CD16/CD86-positive macrophages expressing WNT2b are increased in intestinal tissue from B3 CD patients. LPMCs obtained from surgical resections were stained with CD45, CD14, CD64 and WNT2b antibodies and identified by flow cytometry: (a) Graph represents the percentage of WNT2b-positive cells within total macrophages in intestinal tissue (n ≥ 6 per experimental group);

CD16/CD86-positive macrophages expressing WNT2b are increased in intestinal tissue from B3 CD patients. LPMCs obtained from surgical resections were stained with CD45, CD14, CD64 and WNT2b antibodies and identified by flow cytometry: (a) Graph represents the percentage of WNT2b-positive cells within total macrophages in intestinal tissue (n ≥ 6 per experimental group);

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Background: Fibrosis is a common complication of Crohn's disease (CD) in which macrophages play a central role. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the WNT pathway have been associated with fibrosis. We aim to analyse the relevance of the tissue microenvironment in macrophage phenotype and the EMT process. Methods: Intestinal surgical re...

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Context 1
... secrete different kinds of ligands involved in the WNT pathway depending on their phenotype [12,13]. Accordingly, WNT2b expression was detected in around half the macrophages in control tissue, and this percentage was significantly increased in samples from B3-CD patients (Figure 4a). Analysis of the relationship between the expression of WNT2b and CD16 in the macrophage population indicated that the expression of WNT2b was analogous in CD16-positive and CD16-negative macrophages in control tissue. ...
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... most macrophages isolated from B3-CD samples expressed WNT2b irrespective of whether they were CD16-positive or CD16-negative (Figure 3b). In this way, the mRNA expression of WNT2b was significantly higher in human PBMC cells that had been differentiated into macrophages in the presence of the secretome from B3 intestinal tissue than in those treated with control or B2 secretomes (Figure 4c ...
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... secrete different kinds of ligands involved in the WNT pathway depending on their phenotype [12,13]. Accordingly, WNT2b expression was detected in around half the macrophages in control tissue, and this percentage was significantly increased in samples from B3-CD patients (Figure 4a). Analysis of the relationship between the expression of WNT2b and CD16 in the macrophage population indicated that the expression of WNT2b was analogous in CD16-positive and CD16-negative macrophages in control tissue. ...
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... most macrophages isolated from B3-CD samples expressed WNT2b irrespective of whether they were CD16-positive or CD16-negative (Figure 3b). In this way, the mRNA expression of WNT2b was significantly higher in human PBMC cells that had been differentiated into macrophages in the presence of the secretome from B3 intestinal tissue than in those treated with control or B2 secretomes (Figure 4c). The expression of WNT2b was analysed by RT-PCR (n = 3 per experimental group). ...
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... WB data revealed that XAV939 (Figure 8a) and miFZD4 (Figure 8b) significantly blocked the increase in the expression of VIMENTIN and SNAIL and the accumulation of βCATENIN induced by IFNγ-treated U937 cells. Co-culture with IL1β, IL4 or IL10-U937 did not produce significant changes (Supplementary Figure S4). ...

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... IFN-γ activity may limit the efficacy of antitumor immune responses, increase tumor cell genomic instability, and favor tumor immunosurveillance escape [184,200]. It can initiate EMT by affecting the macrophages in the tissue microenvironment through the Wnt/β-catenin pathway [201]. Furthermore, prolonged IFN-γ signaling in tumors can upregulate the expression of PD-L1 and CTLA-4, contributing to the PD-L1-dependent and PD-L1-independent tolerance to immune checkpoint blockade, but also radiation and anti-CTLA-4 treatment through a multigenic resistance program [202]. ...
... Tregs inhibition [174] Th17 promotion [174] STAT5 [30] TNF/NF-kB [173] IL-33 IL1RAP sST decoy Ambiguous CD4+ T cells promotion [178] Angiogenesis promotion [180] IL-33/ST2 [53] TRAF6/NF-kB [53] MAPK/AP-1 [53] IFN-γ IFNγR1 IFNγR2 Inhibition/ambiguous Activation host immune surveillance [193] Upregulation the MHC molecules [193] Switch towards M1 and Th1 phenotypes [189,193] EMT promotion [201] JAK/STAT/IRF1 [192] IL-4/STAT6 [196] Wnt/β-catenin [201] TNF-α TNFR1 TNFR2 Ambiguous ...
... Tregs inhibition [174] Th17 promotion [174] STAT5 [30] TNF/NF-kB [173] IL-33 IL1RAP sST decoy Ambiguous CD4+ T cells promotion [178] Angiogenesis promotion [180] IL-33/ST2 [53] TRAF6/NF-kB [53] MAPK/AP-1 [53] IFN-γ IFNγR1 IFNγR2 Inhibition/ambiguous Activation host immune surveillance [193] Upregulation the MHC molecules [193] Switch towards M1 and Th1 phenotypes [189,193] EMT promotion [201] JAK/STAT/IRF1 [192] IL-4/STAT6 [196] Wnt/β-catenin [201] TNF-α TNFR1 TNFR2 Ambiguous ...
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The inflammatory process plays a significant role in the development of colon cancer (CRC). Intestinal cytokine networks are critical mediators of tissue homeostasis and inflammation but also impact carcinogenesis at all stages of the disease. Recent studies suggest that inflammation is of greater importance in the serrated pathway than in the adenoma-carcinoma pathway. Interleukins have gained the most attention due to their potential role in CRC pathogenesis and promising results of clinical trials. Malignant transformation is associated with the pro-tumorigenic and anti-tumorigenic cytokines. The harmony between proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory factors is crucial to maintaining homeostasis. Immune cells in the tumor microenvironment modulate immune sensitivity and facilitate cancer escape from immune surveillance. Therefore, clarifying the role of underlying cytokine pathways and the effects of their modulation may be an important step to improve the effectiveness of cancer immunotherapy.