FIGURE 7 - uploaded by Kenneth Brent Tingey
Content may be subject to copyright.
CIVILIZATIONS AT THE AXIAL AGE, 7 TH CENTURY BCE Governance of the Middle East proper was taken up by various Islamic caliphates – ultimately being overseen by the Ottoman Caliphate and Empire based on Constantinople, now Istanbul, beginning in the 14 th century. With that event, Christianity's leadership in the East shifted north to Moscow. Fortunately, Byzantium had been very supportive of religious development efforts in Kiev and Moscow up to that time. Ultimately, this allowed for Moscow and Russia to assume the religious center of Eastern Christian tradition of Byzantium with the fall of Constantinople to the Ottomans. 73 The Ottomans supported open, collaborative, and cooperative forms of governance – allowing individual religious and ethnic groups to govern themselves, with financial, criminal law, and military responsibilities of a kind. This can be seen in the traditions of the Eastern Slavs in particular. 

CIVILIZATIONS AT THE AXIAL AGE, 7 TH CENTURY BCE Governance of the Middle East proper was taken up by various Islamic caliphates – ultimately being overseen by the Ottoman Caliphate and Empire based on Constantinople, now Istanbul, beginning in the 14 th century. With that event, Christianity's leadership in the East shifted north to Moscow. Fortunately, Byzantium had been very supportive of religious development efforts in Kiev and Moscow up to that time. Ultimately, this allowed for Moscow and Russia to assume the religious center of Eastern Christian tradition of Byzantium with the fall of Constantinople to the Ottomans. 73 The Ottomans supported open, collaborative, and cooperative forms of governance – allowing individual religious and ethnic groups to govern themselves, with financial, criminal law, and military responsibilities of a kind. This can be seen in the traditions of the Eastern Slavs in particular. 

Similar publications

Article
Full-text available
The classical analytical category of " empire, " as opposed to " state, " " city, " " federation, " and other political forms, can account for a large number of historical and current experiences, including the past United States of America, the European Union, Russia, and China. An " empire " has been conceived, in contrast to a " state, " as a ve...