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CATS as a grand foundation. 

CATS as a grand foundation. 

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Kurt Lewin's 'changing as three steps' (unfreezing  changing  refreezing) is regarded by many as the classic or fundamental approach to managing change. Lewin has been criticized by scholars for oversimplifying the change process and has been defended by others against such charges. However, what has remained unquestioned is the model's foundatio...

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... The notion of "icebreaking" (Pearce et al., 2015, p. 1) is an interesting one, because it alludes to a rigidity that gets in the way of fluid interaction. It also resembles "unfreeze" as the first of three stages in Kurt Lewin's change management classic (Cummings, Bridgman, & Brown, 2016;Lewin, 1947). Any change, also on the individual level, depends on a certain "mobility" and "agility". ...
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Arts-based interventions may expand how team members and leaders understand their roles and impact. For an intervention to be useful, there needs to be a way for the aesthetic experience to translate back into the regular organisation. Nine managers of a professional services firm, including the chief executive, engaged in weekly group singing sessions for more than a year. The paper discusses their learnings in light of the two communities of practice they took part in—the choir practice and the managerial practice. In terms of learning content, the notion of “alpha-male” serves a label for the range of identities and behaviours that were rattled. The aesthetic experience of multi-part choral singing enabled the participants to hear the futility of being constantly pushy. Eventually a more varied team dynamics emerged. The paper focuses on one particular aspect of the set-up—the location of the practices and the transfer space between them. The stair-case connecting the two practices became an in-between space—a conduit—where the aesthetic experience lingered, was interpreted, and applied, in silence or through dialogue
... Change: at this stage, empower the action, like a task, cultural or technological change. Whereas the third stage is Refreezing, develop the ways to successfully sustain that change (Cummings, Bridgman and Brown, 2016;Malopinsky, 2007;Schermerhorn, Osborn and Hunt, 2003 ). ...
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Organizational change is one of the most effective ways to achieve a competitive advantage. However, little is known about "how business size moderates the relationship between organizational change and competitive advantage". The aim of this study is to determine the effect of organizational change on competitive advantage and to find out whether business size moderates the relationships between organizational change and competitive advantage. Data obtained from employees working in Chabahar-Industrial Zone in Iran. A total of 233 valid questionnaires were received from the firms operating in this zone. Data was analyzed by employing descriptive statistics, Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA), Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA), and Linear Regression techniques. The moderator role of business size was assessed by PROCESS software. Findings revealed that organizational change has positive effect on competitive advantage. And, business size plays a moderating role on the relationships between organizational change and competitive advantage.
... Change: at this stage, empower the action, like a task, cultural or technological change. Whereas the third stage is Refreezing, develop the ways to successfully sustain that change (Cummings, Bridgman and Brown, 2016;Malopinsky, 2007;Schermerhorn, Osborn and Hunt, 2003 ). ...
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... Using the report itself and also drawing on secondary data (journal articles, conference proceedings and book chapters), McLaren contextualizes the report in the historical and social moment in which it was written, demonstrating that the report was only part of a variety of factors that pushed US business schools to develop a research-oriented curriculum. Through this study, McLaren sheds a new light on the debate around rigor and relevance in our discipline, and offers insights for its future (for similar historical studies, see Bridgman, Cummings, & McLaughlin, 2016;Cummings, Bridgman, & Brown, 2016;Dye, Mills, & Weatherbee, 2005;Hassard, 2012). ...
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In this introduction, the authors outline some critical reflections on the sociology of knowledge within management and organization theory. Based on a review of various works that form a sociology of organizational knowledge, the authors identify three approaches that have become particularly prominent ways by which scholars explore how knowledge about organizations and management is produced: First, reflective and opinion essays that organization studies scholars offer on the basis of what can be learned from personal experience; second, descriptive craft-guides that are based on more-or-less comprehensive surveys on doing research; third, papers based on systematic research that are built upon rigorous collection and analysis of data about the production of knowledge. Whereas in the studies of organizing the authors prioritize the third approach, that is knowledge produced based on systematic empirical research, in examining our own work the authors tend to privilege the other two types, reflective articles and surveys. In what follows the authors highlight this gap, offer some explanations thereof, and call for a better appreciation of all three ways to offer rich understandings of organizations, work and management as well as a fruitful sociology of knowledge in our field.
... The contingency approach assumes change is constant and therefore draws on emergence, the unfixed nature of things and systems-thinking to address change in all its complexity (Mintzberg, 2007). The first review also explored how a transformational/transactional duality is useful for understanding the various change initiatives in 0. (Lewin, 1951) which although underpinning much organisational development and change management thinking requires nuance and critique given the challenges of organisation today (Cummings, Bridgman & Brown, 2016). Using the tools of internal/external audit and processmapping to assess healthcare organisation's capacity and readiness for change on the one hand, they note on the other that cultural change comes through 'disruption of the status quo'. ...
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Critical analysis of the literature underpinning the formal change management approach of the Health Services Executive in Ireland. This review is a support document to the HSE's Change Guide, 'People's Needs Defining Change' People’s Needs Defining Change – Health Services Change Guide (2018) Caitríona Heslin and Anne Ryan, Organisation Development and Design, Health Service Executive (HSE), Kells, Co Meath
... Perhaps the most cited in literature is the classic three-step change model by Lewin (as cited in Cummings, Bridgman, & Brown, 2016), which describes change management as one that necessitates an "unfreezing" to break the status quo, moving to the desired state ("change"), and "refreezing" to sustain the changes. ...
... Another leading author on the topic is John Kotter (2009), who proposed an eight-step process for leading change, which begins with letting employees feel the urgency to change and ends with embedding the changes into the culture to make them last. Cummings et al. (2016) illustrated how Kotter's model corresponds with Lewin's. The unfreezing stage is when organizations "establish a sense of urgency, form guiding coalitions, and create a vision. ...
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Conference Paper
This quantitative study sought the responses of 141 school employees as regards the implementation of changes currently besetting higher education institutions: legislated ones such as outcomes-based teaching and learning and the K to 12 program, and those designed to increase competitiveness, namely, program accreditation and ISO certification. The study variables—level of involvement, change response, and antecedents to change readiness (i.e., inclusiveness, communication, change fit, and organizational support)—were anchored on Lewin’s three-stage change model and Giangreco’s manifestations of change resistance. Higher levels of involvement and more positive response to legislated changes were seen among respondents in basic education than in the tertiary and academic support groups. Tests of concordance using Kendall’s tau-b revealed moderate, positive associations between employee involvement and change antecedents such as ensuring transparency of the process, clarifying participants’ roles, and change fit. Similar associations were found between employee response and change fit (i.e., the view that change initiatives are aligned with the institutional vision and mission and promote stakeholder interests). These findings were all statistically significant. One important study implication is the need to improve the provision of organizational support and promote inclusiveness to thwart employee resistance and strengthen change management within the organization. Keywords: Organization development, change management, antecedents to change readiness, quantitative research, change initiatives in schools