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CAF Member Countries (CAF, 2012)

CAF Member Countries (CAF, 2012)

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The purpose of this work is to present the difficulties of the superstructure when related to EI (Energy Integration) process in South America. The methodology aims to give emphasis to related projects within a binational and multinational scope. Methodologically there is the consideration of deterministic indicators, such as: project costs, instal...

Context in source publication

Context 1
... CAF is formed by 18 countries from Latin America, Caribbean and Europe, see Table 2, in addition to 14 private banks from Andean region. Its investments are based by credit operations, aids and support in financial and technical structure of projects from LA public and private sector with investments in infrastructure area, social development, environment, public policy, research, financial and corporate sector. ...

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Citations

... Portanto, a existência de complementaridade energética é fator fundamental para a proliferação de processos de integração nessa seara. Este conceito pode ser entendido como a existência de países com grande produção e baixo consumo e outros com alto consumo e baixa produção em uma mesma região geográfica, o que favorece as trocas energéticas entre países ricos em recursos energéticos e com baixo consumo, como Bolívia e Venezuela, coexistem com países como Chile, que tem baixa produção de energia e alto consumo [4] [1]. A existência dessa complementaridade favorece as trocas, já que pode haver ganhos econômicos e estratégicos por meio da cooperação no setor [3]. ...
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O Trabalho tem o objetivo de analisar como a formação dos blocos econômicos UNASUL e MERCOSUL impactam na integração energética (IE) e na formação de preço no mercado livre de energia de países da América do Sul, com foco no estudo de caso da comercialização de eletricidade Brasil-Argentina e Brasil-Uruguai. A metodologia se baseia na fundamentação regulatória da formação de preço da eletricidade e do seu intercâmbio entre países da América do Sul (AS). Os resultados demonstram que a exportação de eletricidade brasileira ocorre (i) somente quando há excedente de energia no Sistema Interligado Nacional (SIN); (ii) o preço de venda da eletricidade é pré-definido no edital de convocação e possui um valor fixo acrescido de uma parcela variável atrelada ao Preço de Liquidação das Diferenças (PLD); e (iii) em média anual o Brasil importa 46% a mais do que exporta para os dois países. Conclui-se que há necessidade de definição de metodologia para formação de preços e tarifas, além de uma legislação que garanta a segurança jurídica da IE na região.
... area of economic integration, the creation of the Union of South American Nations (UNASUL), the Southern Common Market (MERCOSUL) and Andean Community of Nations (CAN), plus others bilateral and multilateral initiatives aimed to the use of shared energy resources (ES) or trade them (Reis, 2014;Udaeta, da Silva, Galvão & de Souza, 2016;de Abreu, 2015). ...
... In the last century it has been noticed an important increase of the energy projects on the SA, hugely associated with the Initiative for the Integration of Regional Infrastructure in South America (IIRSA) resulting in economic growth in the region, which in turn impacted on the increase of energy demand (Udaeta, da Silva, Galvão, & de Souza, 2016). Indeed, studies of the the World Energy Council (WEC) (WEC, 2004) and International Energy Agency (IEA) (IEA, 2010), proved that the energy demand (ENERDATA, 2012) of developing countries have increased due to the considerable growth of their economies (IMF, 2012), so much so that the title of the Human Development Report 2013 drawn up by United Nations Development Program (UNDP) was The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World (UNDP, 2013). ...
... The access to ES involves different varieties of interests between countries that can be conflicting. Thus, a reasonable alternative, it is considered that policies aimed at energy integration (EI) can meet interests involved (Reis, 2014;Udaeta, da Silva, Galvão, & de Souza, 2016). ...
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p class="Abstract"> T he objective of this study is to evaluate the energy resources (ER) and the regulatory framework of the South American countries aiming at the sustainable development and to develop the South America Energy Integration (SAEI) in the long term focusing on structures such as transmission lines and pipelines. The methodology is based on the IERP (Integrated Energy-Resources Planning) and the analysis of the EI existing in South America. As result, the regulatory assessment provided evidence that the current structure is already in place with binational hydroelectric plants and transnational pipelines that promote energy integration. On the other hand, SAIE still needs an institutional evolution that gives more integration and quicker solutions to international arbitration. Finally, the construction of the attributes and sub-attributes and their respective valuations aiming at a SAEI strategy is not trivial, there is a need for the complete assessment of all the attributes and sub-attributes of the four dimensions established in the IERP methodology of the expansion of the SSERs analyzed to provide a strategy for the SAEI. </p
... Voltando à AS, quase todo o GN produzido no continente sul americano é consumido, o que pode ser demonstrado em uma análise em conjunto com a Tabela 1, produção de GN no continente entre 2004 e 2014 e Tabela 2, consumo de GN no continente entre os mesmos anos. Dentro deste contexto se colocam como atores de IE, dentre outros, os Governos nacionais do continente, através do desenvolvimento diplomático e político entre as nações, bancos de desenvolvimento, por exemplo, Banco Nacional de Desenvolvimento Econômico Social (BNDES) e Banco Interamericano de Desenvolvimento (BID), responsáveis por fomentar projetos de infraestrutura, organizações não governamentais, por exemplo a Organização Latino-Americana de Energia (OLADE) e Comissão de IE Regional (CIER) (Udaeta et al., 2016) e companhias com fins lucrativos, sejam elas ligadas diretamente aos estados nacionais, por exemplo, Petrobrás e Pdvsa, como também aquelas que são totalmente independente de qualquer não, por exemplo, Repsol, Total, Exxon Mobil etc. ...
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... Actualmente, OLADE tiene proyectos en temas de hidrocarburos, integración energética, acceso a energía, energías renovables, cambio climático y eficiencia energética. Los componentes que se desarrollan en todos los ejes son: producción y servicios de información para la toma de decisiones; fortalecimiento de capacidades en el sector energéticos de los países miembros; desarrollo energético sostenible y, apoyo a los proyectos de integración energética regional [12]. ...
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Thesis
How to insert imported energy resources in energy planning? This question underpins the objective of this thesis - o develop a model for evaluating the energy resources (ER) available in the geography and time, which allows satisfying the planned internal demand of a country and presenting surpluses, enabling long-term exports, to be internalized in the energy planning from an importing country. With this objective in mind, the model developed within the context of the transnational energy integration of South American (TEI-SA) countries will be applied, considering their energy potentials, socio-environmental characteristics, and endemic energy policies, to determine the energy resources available for the transnational energy integration of long term in the region. The methodology used is based on the bibliographic review of the current state of the TEI-SA and on the bibliometric and systematic review of existing energy planning models and tools. From these revisions, the base elements and the existing bottlenecks are illuminated, and an evaluation model of the imported REs is built. The results of the reviews demonstrate the existence of a transnational integration infrastructure that comprises binational hydroelectric power plants, transmission lines and transnational gas pipelines. On the other hand, the TEI-SA still needs an institutional evolution for quick solutions to international arbitration and a long-term predictability regarding the access and offer of ERs. As for the model developed and the evaluation of thirteen ERs, it appears that the construction and calculation of attributes and sub-attributes is not trivial, since: there is a need for a broad database – not consolidated for the region –; use of input data of some attributes from the output of other attributes, namely, there is a need to calculate all attributes and sub-attributes due to the intersection between the different dimensions. However, after all dimensions have been calculated, the ERs can be translated into ranked indices, which range from 0 to 1, allowing the comparison between them and the identification of the ER that best responds to the demands of sustainable development. Therefore, it is concluded that the model developed allows the evaluation of ERs in all dimensions that sustainable development demands, and can be applied not only to the TEI, but also to exclusively national, subnational and market Energy Planning.