties of cement based on the literature. We present our experimental findings on how the addition of different polymorphs of precipitated calcium carbonate influence physicochemical behaviour of Portland cement in terms of hydration chemistry, compressive and flexural strength, cement-paste workability and thermal analysis. We study three polymorphs of precipitated calcium carbon-ate (amorphous, micro calcite and nano calcite). This is the first study to report the impact of three different calcium cabronate polymorphs especially that in the amorphous form. We show that the addition of precipitated CaCO 3 in Portland cement can increase the compressive strength by about 20% when compared to the benchmark. Our hydra-tion study shows the formation of scawtite and tilleyite with competing effect on the product strength during hydration. Formation of 8 mass% of combined scawtite-tilleyite phases at ambient conditions using CaCO 3 is a new discovery; it results first in an increase in compressive strength and then, above 8 mass% it negatively impacts compressive strength. Our comprehensive study also provides avenues to use precipitated calcite as a sustainable supplementary cementitious material to reduce carbon emissions as well as improve early strengths. These characteristics are evidence that precipitated calcium carbonates provide a new regime of carbonate activity, modified hydration reactions, and can be used as a step towards the next generation of low-carbon Portland cements utilising mineral carbon capture technologies.
... This is higher than values found in literature. This might be due to energy sources and fossil fuel mix [48,53]. High toxicity in the environment (air and waterbodies) have effect on both human and ecosystem. ...
... Water consumption during the production of cement is 0.00185 m3: it was found to be comparable with that of Tun et al. and Chen et al. which was within 0.00019-0.00187 m3 [52,53]. Also 0.0784 kg oil eq of Fossil resources scarcity is expected for every 1 kg of OPC produced. ...
... Also 0.0784 kg oil eq of Fossil resources scarcity is expected for every 1 kg of OPC produced. This resonates with the value from the study of [48,53] with values ranging from 0.07 to 0.234 kg oil eq.; the three impacts categories with high environmental impacts are human health, terrestrial ecotoxicity and Fossil resources scarcity. In order to understand and recognize key factors responsible for these major impact categories, a further contribution analysis was carried out to show that exact substances and process stage contributing to these impacts and their level of contribution. ...
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The concern for environmental related impacts of the cement industry is fast growing in recent times. The industry is challenged with high environmental impact which spans through the entire production process. Life cycle assessment (LCA) evaluates the environmental impact of product or process throughout the cycle of production. This can be done using either or both midpoint (process-oriented) and endpoint (damage-oriented) approaches of life cycle impact assessment (LCIA). This study assessed the environmental impact of 1 kg Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) using both approaches of LCIA. This analysis was carried out using a data modeled after the rest of the world other than China, India, Europe, US and Switzerland. The dataset was taken from Ecoinvent database incorporated in the SimaPro 9.0.49 software. The result of the analysis showed that clinker production phase produced the highest impact and CO2 is the highest pollutant emitter at both endpoint and midpoint approaches. This is responsible for global warming known to affect both human health and the ecosystem. Also, toxicity in form of emission of high copper affects the ecosystem as well as humans. In addition, high fossil resources (crude oil) are consumed and pose the possibility for scarcity.
... Thwe et al. (2020) , in their study on assessing environmental impacts from cement production in a Myanmar cement plant, identified that over 80% of the effects on climate change, terrestrial acidification, photochemical oxidant formation, particulate matter formation, fossil depletion, etc., which were from the activities in the calcination (clinker making) stage. Tun et al. (2020) also investigated the life cycle environmental impacts of the cement industry in Myanmar and showed that major environmental impacts include climate change, photochemical oxidant formation: ecosystem damage, fine particulate matter formation, terrestrial acidification, and fossil resource scarcity. These impacts are mainly due to CO 2 , NO x , SO 2 and PM 2.5 emissions from the clinker production step and fossil resource consumption. ...
... While Tun et al. (2020) specified air emissions and evaluated potential environmental impacts from the current Myanmar cement industry, this study builds on the baseline results of that previous study, to identify and evaluate appropriate emission mitigation options. This is achieved considering a number of options including, fuel and energy savings, and the use of alternative fuels and materials. ...
... All the cement plants use grid electricity except Plant D which generates electric power from its coal fired power plant (CFPP). From the results of Tun et al. (2020) , climate change, photochemical oxidant formation: ecosystem damage, fine particulate matter formation, terrestrial acidification, and fossil resource scarcity constitute the main environmental impacts from the cement industry in the country. They contribute about 80%, 0.5%, 18%, 0.6% and 0.4% to the overall environmental impacts, respectively. ...
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We propose the addition of calcium carbonate produced from flue-gas carbon dioxide to reduce carbon emissions of Portland cement manufacturing from 0.96 kgCO2/kg of Portland cement to 0.33 kgCO2/kg of Portland cement with comparable strengths. We briefly review the impact of calcite addition on properties of cement based on the literature. We present our experimental findings on how the addition of different polymorphs of precipitated calcium carbonate influence physicochemical behaviour of Portland cement in terms of hydration chemistry, compressive and flexural strength, cement-paste workability and thermal analysis. We study three polymorphs of precipitated calcium carbonate (amorphous, micro calcite and nano calcite). This is the first study to report the impact of three different calcium cabronate polymorphs especially that in the amorphous form. We show that the addition of precipitated CaCO3 in Portland cement can increase the compressive strength by about 20% when compared to the benchmark. Our hydration study shows the formation of scawtite and tilleyite with competing effect on the product strength during hydration. Formation of 8 mass% of combined scawtite-tilleyite phases at ambient conditions using CaCO3 is a new discovery; it results first in an increase in compressive strength and then, above 8 mass% it negatively impacts compressive strength. Our comprehensive study also provides avenues to use precipitated calcite as a sustainable supplementary cementitious material to reduce carbon emissions as well as improve early strengths. These characteristics are evidence that precipitated calcium carbonates provide a new regime of carbonate activity, modified hydration reactions, and can be used as a step towards the next generation of low-carbon Portland cements utilising mineral carbon capture technologies.
Chapter
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