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Bronchoscopic manifestations of COVID-19: bronchial mucosa swelling and congestion; large amounts of mucus secretions in the lumen

Bronchoscopic manifestations of COVID-19: bronchial mucosa swelling and congestion; large amounts of mucus secretions in the lumen

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{I'm not the author or editor of this book. Just helping the editors to distribute this book to people who need it. Thanks! -- Ligen YU} Editor’s Note: Faced with an unknown virus, sharing and collaboration are the best remedy. The publication of this Handbook is one of the best ways to mark the courage and wisdom our healthcare workers have dem...

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... views of extensive bronchial mucosal hyperemia, swelling, mucus-like secretions in the lumen and jelly-like sputum blocking the airway in critically ill patients. (Figure 7). ...

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... Using every technological resource available to them, our colleagues in otolaryngology, intensive care, and anaesthesia collated and presented their experiences, the likes of which many of us had not seen before. An invaluable resource was quickly produced and distributed on 18 March 2020 by the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University (FAHZU), outlining their clinical experience in the first 50 days of the pandemic with 104 COVID positive patients [37]. The manual included instructions regarding infection control and prevention, including personal protection equipment (PPE), disinfection protocols, and digital support. ...
Article
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Purpose of Review The current COVID-19 pandemic has challenged the international paediatric otolaryngology community: we review its impact in clinical, resource, and human settings. Recent Findings The SARS-CoV-2 virus, while generally mild in paediatric populations, has caused an increased incidence in severe croup, invasive fungal sinus disease, and multi system inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C). The incidence of other common otolaryngology presentations such as otitis media and tonsillitis has decreased due to quarantine measures. The pandemic has also changed the way in which we work: guidelines for aerosol-generating procedures (AGPs) have changed, digital technology and videoconferencing platforms have flourished, and new pathways of providing healthcare have been developed to minimise footfall and avoid overcrowded waiting rooms. Finally, the importance of personal protective equipment (PPE) to protect healthcare workers and patients cannot be understated, although the mental and physical toll is considerable. Summary There has been a tectonic shift in paediatric otolaryngology and healthcare globally. Continued adaptability and resilience are required to face these challenges in the coming months. With lessons learnt from managing SARS-CoV-2, we are hopefully well equipped to combat any future pandemics.
... These are the main pharmaceutical drugs used around the world, but other pharmaceutical compounds have been used (Awadasseid et al. 2021;Sarkar et al. 2020;Bergman et al. 2021;Jan et al. 2021). Furthermore, SARS-CoV-2 patients present another complication, including mental health disequilibrium, and approximately 48% of patients manifest psychological diseases (Tingbo 2020). Moreover, the pandemic has influenced people's mental health worldwide, leading to an increase in depressive episodes, anxiety, and insomnia (Olff et al. 2021;Allan et al. 2020; Bareeqa et al. 2021), and depression affects approximately 300 million individuals (Faquih et al. 2019). ...
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This review summarizes research data on the pharmaceutical drugs used to treat the novel SARS-CoV-2 virus, their characteristics, environmental impacts, and the advanced oxidation processes (AOP) applied to remove them. A literature survey was conducted using the electronic databases Science Direct, Scopus, Taylor & Francis, Google Scholar, PubMed, and Springer. This complete research includes and discusses relevant studies that involve the introduction, pharmaceutical drugs used in the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic: chemical characteristics and environmental impact, advanced oxidation process (AOP), future trends and discussion, and conclusions. The results show a full approach in the versatility of AOPs as a promising solution to minimize the environmental impact associated with these compounds by the fact that they offer different ways for hydroxyl radical production. Moreover, this article focuses on introducing the fundamentals of each AOP, the main parameters involved, and the concomitance with other sources and modifications over the years. Photocatalysis, sonochemical technologies, electro-oxidation, photolysis, Fenton reaction, ozone, and sulfate radical AOP have been used to mineralize SARS-CoV-2 pharmaceutical compounds, and the efficiencies are greater than 65%. According to the results, photocatalysis is the main technology currently applied to remove these pharmaceuticals. This process has garnered attention because solar energy can be directly utilized; however, low photocatalytic efficiencies and high costs in large-scale practical applications limit its use. Furthermore, pharmaceuticals in the environment are diverse and complex. Finally, the review also provides ideas for further research needs and major concerns.
... For nearly a year, individuals around the world have stressed over COVID-19. Previous research regarding the stress-induced outcomes of the COVID-19 pandemic has broadly addressed negative emotions, sleeping issues, drug use, and chronic and mental health conditions (e.g., Auer et al. 2020;Cao et al. 2020;Kavoor 2020;Li et al. 2020;Liang 2020;Pakpour and Griffiths 2020;Rajkumar 2020;Simione and Gnagnarella 2020;Wang et al. 2020;Xiang et al. 2020;Yao et al. 2020). However, the published literature has had a limited focus on how the COVID-19 pandemic has changed eating behaviors despite the media's calling attention to a risk of emotional eating as a coping strategy for individuals during the pandemic (e.g., Muhlheim 2020;Ro 2020;Warren 2020). ...
Article
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The COVID-19 pandemic has greatly affected the mental health of individuals due to severe changes in their normal life routines. These changes might give rise to stress-induced factors and result in developing maladaptive behaviors. Therefore, the present study tested an explorative sequential mediation model regarding the COVID-19 pandemic as a global natural experiment and hypothesized that fear and depression would be serial mediators of the relationship between intolerance of uncertainty and emotional eating. An online cross-sectional survey with convenience sampling was adopted. A total of 362 participants were recruited from Turkey, and each completed a battery of demographic questions and psychometric scales. The standardized instruments used to test the model’s constructs were the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale, Fear of COVID-19 Scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire-R21. The model was tested using a bootstrapping method utilizing IBM AMOS 24 software. Results showed that emotional eating was positively associated with intolerance of uncertainty, fear of COVID-19, and depression. Moreover, fear of COVID-19 had positive correlation with intolerance of uncertainty and depression. Significant negative association was also found between age and intolerance of uncertainty. In addition, females significantly reported higher levels of emotional eating and fear of COVID-19 than males. The study’s hypothesized sequential mediation model was further supported. It is concluded that depression most likely developed by fear was triggered by intolerance of uncertainty during the COVID-19 pandemic and leading to emotional eating. The study is significant because it advances theories of emotional eating with an investigation examining some of its underlying mechanisms. Also, it is one of a few research studies highlighting to what extent the COVID-19 pandemic-related cognitions and emotions are associated with maladaptive behaviors in the case of emotional eating.
... Wen et al. [65] reports the implementation of Au NPs coated with IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 into a lateral flow immunoassay strip (LFIAs) with reasonable specificity and sensitivity. The system allows to detect immune response, customarily manifested two weeks after contracting the infection [66]. On the other hand, a hybridization probe detection approach is reported by Qui et al. to detect the SARS-CoV-2 sequence [67]. ...
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Respiratory viruses represent a severe public health risk worldwide, and the research contribution to tackle the current pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 is one of the main targets among the scientific community. In this regard, experts from different fields have gathered to confront this catastrophic pandemic. This review illustrates how nanotechnology intervention could be valuable in solving this difficult situation, and the state of the art of Zn-based nanostructures are discussed in detail. For virus detection, learning from the experience of other respiratory viruses such as influenza, the potential use of Zn nanomaterials as suitable sensing platforms to recognize the S1 spike protein in SARS-CoV-2 are shown. Furthermore, a discussion about the antiviral mechanisms reported for ZnO nanostructures is included, which can help develop surface disinfectants and protective coatings. At the same time, the properties of Zn-based materials as supplements for reducing viral activity and the recovery of infected patients are illustrated. Within the scope of noble adjuvants to improve the immune response, the ZnO NPs properties as immunomodulators are explained, and potential prototypes of nanoengineered particles with metallic cations (like Zn²⁺) are suggested. Therefore, using Zn-associated nanomaterials from detection to disinfection, supplementation, and immunomodulation opens a wide area of opportunities to combat these emerging respiratory viruses. Finally, the attractive properties of these nanomaterials can be extrapolated to new clinical challenges.
... Belirtilere bakılmaksızın hastaneye giren herkeste maske olmasını sağlayın. 5. Hastaneye başvurularda girişte dezenfektan kabinleri kullanılabilir mi? Bu konuda araştırmalar sürdürülmektedir. ...
... TABLO 1: Sağlık hizmetlerinde şüpheli veya tanı almış COVID-19 hastalarından sağlık personellerini koruma ve alınacak önlemlerde temel kavramlar. 5 Tüm insanlık için küresel bir ölüm tehditi olarak görülen COVID-19, enfekte kişilerle en fazla temas eden sağlık çalışanları ve onların aileleri için de tehlikedir. Bu nedenle virüsle mücadelede en ön cephede kahramanca mücadele eden sağlık çalışanlarının, hastanede yer alan tüm personellerin korunması önemlidir. ...
... 8 Sağlık hizmetlerinde şüpheli veya tanı almış COVID-19 hastalarından sağlık personellerini koruma ve alınacak önlemlerde temel kavramlar aşağıdaki Tablo 1'deki gibidir. 5,9 Tablo 1'e göre COVID-19'da adım adım korunma ve önlemlere yönelik yapılması gerekenler şöyledir: 5,6,9 ÖNLEmE VE KONTROL YÖNETİmİ İzolasyon Bölgesİ yönetİmİ ...
... HCoV-229E, HCoV-OC43, HCoV-NL63 ve HKU1-CoV gibi çeşitli alt tipleri bulunmaktadır. WHO, 2020;Liang, 2020). Koronavirüs hastalığı , yeni keşfedilen bir koronavirüsün neden olduğu bulaşıcı bir hastalıktır ve dünya sağlığı için küresel halk sağlığı sorunu olarak potansiyel ölümcül bir hastalığın etkenini temsil eder. ...
... Diyabet, dünyada hastalık ve ölümlerin önde gelen nedenlerinden biridir. Bu durum hastanın sağ kalımını etkileyen çeşitli makrovasküler ve mikrovasküler komplikasyonlarla ilişkilidir (Williams vd., 2020 Kronik hastalıklarda COVID-19 hastalığının erken dönemde belirlenmesi ve hastalığın kötüleşmesinin önlenmesi için, antiviraller, oksijen tedavisi ve beslenme desteği gibi proaktif önlemlerin alınması ve hemşirelik yönetiminin planlaması gerekmektedir (Liang, 2020). ...
... The pandemic has overwhelmed havoc all over the globe since its inception in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. [1][2][3] Globally, over 221 million confirmed Covid-19 cases have been reported, affecting over 220 nations, regions, and territories. As of September 5th, 2021, the pandemic has afflicted all African countries, resulting in 7,972,396 total cases and 199,438 deaths (case fatality rate of 2.50%). ...
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Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) has had an unprecedented impact on the health products delivery system. To maintain routine health services, tracer pharmaceuticals (TPs) should always be available and accessible in healthcare institutions. Thus, this study aimed to explore the influence of the Covid-19 on TPs availability and distribution trends in the context of the Covid-19 pandemic in Ethiopia. Methods: An institution-based comparative study was undertaken on 25 TPs in the pharmaceutical supply agency. From the agency's logistical data, we collated the amount of TPs ordered, received, and distributed, as well as the stock status, by using an observation checklist. The collated data were recorded in Microsoft Excel and transferred to SPSS for analysis. A frequency and percentage analysis were performed to evaluate the fill rate, product availability, and stock-out duration. A dependent t-test was used to compare if there was a significant mean difference in TPs distribution before and after the Covid-19 at a p-value less than 5%. Results: Before Covid-19, 18 (72%) of the TPs were refilled above 80% of amount ordered. After the pandemic, however, the fill rate dropped to 48%. The availability of TPs during the Covid-19 was 60%. During the six months of Covid-19, the average stock-out duration for all TPs was 34.68 days, with Cimetidine 200mg/mL injectable (line-item fill rate = 0, days out of stock = 180 days) being the most stocked-out item. Tracer pharmaceuticals distribution before Covid-19 (M = 81,317, SD = 139,274) were significantly different after the pandemic (M = 60,212, SD = 94,966) at the 5% significance level (t (24) = 2.289, p = 0.031). Conclusion: This survey reveals how Covid-19 has influenced service providers' logistics systems. Following the pandemic, the line fill rate fell below half with a three-fifths availability of products. To effectively manage supply chain disruptions experienced in Covid-19 and beyond, the agency in collaboration with stakeholders should make an effort to enhance end-to-end inventory visibility, establish a resilient logistics system, strengthen domestic manufacturers' capabilities, and develop contingency plans with supplying partners.
... In the current Chinese guidelines for aerosol-transmitted diseases, measures for healthcare workers are currently divided into three levels: Level 1 being the lowest prevention level and level 3 being the highest prevention level (Table 2). [8] COVID-19-negative outpatient and inpatient measures were implemented under level 2 protections. Surgical interventions were performed under level 2 protection. ...
... Descriptive statistics were presented as numbers and percentages for categorical variables and mean, standard deviation, minimum, maximum, and median for numerical variables. The numerical variables in two independent groups were compared using the Mann- Table 2. COVID-19 protective equipment for medical staff [8] Equipment of Protection ...
Article
Objectives: The objective of the study was to analyze the complications of neurosurgical operations during the COVID-19 pandemic by comparing them with the complications observed in the pre-pandemic period. Methods: Two groups were formed: (1) Patients who were operated in the 5-month period of the pandemic (March-July 2020) and (2) those who were operated the same operations in the same period 1 year before (March-July 2019). Demographics, characteristics, medical follow-up data, complications, and outcome compared between the groups. Results: Similar demographics were observed between the groups. The number of all neurosurgical cases and neurotrauma cases decreased by 79% and 68% in pandemic period, respectively. The rate of emergency surgeries was significantly higher in pandemic group (p<0.001). The operation time was significantly longer in pandemic group (p=0.014). Total complication rate was significantly higher in pandemic group (p=0.002). Specifically, the rate of pulmonary complications was significantly higher during pandemic period (p<0.001). The infection rate (p<0.001), antibiotic use (p<0.001), and intensive care unit stay (p=0.023) were significantly higher in pandemic group. Conclusion: During pandemic period complication rates increased and a higher risk than expected was encountered. Treatment should be performed by taking the precautions and informing the patients about additional risks.
... This large scale of infection imposed significant stress on the general public, individuals, older adults, healthcare and medical providers, and educators [61,63,65]. Therefore, committed preventive measures such as wearing gloves and face masks, avoiding gatherings, and practice hand hygiene are key procedures to avoid infections with COVID-19 [46]. Besides the risk of death from infectious, this crisis brought unbearable psychological stress to individuals around the globe [94], where it is affecting all aspects of life around the world. ...
Article
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The rapid outbreak of COVID-19 is a global health problem that has a significant effect on the educational systems. Therefore, students shifted to distance learning through the digital platform. Since COVID-19 has consequences on mental health, the present study examined the perceived stress level in school students in distance learning during the COVID-19 period. A cross-sectional study of a sample consisting of 385 school students evaluated the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and their concerns and emotions during the COVID-19 pandemic. The results showed that the mean value of the total PSS scores was 19.50 ± 9.28. About 48.6% of students had moderate stress, 28.8% had low stress, and 22.6% had high stress. Significant associations were found between the level of stress and demographic variables: age, gender, educational level, and place of residence. Female students were significantly higher than the male students in the mean score of perceived stress level (20.14 versus 18.13; p-value = 0.018). Females were more likely (53.4%) to have moderate stress than males (38.2%) (p = 0.019). The students aged 15–18 years were significantly higher than those aged 11–14 years in the mean score of perceived stress level (22.64 versus 17.24, respectively; p-value < 0.001). The students aged 15–18 years were also more likely (n = 536, 96.4%) to had high levels of stress than the younger students (p < 0.001). The results showed that secondary school students were significantly higher than primary school students in the mean score of perceived stress level (23.75 versus 16.76, respectively; p < 0.001). Secondary students were also more likely (43.0%) to have high stress than primary students (9.4%) (p < 0.001). Students who live in the Rafah governorate had a significantly lowest mean score of perceived stress level when compared to other counterparts (p-value = 0.005). Gender (β = − 0.282, P < 0.001), age (β = − 0.379, P = 0.004), place of residence (β = − 0.096, P = 0.034), and educational level (β = 0.845, P < 0.001) were predictors of perceived stress. The results revealed moderate to high levels of stress in school students in the Gaza Strip during schools closure due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The prevalence of psychological distress attributed to suddenly shifted from traditional learning to distance learning. The incorporation of stress management programs and online counselling will minimize stress and enhance the mental health of school students during distance learning.
... Accordingly, China was the first country to take extensive measures in this area. Setting up mental health teams, training medical staff, providing professionals with specific guidelines and articles for different groups of people, broadcasting educational packages and videos for the general public in the national media, conducting appointments and counseling about self-care on the phone, and establishing online or in-person mental health screening centers during the COVID-19 pandemic (22). These measures were provided to all people, especially vulnerable ones. ...