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CEFR Common Reference Levels: self-assessment grid (Council of Europe 2001: 26f.)

CEFR Common Reference Levels: self-assessment grid (Council of Europe 2001: 26f.)

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Article
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Since its circulation in two draft versions in 1996, and especially since its commercial publication in English and French in 2001, the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR) has come to dominate discussion of L2 curricula, the assessment of L2 proficiency, and L2 teaching and learning in Europe. Although it is widely referred...

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Context 1
... elicited 111 responses from 39 countries, which in itself tends to confirm that knowledge and use of the CEFR is confined to a minority of specialists. The survey also confirmed that easily the best known and most frequently used parts of the CEFR are the summary versions of its common reference levels of language proficiency, the so-called 'global scale' (Table 1) and 'self-assessment grid' ( Table 2). There is, however, a great deal more to the CEFR than the global scale and the self-assessment grid, and it is appropriate to begin this review with a summary description of its content. ...
Context 2
... writing). However, the distinction between written production and written interaction is not maintained in the self-assessment grid (Table 2), and there are no scales for mediation. The scales that constitute the vertical dimension of the CEFR are user-or learner-oriented: because they describe communicative behaviour -what the learner can do in his or her target language -they are as accessible to learners as to curriculum designers, textbook authors, teachers and examiners. ...

Citations

... Since its publication, the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (Council of Europe, 2001; henceforth: CEFR) has become a default "supranational language education policy" (Little, 2006(Little, , 2007 not just in Europe, but worldwide. However, the CEFR is in essence a descriptive framework for language proficiency whose rather vague descriptors are in stark contrast with the current ethos in language teaching, which is to view language learning as a cumulative process centered on the acquisition of what O' Keeffe & Mark (2017) refer to as "the ELT canon of grammatical structures" (p. ...
Chapter
This chapter explores the operationalization of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (Council of Europe, 2001; CEFR) in the foreign language classroom. More specifically, it points to the contribution usage-based linguisticscould make in relating the CEFR’s action-oriented pedagogy with its criterial features, i.e., “certain linguistic properties that are characteristic and indicative of L2 proficiency at each level” (Hawkins & Filipović, 2012, p. 5). The chapter ends with some practical suggestions for a more effective approach to integrating UBL in the action-based classroom and considers broader implications for applied linguistics.
... In reality, CEFR descriptors have relevance to second-and foreign-language learning and are based on a monolingual view which favours only standard language in use. Little (2006) notes that although the notion of plurilingualism is central to the Council of Europe, "neither the CEFR nor the ELP [English Language Portfolio] does full justice to the concept" (p. 187). ...
... Used as a barrier to integration, the CEFR in Krumm's terms (2007, p. 668 promise to support it. A commonly held view among many scholars is that the document serves "the Council of Europe's political, cultural and education agenda" (Little, 2006). ...
Article
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The Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, Teaching, Assessment (CEFR), introduced by the Council of Europe (CoE) in 2001, is intended to function as an instrument for developing educational policy and practice. However, in reality, there is a mismatch between the Council's mission to promote plurilingualism and the project's underlying neoliberal logic to impose its monolingual perspectives in reference to language learning, teaching, and assessment. Despite containing a much valuable taxonomy for describing language proficiency, the CEFR has been globally used as a standardisation tool that aims to measure the language competence of immigrants, asylum seekers, and test-takers. In doing so, the Framework acts as a gatekeeping mechanism of inclusion or exclusion. Considering CEFR's contradictory nature, the article seeks to explore its complexity and uncover its problematic character. Viewing the CEFR as an instrument of power, the author utilises Bourdieu's notion of linguistic capital to examine who the policy disadvantages and whose ideological agenda it serves.
... It is clear from the formulation of the policy that language is seen here as a countable entity and not as the faculty to use the appropriate language in diverse situations. In the same vein, it is interesting to see that the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR), a system to measure language proficiency in multilingual Europe, starts from so called 'can do' scales, but proceeds to try and fit these scales into levels, indicating how far ahead someone is with the mastery of a certain language, more or less regardless of the situation it needs to be used in (see, e.g., North, 2000;Little, 2006). Hulstijn, among others, has indicated that the different levels that were identified cannot be seen as a mere unidimensional indication of language proficiency. ...
Book
This edited volume consists of chapters celebrating the career of scholar Sjaak Kroon, who has produced ground-breaking work in the field of ethnography of education, immigrant minority language teaching and language politics. The chapters cover the use of immigrant minority languages in education and the development of policies at all levels and across the globe in this sometimes over-policed field. It particularly focuses on language policy analysis in which both the top-down institutional and the bottom-up ethnographic dimensions are blended, and in which globalization is the main macro-perspective. The chapters describe sensitive tools for investigating, unravelling and understanding the grey space connecting formal language policies to informal politics and practices of language on the ground.
... Thus, it is no surprise that it is an exclusive neutral reference in all educational sectors. According to Little (2006), CEFR has been translated into 37 languages, including Japanese. In some countries, the CEFR has helped "to develop both strategic language policy documents and practical teaching materials. ...
... In others, it is becoming the most reliable reference for curriculum planning" (Martyniuk & Noijons, 2007, p. 7). CEFR is a descriptive scheme that is particularly useful in analysing the second language (L2) learners' needs, specifying their learning goals, guiding the development of learning materials and activities, and providing orientation for assessing L2 learning outcomes (Little, 2006). CEFR includes six reference levels, and they are A1 (Beginner), A2 (Elementary), B1 (Intermediate), B2 (Upper Intermediate), C1(Advanced) and C2 (Proficiency). ...
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Amid a global pandemic, while schools in many parts of the world were closed to adhere to quarantine orders, schools in Japan resumed face-to-face classes after only a month of closure with strict adherence to COVID-19 guidelines and standard operating procedures (SOP). This study examined how speaking assessments were administered face-to-face for Grade 5 and 6 elementary school students prior to and after introducing the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR) and amid a global pandemic between April to October 2020. The paper also reports the challenges and strategies employed in carrying out the speaking assessments following the CEFR while adhering to the SOP. The study employed a qualitative research method that utilised semi-structured interviews to elicit information from four teachers who taught in eight schools within Niigata City, Japan. Findings suggest that prior to the implementation of CEFR, not all teachers carried out speaking assessments. However, the implementation of CEFR emphasised the need to teach speaking and carry out speaking assessments. The CEFR also served as guidance for the teachers in preparing the assessment scoring rubrics. The results also showed that the speaking assessments were implemented individually instead of in groups before the pandemic and the presence of the masks, which increased the student's anxiety and affected their performance. However, the teachers employed various strategies to overcome the challenges by modifying the assessment tasks and utilising web conferencing technology.
... The Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR) is a well-known framework in the field of English language teaching and learning. According to Little (2006), it was initially issued in 2001 by the Council of Europe as a guide for documenting the achievements of foreign language learners, as well as to provide a framework for the development of language syllabuses, curricular standards, tests, textbooks, and other language learning tools throughout Europe. However, according to Foley (2019), the original edition of CEFR (2001) faced several criticisms either about its application or its scientific basis. ...
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During this COVID-19 pandemic, no one can deny the value of online communication. It has saved our lives by preventing us from going outdoors and becoming infected, while also facilitating achievement of various personal and professional goals. Online communication can also assist us with our academic goals, whether it is used to communicate with supervisors or with people from other lingua-cultural backgrounds to practice the language. This form of communication is emphasized in the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR) framework, which is one of the most significant guidelines for language teaching and learning throughout the world. The present research has two aims: first, to determine the extent to which CEFR-based online intercultural communication can improve Thai students’ communicative language competence, and second, to investigate Thai students’ attitudes toward CEFR-based online intercultural communication and international volunteers. The results received from 15 fifth-year dual B.A. (Chinese) and B.CM. (Traditional Chinese Medicine) students and international volunteers using various research instruments revealed that Thai students could increase their communicative language competence after participating in CEFR-based intercultural communication activities. This encompassed linguistic, sociolinguistic, and pragmatic abilities that correspond to the CEFR (2001) scales. In terms of attitudes, the study indicated that, because they were more confident in their communicative language ability, they had a positive attitude toward the CEFR-based online intercultural communication activities and their international volunteers. Finally, further research on this topic should include a proper design of online communication activities as well as methods for assessing students’ competency both before and after participation.
... Así, de los cerca de 1500 millones de personas que se comunican en inglés con fluidez, 400 millones son hablantes nativos (Crystal, 2008), lo que incrementa las probabilidades de que un usuario utilice la lengua inglesa como medio de comunicación profesional con hablantes no nativos (Rose & Galloway, 2019). Esta aproximación al inglés como medio de comunicación internacional viene respaldada por las modificaciones del Companion Volume (Council of Europe, 2018) a los descriptores de las escalas en lo referente al hablante nativo ideal como punto de referencia para valorar la competencia de un usuario para desenvolverse en la lengua extranjera (Byram, 1997;Karwacka-Vögele, 2012;Little, 2006). En el Companion Volume (Council of Europe, 2018) para el nivel B2 como indicador de la independencia del usuario, además de entender y hablar de diversos temas y mantener una conversación, se añade salir del ámbito cotidiano y manejarse en un entorno profesional (Council of Europe, 2018). ...
... En el Companion Volume (Council of Europe, 2018) para el nivel B2 como indicador de la independencia del usuario, además de entender y hablar de diversos temas y mantener una conversación, se añade salir del ámbito cotidiano y manejarse en un entorno profesional (Council of Europe, 2018). Sin embargo, uno de los cambios principales es la propuesta de modificación de algunos descriptores que hacen referencia al "hablante nativo", concepto que ya causó controversia en la redacción de la primera versión del marco común europeo de referencia para las lenguas (Little, 2006). ...
Chapter
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A nivel organizativo, los proyectos de telecolaboración se estructuran alrededor de tres fases: la planificación, el seguimiento y la evaluación, siendo la clave en todo este proceso la fase de planificación y, dentro de ésta, la clara definición del objetivo. Sin embargo, en numerosas ocasiones esta primera fase queda en manos de los profesores responsables y su experiencia previa en proyectos de este tipo. Este trabajo presenta un enfoque novedoso centrado en la valoración final de los estudiantes que participaron en un proyecto de intercambio virtual durante el curso académico 2019-20 como agentes activos en el diseño de un nuevo proyecto de telecolaboración (2020-21) entre la Universitat Politècnica de València y la Igor Sikorsky Kyiv Polytechnic Institute de Ucrania centrado en el aprendizaje de inglés global con el objetivo de que los participantes mejoren sus habilidades comunicativas con hablantes no nativos de inglés y aprendan a superar barreras culturales y lingüísticas. La obtención de datos mediante cuestionarios y discusiones de grupos focales sobre aspectos organizativos y del desarrollo del trabajo colaborativo realizado resultaron esenciales para la mejora de la fase de planificación del nuevo proyecto de aprendizaje en entornos virtuales y revelaron la predisposición de los participantes para abordar temas culturales y conocer más en profundidad otros modos de socializar y comunicarse en inglés con hablantes no nativos.
... Generally, the CEFR does not stipulate any specific teaching approaches, but it advocates communicative strategies in teaching and learning languages, specifically, an action-oriented approach (Piccardo & North, 2019). This approach views learners and users of a language as 'social agents', or i.e., members of society who have tasks (not exclusively language-related) to accomplish in a given set of circumstances, in a specific environment, and within a particular field of action (Council of Europe, 2001, p.9). Little (2006) claims that the actionoriented approach is comparable to a task-based approach where learners perform communicative language activities through any task-specific mechanisms to obtain a targetted objective or result. In this study, both teachers and students perceive the CEFR positively and acknowledge its implications for the language classroom. ...
Article
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Since its inception in 2001, the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR) has been employed worldwide as an international standard for teaching and learning languages. The framework was established to provide a mutual basis for language proficiency comprising language curriculum, reference materials, and assessments adopted globally. Despite gaining fame in the contemporary teaching and learning arena, the depth of the various dimensions of its impact on language classroom pedagogy at the school level is yet to be explored. Thus, this systematic review is aimed to investigate the implementation of CEFR in schools and its impact on language education. The review methodology involved the identification of the relevant literature, the filtering of articles, and the evaluation of the quality of the articles based on pre-determined criteria. The analysis revealed that teachers and students perceive the CEFR positively. The framework had positive impacts on the students' learning process but had more adverse effects on the teachers. The review identified major themes such as the dynamics of teaching and learning of the language, teachers’ understanding and reception, students’ achievements of learning outcomes, the efficacy of classroom assessments and teachers’ professional development which are critically discussed.
... Dans la pratique, depuis son élaboration et les propositions publiésdéjà dans les années 1990, le CECR a été rapidement adopté dans de très nombreux pays, chaque programme l'interprétant en fonction de sa culture éducative. L'ensemble des praticiens dans de nombreux pays a particulièrement bien accueilli les descripteurs des compétences, non pas pour collaborer dans une réforme éducative, mais en tant que référence commune pour élaborer des outils d'évaluation(Little, 2006). Globalement, les résultats résumés par Little sont en accord avec la situation en France décrite en détail par Aden(2012) ; le pays a adapté les descripteurs du CECR comme outil de standardisation « tout en rejetant clairement l'éthique plurilingue et interculturelle, et laissant de facto la médiation en dehors des compétences langagières à entraîner » (ibid., p. 272). ...
Article
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Intercultural dimensions in language class in compulsory school have been recommended by research and policy makers for decades. Still, follow-up studies from numerous countries all over the world have observed little or no effect in the classrooms. The aim of this study is to gain a better understanding of the challenges and opportunities for implementing an intercultural approach in practice. The main research question is: How can the educational system better integrate the intercultural approach in language class into the training of future teachers? The notion and implications of an intercultural approach are described. The way it is being aimed for is studied through three levels of the educational system as follows: 1) guides and recommendations from the Council of Europe and the European Union; 2) directives from national authorities in Sweden, where the term intercultural is not mentioned in the curriculum, and from a German-speaking canton of the Swiss Confederation, where the term is common; and 3) course descriptions from initial French teacher training programmes in both countries. Many inconsistencies are identified, that imply challenges and opportunities. Their careful treatment could facilitate the adoption of an intercultural approach in Sweden and improve the existing one in the Swiss Confederation.
... Desde su publicación en 2001, el Marco Común Europeo de Referencia para las Lenguas se utiliza como esquema descriptivo para analizar las necesidades, especificar los objetivos de aprendizaje, dar pautas para la creación de materiales docentes y para la evaluación de los resultados del aprendizaje (Little, 2006), con la intención de actuar de "common basis for the elaboration of language syllabuses, curriculum guidelines, examinations, textbooks, etc. across Europe" (Council of Europe, 2001: 1). El MCER también define los descriptores del dominio de la lengua respecto a los niveles comunes de referencia establecidos en el documento, según Little (2006: 167) una de las partes más utilizadas junto con la denominada escala global y listas de autoevaluación. ...
Conference Paper
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Este trabajo parte de una experiencia de un proyecto de telecolaboración con estudiantes de la Universitat Politècnica de València y de Finlandia y Ucrania sobre desarrollo sostenible y prácticas de reciclaje. Con la expansión del inglés como lengua internacional y el creciente número de hablantes de inglés como segunda lengua, la enseñanza del inglés estándar tiene que adaptarse al contexto internacional y considerar la comunicación en inglés con hablantes no nativos. Por tanto, el objetivo de este trabajo es valorar mediante la prueba de Piasentin (2012) la capacidad de adaptación y empatía etnocultural de los participantes en este proyecto como resultado preliminar de la experiencia de enseñanza de inglés en entornos virtuales de aprendizaje para potenciar la concienciación y desarrollar capacidades interculturales en los estudiantes de la asignatura Inglés B2 de la ETSII. Los resultados sobre comunicación intercultural y uso del inglés con hablantes no nativos son optimistas, y se desprende que las principales observaciones de los participantes apuntaban a aspectos de organización y gestión de tiempo, más que a problemas de comunicación. Asímismo, los estudiantes mejoraron especialmente su capacidad de comprender los sentimientos y emociones de personas de un país diferente.Este trabajo parte de una experiencia de un proyecto de telecolaboración con estudiantes de la Universitat Politècnica de València y de Finlandia y Ucrania sobre desarrollo sostenible y prácticas de reciclaje. Con la expansión del inglés como lengua internacional y el creciente número de hablantes de inglés como segunda lengua, la enseñanza del inglés estándar tiene que adaptarse al contexto internacional y considerar la comunicación en inglés con hablantes no nativos. Por tanto, el objetivo de este trabajo es valorar mediante la prueba de Piasentin (2012) la capacidad de adaptación y empatía etnocultural de los participantes en este proyecto como resultado preliminar de la experiencia de enseñanza de inglés en entornos virtuales de aprendizaje para potenciar la concienciación y desarrollar capacidades interculturales en los estudiantes de la asignatura Inglés B2 de la ETSII. Los resultados sobre comunicación intercultural y uso del inglés con hablantes no nativos son optimistas, y se desprende que las principales observaciones de los participantes apuntaban a aspectos de organización y gestión de tiempo, más que a problemas de comunicación. Asímismo, los estudiantes mejoraron especialmente su capacidad de comprender los sentimientos y emociones de personas de un país diferente.
... The provision of language learning may profit from the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (hereafter CEFR). The CEFR is a descriptive scheme that can be used to analyse learners' needs, specify learning goals, guide the development of learning materials and activities, and provide orientation for the assessment of learning outcomes (Little, 2006). For these purposes, it provides a set of categories for communicative competence, activities and strategies, defined for different ...
... During this decade, several discussions, meetings and consultation processes took place, which culminated in the publication of two draft versions in 1996 (Council of Europe, 1996aEurope, , 1996b. After a period of consultation, involving institutions and experts in all member states, the document was revised and commercially published in English and French, the two official languages of the CoE, in 2001 (Little, 2006). Also, in 2001, the European Languages Portfolio and the 'CEFR toolkit' were launched. ...
... The CEFR also provides descriptors for such competencies and strategies, but the scaling is subordinate to that of communicative behaviour. Both should be read and used in practice for a number of reasons (Trim, 2010;Little, 2006), e.g.: ...